IZZ AL-DIN m Arabic
Means "glory of religion", derived from Arabic عزّ ('izz)
"glory, power" and دين (din)
"religion". In the 13th century Izz-al-Din Aybak became the first Mamluk ruler of Egypt. The Mamluks were a warrior caste who were originally slaves.
JAALA m Biblical
Means "wild goat" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a servant of Solomon.
JAASAU m Biblical
Means "they will do" in Hebrew. This was the name of a descendant of Bani in the Old Testament.
JABBAR m Arabic
Means "powerful" in Arabic. In Islamic tradition الجبّار (al-Jabbar)
is one of the 99 names of Allah.
JABEZ m Biblical
Means "sorrow" in Hebrew. This is the name of a character in the Old Testament who is blessed by God.
JABIN m Biblical
Means "perceptive" in Hebrew. This name was borne by two kings of Hazor in the Old Testament.
JABR m Arabic
Means "consolation, assistance" in Arabic.
JACENTY m Polish (Rare)
Polish form of HYACINTHUS
. Saint Jacenty was a 13th-century Dominican monk from Krakow who was said to have taken missionary journeys throughout northern Europe and Asia.
JACHIN m Biblical
Means "he establishes" in Hebrew. This was the name of a son of Simeon in the Old Testament.
JACK m English
Derived from Jackin
), a medieval diminutive of JOHN
. It is often regarded as an independent name. During the Middle Ages it was very common, and it became a slang word meaning "man". It was frequently used in fairy tales and nursery rhymes, such as 'Jack and the Beanstalk', 'Little Jack Horner', and 'Jack Sprat'. American writers Jack London (1876-1916) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) were two famous bearers of this name. It is also borne by American actor Jack Nicholson (1937-).
JACKIE m & f English
Diminutive of JACK
. A notable bearer was baseball player Jackie Robinson (1919-1972), the first African-American to play in Major League Baseball.
JACKSON m English
From an English surname meaning "son of JACK
". A famous bearer of the surname was American president Andrew Jackson (1767-1845).
JACOB m English, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Jewish, Biblical
From the Latin Iacobus
, which was from the Greek Ιακωβος (Iakobos)
, which was from the Hebrew name יַעֲקֹב (Ya'aqov)
. In the Old Testament Jacob (later called Israel
) is the son of Isaac
and the father of the twelve founders of the twelve tribes of Israel. He was born holding his twin brother Esau
's heel, and his name is explained as meaning "holder of the heel" or "supplanter", because he twice deprived his brother of his rights as the firstborn son (see Genesis 27:36). Other theories claim that it is in fact derived from a hypothetical name like יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el)
meaning "may God protect".... [more]
JADA (2) m Biblical
Means "he knows" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament, Jada is a son of Onam.
JADEN m & f English (Modern)
An invented name, using the popular aden
suffix sound found in such names as Braden
. This name first became common in American in the 1990s when similar-sounding names were increasing in popularity. It is sometimes considered a variant of JADON
JADON m Biblical
Possibly means either "thankful" or "he will judge" in Hebrew. This name is borne by a minor character in the Old Testament.
JAFAR m Arabic
Means "stream" in Arabic. Jafar ibn Abi Talib was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad
who was killed fighting against Byzantium in the 7th century. Another notable bearer was Jafar al-Sadiq, the sixth Shia imam.
JAHAN m Persian
Means "world" in Persian. This name was borne by Shah Jahan, a 17th-century Mughal Emperor who is best known as the builder of the Taj Mahal.
JAHANGIR m Persian, Urdu
Means "world conqueror" in Persian. This was the name of a 17th-century Mughal Emperor.
JAHLEEL m Biblical
Means "God waits" in Hebrew. This name is mentioned briefly in the Old Testament.
JAHZEEL m Biblical
Means "God apportions" in Hebrew. This was the son of Naphtali in the Old Testament.
JAIR m Biblical
Means "he shines" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of both a son of Manasseh and one of the ruling judges of the Israelites.
JAIRUS m Biblical
From Ιαιρος (Iairos)
, the Greek form of JAIR
used in the New Testament, where it belongs to the father of a young girl brought back to life by Jesus
JALEN m African American (Modern)
An invented name. In America it was popularized in the 1990s by basketball player Jalen Rose (1973-), whose name was a combination of those of his father James
and maternal uncle Leonard
JAM m Persian Mythology
Persian form of Avestan Yima
meaning "twin" (related to Sanskrit Yama
). This was the name of a mythological king, more commonly called Jamshid
JAMAL m Arabic
Means "beauty" in Arabic. Jamal al-Din al-Afghani was a political activist who promoted pan-Islamism in the 19th century.
JAMES m English, Biblical
English form of the Late Latin name Iacomus
which was derived from Ιακωβος (Iakobos)
, the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name Ya'aqov
). This was the name of two apostles in the New Testament. The first was Saint James the Greater, the apostle John
's brother, who was beheaded under Herod Agrippa in the Book of Acts. The second was James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus. Another James (known as James the Just) is also mentioned in the Bible as being the brother of Jesus
JAMIE m & f Scottish, English
Originally a Lowland Scots diminutive of JAMES
. Since the late 19th century it has also been used as a feminine form.
JAMIN m Biblical
Means "right hand" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a son of Simeon.
JAMSHID m Persian, Persian Mythology
Modern Persian form of Avestan Yima Kshaeta
, which meant "shining JAM
". This was the name of a mythological king of Persia. He is known as either Jamshid
, where Jamshid
is a combination of his original name and an honourific.
JANUARIUS m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen meaning "January" in Latin. The name of the month derives from the name of the Roman god Janus
. Saint Januarius, the patron saint of Naples, was a bishop who was beheaded during the persecutions of emperor Diocletian in the early 4th century.
JANUS m Roman Mythology
Means "archway" in Latin. Janus was the Roman god of gateways and beginnings, often depicted as having two faces looking in opposite directions. The month of January is named for him.
JAPHETH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יֶפֶת (Yefet)
meaning "enlarged". In the Old Testament he is one of the three sons of Noah
, along with Shem
. He was the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Northern Asia.
JARAH m Biblical
Means "honeycomb" and "honeysuckle" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a descendant of Saul.
JARED m English, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יָרֶד (Yared)
or יֶרֶד (Yered)
meaning "descent". This is the name of a close descendant of Adam
in the Old Testament. It has been used as an English name since the Protestant Reformation, and it was popularized in the 1960s by the character Jarrod Barkley on the television series 'The Big Valley'.
JARMIL m Czech
Derived from the Slavic elements yaru
"fierce, energetic" and milu
JAROSŁAW m Polish
Means "fierce and glorious", derived from the Slavic elements yaru
"fierce, energetic" and slava
JASON m English, French, Greek Mythology (Anglicized), Biblical
From the Greek name Ιασων (Iason)
, which was derived from Greek ιασθαι (iasthai)
"to heal". In Greek mythology Jason was the leader of the Argonauts. After his uncle Pelias overthrew his father Aeson
as king of Iolcos, Jason went in search of the Golden Fleece in order to win back the throne. During his journeys he married the sorceress Medea
, who helped him gain the fleece and kill his uncle, but who later turned against him when he fell in love with another woman.... [more]
JASPER m English, Dutch, Judeo-Christian Legend
Means "treasurer" in Persian. This name was traditionally assigned to one of the wise men (also known as the Magi, or three kings) who were said to have visited the newborn Jesus
. It has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world since the Middle Ages. The name can also be given in reference to the English word for the gemstone.
JAVAN m Biblical
Means "Greece" in Hebrew, possibly related to ION (2)
. In the Old Testament this is the name of a grandson of Noah
and the ancestor of the Greek peoples.
JAWDAT m & f Arabic
Means "goodness, excellence", derived from Arabic جاد (jada)
"to be excellent".
JAY (1) m English
Short form of names beginning with the sound J
, such as JAMES
. It was originally used in America in honour of founding father John Jay (1749-1825), whose surname was derived from the jaybird.
JAYA f & m Hinduism, Tamil, Indian, Telugu, Hindi, Marathi
Derived from Sanskrit जय (jaya)
meaning "victory". This is a transcription of both the feminine form जया
(an epithet of the Hindu goddess Durga
) and the masculine form जय
(borne by several characters in Hindu texts). As a modern personal name, this transcription is both feminine and masculine in southern India, but typically only feminine in the north.
JAYADEVA m Sanskrit
Means "divine victory" from Sanskrit जय (jaya)
meaning "victory" and देव (deva)
meaning "god". This was the name of a 13th-century Indian poet.
JAYENDRA m Indian, Hindi
Means "lord of victory" from Sanskrit जय (jaya)
meaning "victory" combined with the name of the god INDRA
, used here to mean "lord".
JEAN (1) m French
French form of Jehan
, the Old French form of Iohannes
). The French philosophers Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980) were two well-known bearers of this name. It was also borne by the German-French Dadaist artist Jean Arp (1886-1966).
JEB m English
Sometimes a diminutive of JACOB
. This name may have also resulted from a nickname of James Ewell Brown Stuart (1833-1864), a Confederate general in the American Civil War, which was formed from the initial letters of his three given names.
JEFFERSON m English
From an English surname meaning "son of JEFFREY
". It is usually given in honour of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the third president of the United States and the primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
JEFFREY m English
Medieval variant of GEOFFREY
. In America, Jeffrey
has been more common than Geoffrey
, though this is not true in Britain.
JEHIEL m Biblical
Means "God lives" in Hebrew. This is the name of several people in the Old Testament, including one of King David
's lute players.
JEHOASH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹאָשׁ (Yeho'ash)
, an extended form of יוֹאָשׁ
). According to the Old Testament, this was the name of a king of Israel. He probably reigned in the 8th century BC.
JEHOHANAN m Biblical
From the Hebrew name Yehochanan
, an extended form of Yochanan
). It is borne by a few minor characters in the English Old Testament.
JEHOIACHIN m Biblical
Means "established by YAHWEH
" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah. Also known as Jeconiah
, he was imprisoned in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
after a brief reign in the early 6th century BC.
JEHOIAKIM m Biblical
Means "raised by YAHWEH
" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah. He lived in the 7th century BC, and was the son of Josiah
and the father of Jehoiachin
JEHORAM m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹרָם (Yehoram)
which meant "exalted by YAHWEH
". In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah and a king of Israel, both of whom ruled at about the same time in the 9th century BC.
JEHOSHAPHAT m Biblical
has judged" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament he is the fourth king of Judah, noted for having a generally peaceful and prosperous reign.
JEHOVAH m Theology
Form of YAHWEH
used in older translations of the Bible, produced by blending the letters of the tetragrammaton with the vowels from ADONAI
JEHU m Biblical
is he" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Israel. He ruled in the 9th century BC, coming to power by overthrowing Jehoram
. This was also the name of a prophet during the reign of the king Baasha.
JELLE m Frisian, Dutch
Originally a Frisian short form of Germanic names beginning with the element gild
"sacrifice, value". It can also be a Dutch diminutive of WILLEM
JENŐ m Hungarian
From the name of an ancient Hungarian tribe. Since the 19th century it has been used as a Hungarian form of EUGENE
JEONG f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 靜 (jeong)
meaning "quiet, still, gentle" or 貞 (jeong)
meaning "virtuous, chaste, loyal", as well as other characters which are pronounced similarly. It usually occurs in combination with another character, though it is sometimes used as a stand-alone name.
JEONG-HO m Korean
From Sino-Korean 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" combined with 好 (ho)
meaning "good, excellent" or 浩 (ho)
meaning "great, numerous, vast". This name can be formed by other hanja character combinations as well.
JEONG-HUI f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" or 靜 (jeong)
meaning "quiet, still, gentle" combined with 姬 (hui)
meaning "beauty" or 熙 (hui)
meaning "bright, splendid, glorious". Other combinations of hanja characters can form this name as well.
JEONG-HUN m Korean
From Sino-Korean 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" and 勛 (hun)
meaning "meritorious deed, rank", as well as other hanja character combinations.
JEPHTHAH m Biblical
Means "he opens" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this name belongs to a ruling judge. He successfully defended Israel from the Ammonites, but was then obliged to sacrifice his daughter because of a vow he had made.
JEREMIAH m English, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִרְמְיָהוּ (Yirmiyahu)
which meant "YAHWEH
has uplifted". This is the name of one of the major prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Jeremiah and the Book of Lamentations (supposedly). He lived to see the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in the 6th century BC.... [more]
JEREMIEL m Biblical
Means "God uplifts" in Hebrew. Jeremiel is named as an archangel in the apocryphal books of Esdras and Enoch in the Old Testament.
JERIAH m Biblical
Means "taught by YAHWEH
" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament, Jeriah is a descendant of Hebron.
JERICHO m Biblical
From the name of a city in Israel which is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. The meaning of the city's name is uncertain, but it may be related to the Hebrew word יָרֵחַ (yareach)
meaning "moon", or otherwise to the Hebrew word רֵיחַ (reyach)
JERMAINE m English
Variant of GERMAIN
. The name was popularized in the 1970s by Jermaine Jackson (1954-), a member of the singing group The Jackson 5.
JEROBOAM m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יָרָבְעָם (Yarav'am)
meaning "the people contend". According to the Old Testament, this was the name of the leader of the revolt against King Rehoboam
of Israel. The kingdom was split into Judah in the south and Israel in the north, with Jeroboam becoming the first king of the latter.
JEROME m English
From the Greek name ‘Ιερωνυμος (Hieronymos)
meaning "sacred name", derived from ‘ιερος (hieros)
"sacred" and ονομα (onoma)
"name". Saint Jerome was responsible for the creation of the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Bible, in the 5th century. He is regarded as a Doctor of the Church. The name was used in his honour in the Middle Ages, especially in Italy and France, and has been used in England since the 12th century.
JESSE m English, Dutch, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִשַׁי (Yishay)
which possibly means "gift". In the Old Testament Jesse is the father of King David
. It began to be used as an English given name after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Jesse James (1847-1882), an American outlaw who held up banks and stagecoaches. He was eventually shot by a fellow gang member for a reward. Another famous bearer was the American athlete Jesse Owens (1913-1980), whose real name was James Cleveland (or J. C.) Owens.
JESUS m Theology, Biblical
English form of Ιησους (Iesous)
, which was the Greek form of the Aramaic name יֵשׁוּעַ (Yeshu'a)
is itself a contracted form of Yehoshu'a
). Yeshua ben Yoseph, better known as Jesus Christ, was the central figure of the New Testament and the source of the Christian religion. The four gospels state that he was the son of God and the Virgin Mary
who fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies of the Messiah. He preached for three years before being crucified in Jerusalem.
JETHRO m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִתְרוֹ (Yitro)
, which was derived from the Hebrew word יֶתֶר (yeter)
meaning "abundance". According to the Old Testament, Jethro was a Midianite priest who sheltered Moses
when he fled Egypt. He was the father of Zipporah
, who became Moses's wife. A famous bearer of the name was Jethro Tull (1674-1741), an English inventor and agriculturist.
JETT m English (Modern)
From the English word jet
, which denotes either a jet aircraft or an intense black colour (the words derive from different sources).
JEWEL f & m English
In part from the English word jewel
, a precious stone, derived from Old French jouel
, which was possibly related to jeu
"game". It is also in part from the surname Jewel
(a derivative of the Breton name JUDICAËL
), which was sometimes used in honour of the 16th-century bishop of Salisbury John Jewel. It has been in use as a given name since the 19th century.
JI m & f Korean (Rare)
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" or other hanja characters with the same pronunciation. Although it does appear rarely as a single-character name, it is more often used in combination with another character.
JIA m & f Chinese
From Chinese 佳 (jiā)
meaning "good, auspicious, beautiful", 家 (jiā)
meaning "home, family", or other characters which are pronounced similarly.
JIAHAO m Chinese
From Chinese 家 (jiā)
meaning "home, family" combined with 豪 (háo)
meaning "brave, heroic, chivalrous". This name can be formed from other character combinations as well.
JIAN m & f Chinese
From Chinese 建 (jiàn)
meaning "build, establish", 健 (jiàn)
meaning "strong, healthy", or other characters which are pronounced in a similar fashion.
JIANG m & f Chinese
From Chinese 江 (jiāng)
meaning "river, Yangtze", as well as other characters with a similar pronunciation.
JIANHONG m Chinese
From Chinese 健 (jiàn)
meaning "build, establish" combined with 宏 (hóng)
meaning "wide, spacious, great, vast". This name can also be formed from other character combinations.
JIE m & f Chinese
From Chinese 杰 (jié)
meaning "heroic, outstanding" or other characters which are pronounced similarly.
JI-HU m & f Korean
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" combined with 厚 (hu)
meaning "thick". Other combinations of hanja characters can form this name as well.
JI-HUN m Korean
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" or 志 (ji)
meaning "will, purpose, ambition" combined with 勛 (hun)
meaning "meritorious deed, rank". This name can be formed by other hanja character combinations as well.
JIMI m English
Diminutive of JAMES
. A famous bearer was the rock musician Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970).
JI-MIN f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 志 (ji)
meaning "will, purpose, ambition" or 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" combined with 旼 (min)
meaning "gentle, affable", 敏 (min)
meaning "quick, clever, sharp" or 珉 (min)
meaning "jade, stone resembling jade". Other hanja character combinations are possible.
JIMMU m Far Eastern Mythology
Means "divine warrior", from Japanese 神 (jin)
meaning "god" and 武 (mu)
meaning "military, martial". In Japanese legend this was the name of the founder of Japan and the first emperor, supposedly ruling in the 7th century BC.
JIN m & f Chinese
From Chinese 金 (jīn)
meaning "gold, metal, money", 锦 (jǐn)
meaning "tapestry, brocade, embroidered" or 津 (jīn)
meaning "ferry". Other Chinese characters can form this name as well.
JINAN m & f Arabic
Means "garden" or "paradise" in Arabic.