The land of Austria, within the Holy Roman Empire, was elevated from a march to a duchy in 1156. Thus, the margrave
Henry II was elevated to a duke
. In 1278 the Habsburg family became the hereditary dukes. They eventually came to style themselves as archdukes
. Austria became the center of power in the empire, and the archduke was often also the emperor
In 1804 Francis I, who was the Archduke of Austria and the Holy Roman Emperor, formed the Austrian Empire. Two years later he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. In 1867 the crowns of Austria and Hungary, both possessed by the same person, were merged into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Following defeat in the First World War, Austria became a republic.
Austrian Dukes and Emperors Chronologically
Austrian Dukes and Emperors by Frequency of Name
Austrian Dukes and Emperors Alphabetically (Grouped by Name)