Islamic Caliphs

This list is comprised of the caliphs of the Islamic World. The caliphs (from Arabic خليفة literally meaning "successor") were the political successors to Muhammad.

First are the Rashidun caliphs of Medina, beginning with Muhammad's father-in-law Abu Bakr and ending with Muhammad's son-in-law Ali (and briefly Ali's son Hassan). Next are the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus, who were relatives of the third Rashidun caliph Uthman. In 750 the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasids who were descendents of Muhammad's uncle Abbas and who ruled from Baghdad. Over centuries the Abbasids lost territory and power, and in 1258 the Mongols sacked Baghdad and executed the caliph there. After this, the ruling Mamluks of Egypt installed a line of the Abbasid family as caliphs in Cairo, but they held only ceremonial powers. When the Mamluks were defeated by the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman sultans (beginning with Selim I) assumed the title. The office was abolished 1924, shortly after the formation of the modern country of Turkey.

Others have held the title of caliph, including the Umayyads of Córdoba and the Fatimids of North Africa, but they are not included on these lists.

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NameYearsDynastyAlso Known As
'Abbas al-Mu'tasim833-842Abbasid
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan685-705Umayyad
Abdülaziz1861-1876Ottoman(Abd ul-Aziz)
Abdülhamid I1774-1789Ottoman(Abd ul-Hamid)
Abdülhamid II1876-1909Ottoman(Abd ul-Hamid)
Abdullah al-Ma'mun813-833Abbasid
Abdullah al-Mansur754-775Abbasid(Abdallah, Mansur)
Abdullah Al-Musta'sim1242-1258Abbasid
Abdullah al-Mustakfi944-946Abbasid(Abdallah)
Abdullah as-Saffah750-754Abbasid(Al-Saffah)
Abdülmecid I1839-1861Ottoman(Abd ul-Majid)
Abdülmecid II1922-1924Ottoman(Abd ul-Majid)
Abu Bakr632-634Rashidun(Abdullah)
Ahmad al-Mu'tadid892-902Abbasid
Ahmad Al-Nasir1180-1225Abbasid(An-Nasir)
Ahmed I1603-1617Ottoman(Ahmad, Ahmet)
Ahmed II1691-1695Ottoman(Ahmad, Ahmet)
Ahmed III1703-1730Ottoman(Ahmad, Ahmet)
Al-Fadl al-Muti946-974Abbasid
Al-Hakim I1262-1302Abbasid
Al-Hakim II1341-1352Abbasid
Ali al-Muktafi902-908Abbasid
Ali ibn Abi-Talib656-661Rashidun
Al-Muhtadi869-870Abbasid
Al-Muntasir861-862Abbasid
Al-Muqtadi1075-1094Abbasid
Al-Muqtafi1136-1160Abbasid
Al-Musta'in862-866Abbasid
Al-Musta'in1406-1414Abbasid
Al-Mustakfi II1302-1340Abbasid
Al-Mustakfi III1441-1451Abbasid
Al-Mustamsik1497-1508; 1516-1517Abbasid
Al-Mustanjid1160-1170Abbasid
Al-Mustanjid II1455-1479Abbasid
Al-Mustansir1226-1242Abbasid
Al-Mustansir II1261-1262Abbasid
Al-Mustarshid1118-1135Abbasid
Al-Musta'sim II1377; 1386-1389Abbasid(Al-Mu'tasim)
Al-Mustazhir1094-1118Abbasid
Al-Mu'tadid II1352-1362Abbasid
Al-Mu'tadid III1414-1441Abbasid
Al-Mu'tamid870-892Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil847-861Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil II1362-1377; 1377-1383; 1383-1406Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil III1479-1497Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil IV1508-1516; 1517Abbasid
Al-Mu'tazz866-869Abbasid
Al-Muttaqi940-944Abbasid
Al-Qadir991-1031Abbasid
Al-Qa'im1031-1075Abbasid
Al-Qa'im II1451-1455Abbasid
Al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik705-715Umayyad(Walid)
Al-Walid II ibn Yazid743-744Umayyad(Walid)
Al-Wathiq II1383-1386Abbasid
Ar-Rashid1135-1136Abbasid
At-Ta'i974-991Abbasid
Az-Zahir1225-1226Abbasid
Harun al-Rashid786-809Abbasid
Harun al-Wathiq842-847Abbasid
Hasan ibn Ali661Rashidun
Hassan Al-Mustadi1170-1180Abbasid
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik724-743Umayyad
Ibrahim1640-1648Ottoman
Ibrahim ibn al-Walid744Umayyad
Jafar al-Muqtadir908-932Abbasid
Mahmud I1730-1754Ottoman
Mahmud II1808-1839Ottoman
Marwan I ibn al-Hakam684-685Umayyad
Marwan II ibn Muhammad744-750Umayyad
Mehmed III1595-1603Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Mehmed IV1648-1687Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Mehmed V1909-1918Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Mehmed VI Vahideddin1918-1922Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Muawiyah I661-680Umayyad
Muawiyah II ibn Yazid683-684Umayyad
Muhammad al-Amin809-813Abbasid
Muhammad al-Mahdi775-785Abbasid
Muhammad al-Qahir932-934Abbasid
Muhammad ar-Radi934-940Abbasid
Murad III1574-1595Ottoman
Murad IV1623-1640Ottoman
Murad V1876Ottoman
Musa al-Hadi785-786Abbasid
Mustafa I1617-1618; 1622-1623Ottoman
Mustafa II1695-1703Ottoman
Mustafa III1757-1774Ottoman
Mustafa IV1807-1808Ottoman
Osman II1618-1622Ottoman(Othman, Usman, Uthman)
Osman III1754-1757Ottoman(Othman, Usman, Uthman)
Selim I1517-1520Ottoman
Selim II1566-1574Ottoman
Selim III1789-1807Ottoman
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik715-717Umayyad
Süleyman I the Magnificent1520-1566Ottoman(Sulayman, Suleiman)
Süleyman II1687-1691Ottoman(Sulayman, Suleiman)
Umar ibn Al-Khattab634-644Rashidun
Umar II ibn Abd al-Aziz717-720Umayyad
Uthman ibn Affan644-656Rashidun
Yazid I ibn Muawiyah680-683Umayyad
Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik720-724Umayyad
Yazid III ibn al-Walid744Umayyad