Polish High Dukes and Kings

The first historically attested ruler of the Polish state was Mieszko, a member of the Piast family. He converted to Christianity and was recognized as a duke (Latin dux) of the area known as Greater Poland (centered around the city of Poznań) in the 10th century. Mieszko's son was duke Bolesław the Brave, who in 1025 was acknowledged by the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire as a king (Latin rex). Bolesław's son Mieszko II was also a king, but their later descendants (with the exception of Bolesław II) were not crowned as kings for over 250 years.

When Bolesław III died in 1138, his will split the country between his five sons. His eldest son was to be the High Duke, theoretically above the others in power, ruling the area around Kraków. This division of the state led to a period of instability that lasted well over a century. The country began to become united again around 1300 under foreign rulers, the Czech Premyslids.

The Piasts soon returned to power, however their dynasty ended after the reign of Kazimierz III the Great. Kazimierz had no male children; he was succeeded by his nephew Louis (Ludwik) I of Hungary. Louis was succeeded by his daughter Jadwiga and her husband Jagiełło in 1382, thus ushering in the Jagiellon dynasty.

Through Jagiełło, the Jagiellons were also the hereditary Grand Dukes of Lithuania. In 1569 the two states were officially united as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After this time the kings were elected by the nobles.

The Commonwealth became weak in the 18th century and finally came to an end when it was divided between the Russian Empire, Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire. Poland would not be an independent country again until 1918, at which time it became a republic.

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Aleksander1 king1
Anna1 queen1
August2 kings2
Bolesław2 kings, 3 dukes5
Henryk1 king, 3 dukes4
Jadwiga1 queen1
Jan3 kings3
Kazimierz2 kings, 2 dukes4
Konrad1 duke1
Leszek2 dukes2
Ludwik1 king1
Michał1 king1
Mieszko1 king, 3 dukes4
Przemysł1 king1
Stanisław2 kings2
Stefan1 king1
Wacław2 kings2
Władysław4 kings, 3 dukes7
Zbigniew1 duke1
Zygmunt3 kings3
20 results