Near Eastern Mythology Names

These names occur in the mythologies of the Near East. That is, the mythologies of the Sumerians, Akkadians, Hittites, Babylonians, Phoenicians and others. Listed separately are Egyptian mythology names and Persian mythology names.
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ADADmSemitic Mythology
Akkadian cognate of HADAD.
AN (2)mSumerian Mythology
Means "heaven, sky" in Sumerian. An was the supreme Sumerian god of the heavens, the father of Enlil and Enki. His cuneiform sign 𒀭 (dingir) was prefixed to the names of other deities in writing, though it was not pronounced.
ANAT (1)fSemitic Mythology
Possibly derived from a Semitic root meaning "water spring". Anat was a goddess of fertility, hunting and war worshipped by the Semitic peoples of the Levant. She was the sister and consort of the god Hadad.
ANU (2)mSemitic Mythology
Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian form of AN (2), also adopted by the Hurrians and Hittites.
ASHERAHfSemitic Mythology
Perhaps derived from Semitic roots meaning "she who walks in the sea". This was the name of a Semitic mother goddess. She was worshipped by the Israelites before the advent of monotheism.
ASHTORETHfBiblical, Semitic Mythology
From עַשְׁתֹרֶת ('Ashtoret), the Hebrew form of the name of a Phoenician goddess of love, war and fertility. Her name is cognate to that of the East Semitic goddess ISHTAR.
ASHURmSemitic Mythology
From the name of the city of ASHUR, the capital of the Assyrian Empire, which is of unknown meaning. Ashur was the patron deity of the city and the chief god of Assyria.
BA'ALmSemitic Mythology, Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew form of Semitic ba'l meaning "lord, master, possessor". This was the title of various deities, often associated with storms and fertility, who were worshipped by the Canaanites, Phoenicians, and other peoples of the ancient Near East. It was particularly applied to the god Hadad.
BAALmSemitic Mythology, Biblical Greek, Biblical Latin, Biblical
Variant spelling of BA'AL, and the form used in most translations of the Bible.
BA'AL HAMMONmSemitic Mythology
From Semitic ba'l meaning "lord" prefixing another word of uncertain meaning. This was the name of the supreme god worshipped in the Phoenician city of Carthage, alongside his consort Tanith.
BELmSemitic Mythology
Akkadian cognate of BA'AL. The Babylonians used it as a title of the god Marduk.
CYBELEfNear Eastern Mythology (Hellenized)
Meaning unknown, possibly from Phrygian roots meaning either "stone" or "hair". This was the name of the Phrygian mother goddess associated with fertility and nature. She was later worshipped by the Greeks and Romans.
DAGONmSemitic Mythology
Perhaps related to Ugaritic dgn meaning "grain". This was the name of a Semitic god of agriculture, usually depicted with the body of a fish.
DUMUZImSumerian Mythology
From Sumerian 𒌉 (dumu) meaning "son, child" and 𒍣 (zid) meaning "true, loyal". This was the name of a Sumerian god of shepherds and vegetation, the husband of Inanna. He was said to spend half of each year in the underworld, resulting in the yearly cycle of seasons. He was known to the Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia as Tammuz.
EA (1)mSemitic Mythology
Meaning unknown, perhaps from Sumerian meaning "house of water", or perhaps of Akkadian or Hurrian origin. This was the Akkadian, Assyrian, Hurrian and Babylonian name of the Sumerian water god Enki.
ELmSemitic Mythology
From a Semitic root meaning "god". This was a title applied to several Semitic gods. The Canaanites used it as the name of their chief deity, the father of the gods and mankind. The Hebrews used it to refer to Yahweh.
ELILmSemitic Mythology
Akkadian form of ENLIL.
ELLILmSemitic Mythology
Akkadian form of ENLIL.
ENKImSumerian Mythology
From Sumerian 𒂗 (en) meaning "lord" and 𒆠 (ki) meaning "earth, ground" (though maybe originally from 𒆳 (kur) meaning "underworld, mountain"). Enki, called Ea by the Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians, was the Sumerian god of water and wisdom and the keeper of the Me, the divine laws.
ENLILmSumerian Mythology
From Sumerian 𒂗 (en) meaning "lord" and possibly 𒆤 (lil) meaning "wind". Enlil was the Sumerian god of the wind and storms, the son of An and Ki. He was later worshipped by the Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and other Mesopotamian peoples.
ERESHKIGALfSumerian Mythology
Means "lady of the great earth", from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (ereš) meaning "lady, queen" combined with 𒆠 (ki) meaning "earth" and 𒃲 (gal) meaning "great, big". In Sumerian mythology she was the goddess of death and the underworld.
GILGAMESHmSumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Possibly means "the ancestor is a hero", from Sumerian 𒉋𒂵 (bilga) meaning "ancestor" and 𒈩 (mes) meaning "hero, young man". This was the name of a Sumerian hero, later appearing in the Akkadian poem the 'Epic of Gilgamesh'. Gilgamesh, with his friend Enkidu, battled the giant Humbaba and stopped the rampage of the Bull of Heaven, besides other adventures. Gilgamesh was probably based on a real person: a king of Uruk who ruled around the 27th century BC.
HADADmSemitic Mythology
Derived from a Semitic root meaning "thunder". Hadad was a Western Semitic (Levantine) god of thunder and storms, often called Ba'al. He was imported to Mesopotamia by the Amorites, where he was known as Adad to the Assyrians and Babylonians.
ILUmSemitic Mythology
Akkadian cognate of EL, often used to refer to Anu.
INANNAfSumerian Mythology
Possibly derived from Sumerian nin-an-a(k) meaning "lady of the heavens", from 𒊩𒌆 (nin) meaning "lady" and the genitive form of 𒀭 (an) meaning "heaven, sky". Inanna was the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility and war. She descended into the underworld where the ruler of that place, her sister Ereshkigal, had her killed. The god Enki interceded, and Inanna was allowed to leave the underworld as long as her husband Dumuzi took her place.... [more]
ISHKURmSumerian Mythology
Meaning unknown, of Sumerian origin. This was the name of a Sumerian storm god, later identified by the Akkadians with Adad.
ISHTARfSemitic Mythology
Meaning unknown. Ishtar was an Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian goddess who presided over love, war and fertility. She was cognate with the Canaanite and Phoenician Ashtoreth, and she was also identified with the Sumerian goddess Inanna.
KIfSumerian Mythology
Means "earth" in Sumerian. This was the name of the Sumerian goddess of the earth, the consort of An.
LILITHfSemitic Mythology, Judeo-Christian Legend
Derived from Akkadian lilitu meaning "of the night". This was the name of a demon in ancient Assyrian myths. In Jewish tradition she was Adam's first wife, sent out of Eden and replaced by Eve because she would not submit to him. The offspring of Adam (or Samael) and Lilith were the evil spirits of the world.
LUGALBANDAmSumerian Mythology
From Sumerian lugal "king" and banda "young, wild, fierce". This was the name of a legendary king of Uruk who was said to be the father of Gilgamesh in Sumerian mythology.
MARDUKmSemitic Mythology
Probably from Sumerian amar-Utuk meaning "calf of Utu", derived from amar combined with the name of the sun god UTU. This was the name of the chief Babylonian god, presiding over heaven, light, sky, battle, and fertility. After killing the dragon Tiamat, who was an old enemy of the gods, he created the world and sky from the pieces of her body.
MELQARTmSemitic Mythology
From Phoenician mlk "king" and qrt "city". This was the name of a Phoenician god worshipped especially in the city of Tyre.
MOTmSemitic Mythology
Means "death" in Ugaritic. This was the name of the Ugaritic god of death and the lord of the netherworld. He was a son of the supreme god El.
NABUmSemitic Mythology
Possibly from a Semitic root meaning "to announce". This was the name of an Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom, letters and writing.
NANAYAfSumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Meaning unknown, possibly related to INANNA. This was the name of a goddess worshipped by the Sumerians and Akkadians. She was later conflated with the goddesses Anahita and Aphrodite.
NANNA (2)mSumerian Mythology
Meaning unknown. This was the name of the Sumerian god of the moon. He was the son of Enlil and the husband of Ningal.
NINGALfSumerian Mythology
Means "great lady", from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin) meaning "lady" and 𒃲 (gal) meaning "big, great". This was the name of a goddess of reeds in Sumerian mythology. She was the daughter of Enki and the wife of Nanna.
NINHURSAGfSumerian Mythology
Means "lady of the mountain", from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin) meaning "lady" and 𒉺𒂅 (hursaĝ) meaning "mountain". This was the name of the Sumerian mother and fertility goddess, the primary consort of Enki.
NINLILfSumerian Mythology
Derived from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin) meaning "lady" and possibly 𒆤 (lil) meaning "wind". This was the name of a Sumerian goddess, the consort of Enlil.
NINSUNfSumerian Mythology
From Sumerian nin-sumun-a(k) meaning "lady of the wild cow", derived from 𒊩𒌆 (nin) meaning "lady" and the genitive form of 𒄢 (sumun) meaning "wild cow". In Sumerian mythology Ninsun was the divine mother of Gilgamesh.
NINURTAmSumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Derived from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin) meaning "lord" and 𒅁 (urta) meaning "ear of barley". In Sumerian and Akkadian mythology Ninurta was a god of agriculture, hunting and healing, later associated with war. He was also called Ningirsu, though they may have originally been separate deities.
NUHA (2)fSemitic Mythology
Meaning unknown. This was the name of a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess of the sun, identified with Shams.
SHALIMmSemitic Mythology
From the Semitic root shalam meaning "peace". This was the name of an Ugaritic god associated with the evening.
SHAMASHmSemitic Mythology
Means "the sun" in Akkadian. This was the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian name of Utu.
SHAMSfSemitic Mythology
Means "the sun" in Arabic. This was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess of the sun, identified with the Akkadian sun god Shamash (whose name is related) and the northern Arabian goddess Nuha.
SHULMANUmSemitic Mythology
Possibly cognate with the Western Semitic god SHALIM. Shulmanu was an Eastern Semitic (Mesopotamian) god associated with battle.
SINmSemitic Mythology
From earlier Akkadian Su'en, of unknown meaning. This was the name of the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian god of the moon. He was closely identified with the Sumerian god Nanna.
TAMMUZmBiblical, Biblical Hebrew, Semitic Mythology
Semitic form of DUMUZI. The name of the god appears in the Book of Ezekiel in the Old Testament.
TANITHfSemitic Mythology
Derived from Semitic roots meaning "serpent lady". This was the name of the Phoenician goddess of love, fertility, the moon and the stars. She was particularly associated with the city of Carthage, being the consort of Ba'al Hammon.
TARHUNNAmNear Eastern Mythology
From Hittite or Luwian tarh meaning "to cross, to conquer". This was the name of the Hittite god of the weather, storms, and the sky, and the slayer of the dragon Illuyanka. He was closely identified with the Hurrian god Teshub, and sometimes with the Semitic god Hadad.
TESHUBmNear Eastern Mythology
Meaning unknown, of Hurrian origin. This was the name of the Hurrian storm god. He was later conflated with the Hittite god Tarhunna.
TIAMATfSemitic Mythology
From Akkadian tâmtu meaning "sea". In Babylonian myth Tiamat was the personification of the sea, appearing in the form of a huge dragon. By Apsu she gave birth to the first of the gods. Later, the god Marduk (her great-grandson) defeated her, cut her in half, and used the pieces of her body to make the earth and the sky.
UTUmSumerian Mythology
Derived from Sumerian 𒌓 (ud) meaning "sun". In Sumerian mythology this was the name of the god of the sun. He was the son of the moon god Nanna and Ningal.
YAMmSemitic Mythology
Means "sea" in Ugaritic. Yam was the Ugaritic god of the sea, also associated with chaos, storms and destruction. He was a son of the chief god El.