Persian Kings and Queens

The First Persian Empire, also called the Achaemenid Empire, was established by Cyrus the Great in 549 BC. It was conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Alexander's successors, the Seleucid Empire, ruled for a time, but were eventually superseded by the Parthian Empire.

In 224 Ardashir I rose against and defeated the last Parthian king and established the Sassanid Empire, also called the Second Persian Empire. Persia was ultimately conquered by the Arabs during the Muslim conquest in 651.

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NameYearsOther Names
Deiocesc. 709-c. 665 BC
Phraortesc. 675-633 BC
Cyaxares625-585 BC(Hvakhshathra)
Astyages585-550 BC
Cyrus II the Great559-530 BC(Kurush)
Cambyses II530-522 BC(Kambujiya)
Bardiya522 BC(Smerdis)
Darius I the Great522-486 BC
Xerxes I the Great486-465 BC(Khshayarsha)
Artaxerxes I465-424 BC
Xerxes II424 BC
Sogdianus424-423 BC
Darius II423-404 BC
Artaxerxes II Mnemon404-358 BC
Artaxerxes III358-338 BC
Artaxerxes IV338-336 BC(Arses)
Darius III Codomannus336-330 BC(Artashata)
Alexander the Great330-323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus323-317 BC
Alexander IV323-311 BC
Seleucus I Nicator306-281 BC
Antiochus I Soter281-261 BC
Antiochus II Theos261-246 BC
Arsaces Ic. 250-211 BC
Seleucus II Callinicus246-225 BC
Seleucus III Ceraunus225-223 BC
Antiochus III the Great222-187 BC
Arsaces II211-191 BC(Artabanus)
Phriapatius191-176 BC(Priapatius)
Seleucus IV Philopator187-175 BC
Phraates I176-171 BC
Antiochus IV Epiphanes175-164 BC
Mithridates I171-138 BC(Mehrdad, Mithradates)
Antiochus V Eupator163-161 BC
Demetrius I Soter161-150 BC
Alexander Balas150-146 BC
Demetrius II Nicator146-139 BC
Phraates II138-128 BC
Artabanus II128-124 BC
Mithridates II124-88 BC(Mehrdad)
Gotarzes I95-90 BC
Orodes I90-80 BC
Sanatruces77-70 BC(Sanatruk, Sinatruces)
Phraates III70-57 BC
Orodes II57-37 BC
Phraates IV37-2 BC
Phraates V2 BC-4
Orodes III4-6
Vonones I8-12
Artabanus III10-35; 36-38
Tiridates III35-36
Vardanes I40-47
Gotarzes II40-51
Vonones II51
Vologases I51-78(Balash, Vologeses)
Vologases II78-80
Pacorus II78-105
Vologases III105-147(Balash)
Osroes I109-116; 117-129(Khusraw)
Parthamaspates116-117
Mithridates IV129-140(Mehrdad)
Vologases IV147-191(Balash)
Vologases V191-208(Balash)
Vologases VI208-228(Balash)
Artabanus V216-224
Ardashir I224-242
Shapur I the Great242-270
Hormizd I270-271
Bahram I271-274(Varahran)
Bahram II274-293
Bahram III293
Narseh293-302(Narses)
Hormizd II302-309
Adhur Narseh309
Shapur II the Great309-379
Ardashir II379-383
Shapur III383-388
Bahram IV388-399
Yazdegerd I399-420(Izdekerti)
Khosrau the Usurper420
Shapur IV420
Bahram V Gor420-438
Yazdegerd II438-457
Hormizd III457-459
Peroz I459-484
Balash484-488(Vologases)
Kavadh I488-496; 498-531(Qabad)
Djamasp496-498(Jamasp, Zamasp)
Khosrau I the Just531-579(Anushirvan, Chosroes)
Hormizd IV579-590
Bahram VI Chobin590-591
Khosrau II590; 591-628(Chosroes, Parviz)
Kavadh II628
Ardashir III628-629
Shahrbaraz629
Borandukht629-630; 631
Shapur V630
Azarmidokht630-631
Yazdegerd III632-651
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