AN (2) m Sumerian Mythology
Means "heaven, sky" in Sumerian. An was the supreme Sumerian god of the heavens, the father of Enlil
. His cuneiform sign 𒀭 (dingir)
was prefixed to the names of other deities in writing, though it was not pronounced.
ANAT (1) f Semitic Mythology
Possibly derived from a Semitic root meaning "water spring". Anat was a goddess of fertility, hunting and war worshipped by the Semitic peoples of the Levant. She was the sister and consort of the god Hadad
ASHERAH f Semitic Mythology
Perhaps derived from Semitic roots meaning "she who walks in the sea". This was the name of a Semitic mother goddess. She was worshipped by the Israelites before the advent of monotheism.
ASHUR m Semitic Mythology
From the name of the city of ASHUR
, the capital of the Assyrian Empire, which is of unknown meaning. Ashur was the patron deity of the city and the chief god of Assyria.
BA'AL m Semitic Mythology, Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew form of Semitic ba'l
meaning "lord, master, possessor". This was the title of various deities, often associated with storms and fertility, who were worshipped by the Canaanites, Phoenicians, and other peoples of the ancient Near East. It was particularly applied to the god Hadad
BA'AL HAMMON m Semitic Mythology
From Semitic ba'l
meaning "lord" prefixing another word of uncertain meaning. This was the name of the supreme god worshipped in the Phoenician city of Carthage, alongside his consort Tanith
CYBELE f Near Eastern Mythology (Latinized)
Meaning unknown, possibly from Phrygian roots meaning either "stone" or "hair". This was the name of the Phrygian mother goddess associated with fertility and nature. She was later worshipped by the Greeks and Romans.
DAGON m Semitic Mythology
Perhaps related to Ugaritic dgn
meaning "grain". This was the name of a Semitic god of agriculture, usually depicted with the body of a fish.
DUMUZI m Sumerian Mythology
From Sumerian 𒌉 (dumu)
meaning "son, child" and 𒍣 (zid)
meaning "true, loyal". This was the name of a Sumerian god of shepherds and vegetation, the husband of Inanna
. He was said to spend half of each year in the underworld, resulting in the yearly cycle of seasons. He was known to the Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia as Tammuz
EA (1) m Semitic Mythology
Meaning unknown, perhaps from Sumerian meaning "house of water", or perhaps of Akkadian or Hurrian origin. This was the Akkadian, Assyrian, Hurrian and Babylonian name of the Sumerian water god Enki
EL m Semitic Mythology
From a Semitic root meaning "god". This was a title applied to several Semitic gods. The Canaanites used it as the name of their chief deity, the father of the gods and mankind. The Hebrews used it to refer to Yahweh
ENKI m Sumerian Mythology
From Sumerian 𒂗 (en)
meaning "lord" and 𒆠 (ki)
meaning "earth, ground" (though maybe originally from 𒆳 (kur)
meaning "underworld, mountain"). Enki, called Ea
by the Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians, was the Sumerian god of water and wisdom and the keeper of the Me, the divine laws.
ENLIL m Sumerian Mythology
From Sumerian 𒂗 (en)
meaning "lord" and possibly 𒆤 (lil)
meaning "wind". Enlil was the Sumerian god of the wind and storms, the son of An
. He was later worshipped by the Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and other Mesopotamian peoples.
ERESHKIGAL f Sumerian Mythology
Means "lady of the great earth", from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (ereš)
meaning "lady, queen" combined with 𒆠 (ki)
meaning "earth" and 𒃲 (gal)
meaning "great, big". In Sumerian mythology she was the goddess of death and the underworld.
GILGAMESH m Sumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Possibly means "the ancestor is a hero", from Sumerian 𒉋𒂵 (bilga)
meaning "ancestor" and 𒈩 (mes)
meaning "hero, young man". This was the name of a Sumerian hero, later appearing in the Akkadian poem the 'Epic of Gilgamesh'. Gilgamesh, with his friend Enkidu, battled the giant Humbaba and stopped the rampage of the Bull of Heaven, besides other adventures. Gilgamesh was probably based on a real person: a king of Uruk who ruled around the 27th century BC.
HADAD m Semitic Mythology
Derived from a Semitic root meaning "thunder". Hadad was a Western Semitic (Levantine) god of thunder and storms, often called Ba'al
. He was imported to Mesopotamia by the Amorites, where he was known as Adad
to the Assyrians and Babylonians.
INANNA f Sumerian Mythology
Possibly derived from Sumerian nin-an-a(k)
meaning "lady of the heavens", from 𒊩𒌆 (nin)
meaning "lady" and the genitive form of 𒀭 (an)
meaning "heaven, sky". Inanna was the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility and war. She descended into the underworld where the ruler of that place, her sister Ereshkigal, had her killed. The god Enki
interceded, and Inanna was allowed to leave the underworld as long as her husband Dumuzi
took her place.... [more]
ISHKUR m Sumerian Mythology
Meaning unknown, of Sumerian origin. This was the name of a Sumerian storm god, later identified by the Akkadians with Adad
ISHTAR f Semitic Mythology
Meaning unknown. Ishtar was an Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian goddess who presided over love, war and fertility. She was cognate with the Canaanite and Phoenician Ashtoreth
, and she was also identified with the Sumerian goddess Inanna
KI f Sumerian Mythology
Means "earth" in Sumerian. This was the name of the Sumerian goddess of the earth, the consort of An
LILITH f Semitic Mythology, Judeo-Christian Legend
Derived from Akkadian lilitu
meaning "of the night". This was the name of a demon in ancient Assyrian myths. In Jewish tradition she was Adam
's first wife, sent out of Eden and replaced by Eve
because she would not submit to him. The offspring of Adam (or Samael
) and Lilith were the evil spirits of the world.
MARDUK m Semitic Mythology
Probably from Sumerian amar-Utuk
meaning "calf of Utu", derived from amar
combined with the name of the sun god UTU
. This was the name of the chief Babylonian god, presiding over heaven, light, sky, battle, and fertility. After killing the dragon Tiamat
, who was an old enemy of the gods, he created the world and sky from the pieces of her body.
MELQART m Semitic Mythology
From Phoenician mlk
"king" and qrt
"city". This was the name of a Phoenician god worshipped especially in the city of Tyre.
MOT m Semitic Mythology
Means "death" in Ugaritic. This was the name of the Ugaritic god of death and the lord of the netherworld. He was a son of the supreme god El
NABU m Semitic Mythology
Possibly from a Semitic root meaning "to announce". This was the name of an Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom, letters and writing.
NINGAL f Sumerian Mythology
Means "great lady", from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin)
meaning "lady" and 𒃲 (gal)
meaning "big, great". This was the name of a goddess of reeds in Sumerian mythology. She was the daughter of Enki
and the wife of Nanna
NINHURSAG f Sumerian Mythology
Means "lady of the mountain", from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin)
meaning "lady" and 𒉺𒂅 (hursaĝ)
meaning "mountain". This was the name of the Sumerian mother and fertility goddess, the primary consort of Enki
NINSUN f Sumerian Mythology
From Sumerian nin-sumun-a(k)
meaning "lady of the wild cow", derived from 𒊩𒌆 (nin)
meaning "lady" and the genitive form of 𒄢 (sumun)
meaning "wild cow". In Sumerian mythology Ninsun was the divine mother of Gilgamesh
NINURTA m Sumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Derived from Sumerian 𒊩𒌆 (nin)
meaning "lord" and 𒅁 (urta)
meaning "ear of barley". In Sumerian and Akkadian mythology Ninurta was a god of agriculture, hunting and healing, later associated with war. He was also called Ningirsu
, though they may have originally been separate deities.
SHALIM m Semitic Mythology
From the Semitic root shalam
meaning "peace". This was the name of an Ugaritic god associated with the evening.
SHAMS f Semitic Mythology
Means "sun" in Arabic. This was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess of the sun, identified with the Akkadian sun god Shamash
(whose name is related) and the northern Arabian goddess Nuha
SHULMANU m Semitic Mythology
Possibly cognate with the Western Semitic god SHALIM
. Shulmanu was an Eastern Semitic (Mesopotamian) god associated with battle.
SIN m Semitic Mythology
From earlier Akkadian Su'en
, of unknown meaning. This was the name of the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian god of the moon. He was closely identified with the Sumerian god Nanna
TANITH f Semitic Mythology
Derived from Semitic roots meaning "serpent lady". This was the name of the Phoenician goddess of love, fertility, the moon and the stars. She was particularly associated with the city of Carthage, being the consort of Ba'al Hammon
TARHUNNA m Near Eastern Mythology
From Hittite or Luwian tarh
meaning "to cross, to conquer". This was the name of the Hittite god of the weather, storms, and the sky, and the slayer of the dragon Illuyanka. He was closely identified with the Hurrian god Teshub
, and sometimes with the Semitic god Hadad
TIAMAT f Semitic Mythology
From Akkadian tâmtu
meaning "sea". In Babylonian myth Tiamat was the personification of the sea, appearing in the form of a huge dragon. By Apsu she gave birth to the first of the gods. Later, the god Marduk
(her great-grandson) defeated her, cut her in half, and used the pieces of her body to make the earth and the sky.
UTU m Sumerian Mythology
Derived from Sumerian 𒌓 (ud)
meaning "sun". In Sumerian mythology this was the name of the god of the sun. He was the son of the moon god Nanna
YAM m Semitic Mythology
Means "sea" in Ugaritic. Yam was the Ugaritic god of the sea, also associated with chaos, storms and destruction. He was a son of the chief god El