Scottish Kings and Queens

Thanks to J. Evans for providing the list of rulers.

Gaels migrated from Ireland to western Scotland (which was called Caledonia at the time by the Romans) in the 5th century, after the Romans had retreated from Britain, and there established the kingdom of Dál Riata in Argyllshire. The lists presented here begin with the kings of Dál Riata.

The north of Scotland was controlled by the Picts, an ancient Celtic people. Conflict and intermixing between the Scots and the Picts continued until the two realms were finally merged under the Dál Riatan king Kenneth mac Alpin around the year 850. The exact reasons for Kenneth's rise to power over the Picts are not clear, but it is apparent that many of the lords of both the Picts and the Scots had been killed in wars with invading Vikings. The kingdom was known as Alba, and by 1034 it had incorporated the Briton kingdom of Strathclyde in the south.

Struggles with the English and periods of domination followed over the next few centuries, but Scottish independence was ultimately asserted by Robert the Bruce, who became king of Scotland in 1306. Shortly afterwards, starting with Robert II, the Stuart royal family began its long rule in Scotland. Their reign was marked by periods of internal unrest and conflict with England. However in 1603 the Stuart king James VI, son of Mary Queen of Scots, succeeded to the English throne, and the Scottish Crown was formally merged with that of England by the Act of Union in 1707.

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NameYearsOther Names
Aed Find the White739-778(Aodh)
Aed Whitefoot877-878(Aodh)
Aedan mac Gabhranc. 574-c. 609(Aiden)
Ainbcellach mac Ferchar697-698
Alexander I the Fierce1107-1124(Alasdair)
Alexander II1214-1249(Alasdair)
Alexander III1249-1286(Alasdair)
Alpín mac Eochaidc. 733
Alpín mac Feredaig775-778
Anne1702-1707
Bridei mac Fergus761-763(Bruide)
Causantín I862-877(Constantine)
Causantín II900-943(Constantine)
Causantín III995-997(Constantine)
Causantín mac Fergus789-820(Constantine)
Charles I1625-1649
Charles II1649-1685
Cináed I mac Ailpín841-859(Coinneach, Kenneth)
Cináed II971-995(Coinneach, Kenneth)
Cináed III997-1005(Coinneach, Kenneth)
Ciniod mac Feradaig763-775
Comgall mac Domangartc. 507-c. 538
Conall Crandomna650-660
Conall mac Comgall558-574
Conall mac Taidg785-789
Connad Cerr629
Cuilén967-971(Colin, Culen)
David I1124-1153(Daibhidh)
David II1329-1332; 1336-1371(Daibhidh)
Domangart mac Domnal660-673
Domangart mac Fergusc. 501-c. 507
Domnall Brecc the Freckled629-642(Donald)
Domnall Donn688-696(Donald)
Domnall I859-862(Domhnall, Donald)
Domnall II Dasachtach889-900(Domhnall, Donald)
Domnall III Bane1093-1094; 1094-1097(Domhnall, Donald)
Donnchad I the Gracious1034-1040(Duncan)
Donnchad II1094(Duncan)
Drust782-783(Drest)
Drust mac Constantine834-837(Drest)
Dub962-967(Dubh, Duff)
Dunchad mac Conaing650-654
Dungal mac Selbach723-726
Edgar1097-1107(Etgair)
Edmund1094-1097(Eamonn, Etmond)
Edward Balliol1332-1336(Eideard)
Eochaid878-889
Eochaid Buidec. 609-629
Eochaid Crook-Nose697
Eochaid mac Eochaid726-733
Eogan mac Muiredachc. 736-c. 739
Eoganan mac Oengus837-839
Ferchar Fota696-697
Ferchar mac Connad642-650
Fergus mac Eochaid778-781
Fergus Morc. 500-c. 501
Fiannamail mac Conall698-700
Gabhran mac Domangartc. 538-c. 558
Giric878-889
Idulb954-962(Indulf)
James I1406-1437(Seumas)
James VI1567-1625(Seumas)
James II1437-1460(Seumas)
James VII1685-1689(Seumas)
James III1460-1488(Seumas)
James IV1488-1513(Seumas)
James V1513-1542(Seumas)
John Balliol1292-1296(Iain)
Lulach the Simple1057-1058
Mac Bethad1040-1057(Macbeth)
Máel Coluim I943-954(Malcolm)
Máel Coluim II1005-1034(Malcolm)
Máel Coluim III Canmore Bighead1058-1093(Malcolm)
Maelduin mac Conall673-688
Malcolm IV the Maiden1153-1165(Máel Coluim)
Margaret the Maid of Norway1286-1290(Maighread, Mairead)
Mary I Queen of Scots1542-1567(Màiri)
Mary II1689-1694(Màiri)
Muiredach mac Ainbcellachc. 733-c. 736
Óengus732-761(Onuist)
Oengus mac Fergus820-834(Angus)
Robert I the Bruce1306-1329(Raibeart)
Robert II1371-1390(Raibeart)
Robert III1390-1406(Raibeart)
Selbach mac Ferchar700-723
Talorc mac Óengusa778-782(Talorgan)
Uurad839-842(Ferat)
William I the Lion1165-1214(Uilleam)
William III of Orange1689-1702(Uilleam)
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