Near Eastern Mythology Names

These names occur in the mythologies of the Near East. That is, the mythologies of the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Canaanites, Phoenicians and others. Listed separately are Egyptian mythology names and Persian mythology names.
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ADAD   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Akkadian cognate of HADAD.
AN (2)   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Means "heaven, sky" in Sumerian. An was the Sumerian god of the heavens.
ANAT (1)   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Possibly derived from a Semitic root meaning "water spring". Anat was a goddess of fertility, hunting and war worshipped in many regions of the ancient near east. She was the sister and consort of the god Hadad.
ANU (2)   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Babylonian form of AN (2).
ASHERAH   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Perhaps derived from Semitic roots meaning "she who walks in the sea". This was the name of an ancient Israelite goddess who was worshipped before the advent of monotheism.
ASHTORETH   f   Biblical, Near Eastern Mythology
From עַשְׁתֹרֶת ('Ashtoret), the Hebrew form of the name of a Phoenician goddess of love, war and fertility. Her name is cognate to that of the Babylonian goddess ISHTAR.
BA'AL   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Derived from Semitic ba'al meaning "lord" or "possessor". This was the name of various local deities, often associated with storms and fertility, who were worshipped by the Canaanites, Phoenicians, and other peoples of the ancient Near East.
BAAL   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Variant spelling of BA'AL.
CYBELE   f   Near Eastern Mythology (Hellenized)
Meaning unknown, possibly from Phrygian roots meaning either "stone" or "hair". This was the name of the Phrygian mother goddess associated with fertility and nature. She was later worshipped by the Greeks and Romans.
DAGON   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Derived from Ugaritic dgn meaning "grain". This was the name of a Semitic god of agriculture, usually depicted with the body of a fish.
EA (1)   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Meaning unknown, perhaps from Sumerian meaning "house of water". This was the Akkadian and Babylonian name of the Sumerian water god Enki.
EL   m   Near Eastern Mythology
From a Semitic word meaning "god", perhaps originally derived from a root meaning "power". This was the name of the chief Semitic god, the father of the gods and mankind. In some cases it was used as a title and applied to other gods of the pantheon. It was used by the Hebrews to refer to Yahweh.
ELLIL   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Babylonian form of ENLIL.
ENKI   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Derived from Sumerian en-ki "lord of the earth" (though maybe originally from en-kur "lord of the underworld"). Enki, called Ea by the Babylonians, was the Sumerian god of water and wisdom and the keeper of the Me, the divine laws.
ENLIL   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Derived from Sumerian en-lil "lord of the wind". Enlil was the Sumerian god of the wind and storms, the son of An and Ki.
ERESHKIGAL   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Means "lady of the great earth" in Sumerian. In Sumerian and Babylonian mythology she was the violent goddess of death and the underworld.
GILGAMESH   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Possibly means "the ancestor is a young man" in Sumerian. This was the name of a Sumerian hero, later appearing in the Akkadian poem the 'Epic of Gilgamesh'. Gigamesh, with his friend Enkidu, battled the giant Humbaba and stopped the rampage of the Bull of Heaven, besides other adventures. Gilgamesh was probably based on a real person: a king of Erech who ruled around the 27th century BC.
HADAD   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Possibly derived from a Semitic root meaning "thunder". Hadad was the Semitic god of thunder and storms, often called Ba'al.
INANNA   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Possibly derived from Sumerian (n)in-an-na "lady of the heavens". Inanna was the Sumerian goddess of the earth, love, fertility and war. She descended into the underworld where the ruler of that place, her sister Ereshkigal, had her killed. The god Enki interceded, and Inanna was allowed to leave the underworld as long as her husband Dumuzi took her place.
ISHTAR   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Meaning unknown. Ishtar was the Babylonian and Assyrian mother goddess who presided over love, war and fertility. She was called Ashtoreth by the Phoenicians, and she was also identified with the Sumerian goddess Inanna.
LILITH   f   Near Eastern Mythology, Judeo-Christian Legend
Derived from Akkadian lilitu meaning "of the night". This was the name of a demon in ancient Assyrian myths. In Jewish tradition she was Adam's first wife, sent out of Eden and replaced by Eve because she would not submit to him. The offspring of Adam (or Samael) and Lilith were the evil spirits of the world.
MARDUK   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Possibly from Sumerian amar-Utu meaning "calf of UTU". In Babylonian mythology he was the chief god, presiding over heaven, light, sky, battle, and fertility. After killing the dragon Tiamat, who was an old enemy of the gods, he created the world and sky from the pieces of her body.
MELQART   m   Near Eastern Mythology
From Phoenician mlk "king" and qrt "city". This was the name of a Phoenician god worshipped especially in the city of Tyre.
MOT   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Means "death" in Ugaritic. This was the name of the Ugaritic god of death and the lord of the netherworld. He was a son of the supreme god El.
NABU   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Possibly from a Semitic root meaning "to announce". This was the name of an Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom, letters and writing.
NANAYA   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Meaning unknown, possibly related to INANNA. This was the name of a goddess worshipped by the Sumerians and Akkadians. She was later conflated with the goddesses Anahita and Aphrodite.
NANNA (2)   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Meaning unknown. This was the name of the Sumerian god of the moon. He was the son of Enlil and the husband of Ningal.
NINA (2)   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Meaning unknown. This was the name of a Babylonian and Assyrian fertility goddess who was identified with Ishtar. She was the patron goddess of the city of Nineveh. Her name was written using a character representing a fish surrounded by a character representing a house.
NINGAL   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Means "great lady" in Sumerian. This was the name of a goddess of reeds in Sumerian mythology. She was the daughter of Enki and the wife of Nanna.
TANITH   f   Near Eastern Mythology
Derived from Semitic roots meaning "serpent lady". This was the name of the Phoenician goddess of love, fertility, the moon and the stars.
TIAMAT   f   Near Eastern Mythology
From Akkadian tâmtu meaning "sea". In Babylonian myth Tiamat was the personification of the sea, appearing in the form of a huge dragon. By Apsu she gave birth to the first of the gods. Later, the god Marduk (her great-grandson) defeated her, cut her in half, and used the pieces of her body to make the earth and the sky.
UTU   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Derived from Sumerian ud meaning "sun". In Sumerian mythology this was the name of the god of the sun. He was the son of the moon god Nanna and Ningal.
YAM   m   Near Eastern Mythology
Means "sea" in Ugaritic. Yam was the Ugaritic god of the sea, also associated with chaos, storms and destruction. He was a son of the chief god El.
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