Scottish Kings and Queens

Thanks to J. Evans for providing the list of rulers.

Gaels migrated from Ireland to western Scotland (which was called Caledonia at the time by the Romans) in the 5th century, after the Romans had retreated from Britain, and there established the kingdom of Dál Riata in Argyllshire. The lists presented here begin with the kings of Dál Riata.

The north of Scotland was controlled by the Picts, an ancient Celtic people. Conflict and intermixing between the Scots and the Picts continued until the two realms were finally merged under the Dál Riatan king Kenneth mac Alpin around the year 850. The exact reasons for Kenneth's rise to power over the Picts are not clear, but it is apparent that many of the lords of both the Picts and the Scots had been killed in wars with invading Vikings. The kingdom was known as Alba, and by 1034 it had incorporated the Briton kingdom of Strathclyde in the south.

Struggles with the English and periods of domination followed over the next few centuries, but Scottish independence was ultimately asserted by Robert the Bruce, who became king of Scotland in 1306. Shortly afterwards, starting with Robert II, the Stuart royal family began its long rule in Scotland. Their reign was marked by periods of internal unrest and conflict with England. However in 1603 the Stuart king James VI, son of Mary Queen of Scots, succeeded to the English throne, and the Scottish Crown was formally merged with that of England by the Act of Union in 1707.

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NameDetailsTotal
James7 kings7
Domnall5 kings5
Causantín4 kings4
Eochaid4 kings4
Alexander3 kings3
Cináed3 kings3
Conall3 kings3
Máel Coluim3 kings3
Robert3 kings3
Aed2 kings2
Alpín2 kings2
Charles2 kings2
David2 kings2
Domangart2 kings2
Donnchad2 kings2
Drust2 kings2
Ferchar2 kings2
Fergus2 kings2
Mary2 queens2
Oengus2 kings2
William2 kings2
Aedan1 king1
Ainbcellach1 king1
Anne1 queen1
Bridei1 king1
Ciniod1 king1
Comgall1 king1
Connad1 king1
Cuilén1 king1
Dub1 king1
Dunchad1 king1
Dungal1 king1
Edgar1 king1
Edmund1 king1
Edward1 king1
Eogan1 king1
Eoganan1 king1
Fiannamail1 king1
Gabhran1 king1
Giric1 king1
Idulb1 king1
John1 king1
Lulach1 king1
Mac Bethad1 king1
Maelduin1 king1
Malcolm1 king1
Margaret1 queen1
Muiredach1 king1
Selbach1 king1
Talorc1 king1
Uurad1 king1
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