divide the languages
of the world, past and present, into various language families
. Languages within a family share numerous cognates
, and it is theorized that thousands of years ago the member languages had a common ancestor, a hypothetical protolanguage
. There are ongoing attempts to prove relations between the different families.
List of some language families
|Language Family||Example Languages|
|Afro-Asiatic||Arabic, Hebrew, Hausa, Somali|
|Altaic||Turkish, Mongolian, Korean, Japanese|
|Austronesian||Indonesian, Javanese, Malay, Tagalog, Maori, Hawaiian|
|Dravidian||Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam|
|Indo-European||English, Irish, Spanish, German, Greek, Russian, Farsi, Hindi|
|Niger-Congo||Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo, Akan, Zulu|
|Sino-Tibetan||Mandarin, Cantonese, Tibetan, Burmese|
|Uralic||Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian|
Some groupings, such as the Native American languages, Australian Aboriginal languages, or Papuan languages, actually span over several different families. Since they are related only by geography, not genealogically, they are not considered true language families.