Notable Philosophers and Thinkers

This list is comprised of some of the most recognizable names from the world of philosophy. Also included are mathematicians, theologians and those associated with the humanities and social science. However, those considered to be more in the camp of experimental science or invention are listed with the famous scientists.
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NameLifespanAlso Known As
Zoroaster?-1xxx BC(Zarathustra)
Thalesc. 624-c. 546 BC
Anaximanderc. 610-c. 546 BC(Aniximander)
Anaximenes of Miletusc. 585-c. 528 BC
Pythagorasc. 580-500 BC
Xenophanes of Colophonc. 570-c. 475 BC
Gautama Buddhac. 563-c. 483 BC(Buddha, Siddhartha)
Kong Qiuc. 551-479 BC(Confucius)
Laozi?-5xx BC(Lao-Tzu)
Sun Tzuc. 544-c. 496 BC(Wu)
Heraclitus of Ephesusc. 535-c. 475 BC
Parmenides of Eleac. 515-c. 450 BC
Anaxagorasc. 500-428 BC
Empedoclesc. 490-430 BC
Zeno of Eleac. 490-c. 430 BC
Protagorasc. 490-c. 420 BC
Gorgiasc. 485-c. 380 BC
Herodotusc. 484-425 BC
Socratesc. 470-399 BC
Thucydidesc. 460-c. 395 BC
Democritusc. 460-c. 370 BC
Archytas428-347 BC
Xenophonc. 427-c. 355 BC
Platoc. 427-347 BC
Diogenes of Sinopec. 412-323 BC
Aristotle384-322 BC
Meng Kec. 372-c. 289 BC(Mencius)
Pyrrhoc. 360-c. 270 BC
Epicurus341-270 BC
Zeno of Citiumc. 334-c. 262 BC
Euclidc. 330-275 BC
Archimedesc. 287-c. 212 BC
Eratosthenes of Cyrenec. 276-c. 195 BC
Apollonius of Pergac. 262-c. 190 BC
Polybiusc. 200-c. 118 BC
Hipparchus of Nicaeac. 190-c. 120 BC
Sima Qianc. 145-86 BC(Chien)
Lucretiusc. 99-c. 55 BC(Titus)
Livyc. 64 BC-17(Titus)
Straboc. 64 BC-c. 24
Philoc. 20 BC-c. 50
Jesus Christc. 4 BC-c. 33
Seneca the Younger4 BC-65
Hero of Alexandria10-70(Heron)
Josephus37-c. 100(Titus)
Plutarchc. 46-120(Lucius)
Epictetusc. 55-c. 135
Tacitusc. 56-c. 117(Publius)
Suetonius69-122(Gaius)
Pausanias110-180
Marcus Aurelius121-180
Nagarjunac. 150-250
Tertullianc. 160-c. 225
Origen184-253
Plotinusc. 205-270
Diophantus of Alexandriac. 205-c. 290
Mani216-274
Augustine of Hippo354-430
Hypatia of Alexandriac. 370-415
Boethius480-524(Anicius, Severinus)
Mazdak?-c. 524
Gregory of Toursc. 538-594
Isidore of Seville560-636
Muhammad570-632
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmic. 780-850
Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Kindi801-873(Alkindus)
Muhammad al-Razi865-925
Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabic. 872-c. 950
Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina980-1037
Anselm of Canterbury1033-1109
Omar Khayyám1048-1131(Umar)
Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali1058-1111
Pierre Abélard1079-1142(Peter)
Muhammad al-Idrisi1099-c. 1165(Al Idrisi, Dreses)
Geoffrey of Monmouthc. 1100-c. 1155
Abu'l-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd1126-1198
Moses Maimonides1135-1204(Moshe)
Leonardo of Pisa "Fibonacci"c. 1170-c. 1250(Fibonacci)
Francis of Assisic. 1182-1226(Francesco)
Thomas Aquinas1225-1274(Tommaso)
John Duns Scotusc. 1266-1308
William of Ockhamc. 1287-1347
Ibn Khaldun1332-1406(Abdur-Rahman)
Nicholas of Cusa1401-1464
Jan Hus?-1415
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
Niccolò Machiavelli1469-1527(Nicholas)
Thomas More1478-1535
Martin Luther1483-1546
Gerolamo Cardano1501-1576
Jean Chauvin1509-1564(John)
Gerardus Mercator1512-1594
Giordano Bruno1548-1600
John Napier1550-1617
Francis Bacon1561-1626
Thomas Hobbes1588-1679
René Descartes1596-1650
Blaise Pascal1623-1662
Christiaan Huygens1629-1695(Christian)
John Locke1632-1704
Baruch Spinoza1632-1677
James Gregory1638-1675
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz1646-1716
George Berkeley1685-1753
Hakuin Ekaku1686-1769
Charles de Secondat1689-1755(Montesquieu)
François-Marie Arouet "Voltaire"1694-1778
Leonhard Euler1707-1783
David Hume1711-1776
Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778(John)
Denis Diderot1713-1784
Adam Smith1723-1790
Immanuel Kant1724-1804
David Rittenhouse1732-1796
Joseph Louis Lagrange1736-1813(Giuseppe, Lodovico)
Jeremy Bentham1748-1832
Pierre-Simon Laplace1749-1827(Peter)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte1762-1814(John)
Thomas Robert Malthus1766-1834
Joseph Fourier1768-1830
Alexander von Humboldt1769-1859
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel1770-1831(George)
David Ricardo1772-1823
Carl Friedrich Gauss1777-1855(Karl)
Karl Ritter1779-1859(Carl)
Arthur Schopenhauer1788-1860
Jean-François Champollion1790-1832
Charles Babbage1791-1871
Auguste Comte1798-1857
Niels Henrik Abel1802-1829
Zerah Colburn1804-1839
John Stuart Mill1806-1873
Ljudevit Gaj1809-1872(Ludwig)
Évariste Galois1811-1832
Søren Kierkegaard1813-1855
Ada Lovelace1815-1852
Henry David Thoreau1817-1862
Theodor Mommsen1817-1903
Karl Marx1818-1883
Friedrich Engels1820-1895(Frederick)
Bernhard Riemann1826-1866
Wilhelm Wundt1832-1920
Charles Sanders Peirce1839-1914
Pyotr Kropotkin1842-1921(Peter)
Alfred Marshall1842-1924
William James1842-1910
Friedrich Nietzsche1844-1900(Frederick)
Vilfredo Pareto1848-1923
Gottlob Frege1848-1925
Henri Poincaré1854-1912(Henry)
Sigmund Freud1856-1939
Ferdinand de Saussure1857-1913
Émile Durkheim1858-1917
Georg Simmel1858-1918
Edmund Husserl1859-1938
Henri Bergson1859-1941(Henry)
John Dewey1859-1952
Alfred North Whitehead1861-1947
David Hilbert1862-1943
George Santayana1863-1952(Jorge)
Max Weber1864-1920
Ferdo Šišić1869-1940
Alfred Adler1870-1937
Bertrand Russell1872-1970
G. E. Moore1873-1958(George, Edward)
Carl Jung1875-1961
Hjalmar Schacht1877-1970
Arthur Eddington1882-1944(Stanley)
Joseph Schumpeter1883-1950
John Maynard Keynes1883-1946
Leonida Tonelli1885-1946
Ludwig Wittgenstein1889-1951
Martin Heidegger1889-1976
Milovan Gavazzi1895-1992
Lev Vygotsky1896-1934
Jean Piaget1896-1980
Wilhelm Reich1897-1957
Friedrich Hayek1899-1992(August)
Erich Fromm1900-1980
Jacques Lacan1901-1981
Talcott Parsons1902-1979
Carl Rogers1902-1987
Erik Erikson1902-1994
Karl Popper1902-1994
Theodor W. Adorno1903-1969
John von Neumann1903-1957(János)
B. F. Skinner1904-1990(Burrhus)
Joseph Campbell1904-1987
Reşat Ekrem Koçu1905-1975
Viktor Frankl1905-1997
Jean-Paul Sartre1905-1980(John)
Kurt Gödel1906-1978
Ljudevit Jonke1907-1979
Abraham Maslow1908-1970
Simone de Beauvoir1908-1986
Willard Van Orman Quine1908-2000
Alan Turing1912-1954
Milton Friedman1912-2006
Albert Camus1913-1960
Mehr Abdul Haq1915-1995
Rado Lenček1921-2005
Benoit Mandelbrot1924-2010
Michel Foucault1926-1984
Vahakn Dadrian1926-
John Forbes Nash Jr.1928-
Noam Chomsky1928-
Pierre Bourdieu1930-2002
Helmuth Nyborg1937-
Anthony Giddens1938-
Darko Bratina1942-1997(Diodato)
Raimond Gaita1946-
Ziya Onis1957-
Toufik Mansour1968-
Oriol Junqueras i Vies1969-