It was Leo who began officially using the title pope (Latin papa "father"), though it was originally used by many other bishops besides him. In the 11th century Gregory VII decreed that the title should belong only to the Bishops of Rome. It is worth noting that not all of the popes have lived in Rome; for 70 years in the 14th century they resided in Avignon in France.
Note: an antipope was a rival who was set up in opposition to the canonical pope.
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