arrowhead909's Personal Name List

ADAM

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian, Hebrew, Arabic, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew

Other Scripts: Адам (Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian), אָדָם (Hebrew), آدم (Arabic), ადამ (Georgian), Αδαμ (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: A-dəm (English), a-DAWN (French), AH-dahm (German, Polish), AH:-dahm (Dutch), ah-DAHM (Russian, Ukrainian)

This is the Hebrew word for "man". It could be ultimately derived from Hebrew אדם ('adam) meaning "to be red", referring to the ruddy colour of human skin, or from Akkadian adamu meaning "to make". According to Genesis in the Old Testament Adam was created from the earth by God (there is a word play on Hebrew אֲדָמָה ('adamah) "earth"). He and Eve were supposedly the first humans, living happily in the Garden of Eden until Adam ate a forbidden fruit given to him by Eve.

As an English Christian name, Adam has been common since the Middle Ages, and it received a boost after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723-1790).

ADAMO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: ah-DAHM-o

Italian form of ADAM

ALEXANDRIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: al-əg-ZAN-dree-ə

Feminine form of ALEXANDER. Alexander the Great founded several cities by this name (or renamed them) as he extended his empire eastward. The most notable of these is Alexandria in Egypt, founded by Alexander in 331 BC.

ALEXEI

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian

Other Scripts: Алексей (Russian)

Pronounced: ah-lyek-SYAY (Russian), ah-leek-SYAY (Russian)

Variant transcription of ALEKSEY

ALICE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Italian

Pronounced: AL-is (English), a-LEES (French), ah-LEE-che (Italian)

From the Old French name Aalis, a short form of Adelais, itself a short form of the Germanic name Adalheidis (see ADELAIDE). This name became popular in France and England in the 12th century. It was borne by the heroine of Lewis Carroll's 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' (1865) and 'Through the Looking Glass' (1871).

AMÉLIE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: French

Pronounced: a-may-LEE

French form of AMELIA

AMOS

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew

Other Scripts: עָמוֹס (Hebrew), Αμως (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: AY-məs (English)

Means "carried" in Hebrew. Amos is one of the twelve minor prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Amos, the oldest of the prophetic books. As an English name, Amos has been used since the Protestant Reformation, and was popular among the Puritans.

ANTHONY

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: AN-thə-nee, AN-tə-nee

English form of the Roman family name Antonius, which is of unknown Etruscan origin. The most notable member of the Roman family was the general Marcus Antonius (called Mark Antony in English), who for a period in the 1st century BC ruled the Roman Empire jointly with Augustus. When their relationship turned sour, he and his mistress Cleopatra were attacked and forced to commit suicide, as related in Shakespeare's tragedy 'Antony and Cleopatra' (1606).

The name became regularly used in the Christian world due to the fame of Saint Anthony the Great, a 4th-century Egyptian hermit who founded Christian monasticism. Its popularity was reinforced in the Middle Ages by the 13th-century Saint Anthony of Padua, the patron saint of Portugal. It has been commonly (but incorrectly) associated with Greek ανθος (anthos) "flower", which resulted in the addition of the h to this spelling in the 17th century.

ANTONINO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: ahn-to-NEE-no

Italian form of the Roman name Antoninus, which was derived from Antonius (see ANTHONY). There were several early saints named Antoninus, including the patron saint of Sorrento. This was also the name of a 2nd-century Roman emperor.

ANTONY

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: AN-tə-nee

Variant of ANTHONY. This was formerly the usual English spelling of the name, but during the 17th century the h began to be added.

ARDEN

Gender: Masculine & Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: AHR-dən

From an English surname, originally taken from various place names, which were derived from a Celtic word meaning "high".

ARIADNE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Greek Mythology

Other Scripts: Αριαδνη (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: ah-ree-AHD-ne (Ancient Greek), ar-ee-AD-nee (English)

Means "most holy", composed of the Cretan Greek elements αρι (ari) "most" and αδνος (adnos) "holy". In Greek mythology, Ariadne was the daughter of King Minos. She fell in love with Theseus and helped him to escape the Labyrinth and the Minotaur, but was later abandoned by him. Eventually she married the god Dionysus.

ARTHUR

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, Welsh Mythology, Arthurian Romance

Pronounced: AHR-thər (English), ar-TUYR (French), AHR-toor (German), AHR-tur (Dutch)

The meaning of this name is unknown. It could be derived from the Celtic elements artos "bear" combined with viros "man" or rigos "king". Alternatively it could be related to an obscure Roman family name Artorius. Arthur is the name of the central character in Arthurian legend, a 6th-century king of the Britons who resisted Saxon invaders. He may or may not have been a real person. He first appears in Welsh poems and chronicles (some possibly as early as the 7th century) but his character was not developed until the chronicles of the 12th-century Geoffrey of Monmouth.

The name came into general use in England in the Middle Ages due to the prevalence of Arthurian romances, and it enjoyed a surge of popularity in the 19th century. Famous bearers include German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), mystery author and Sherlock Holmes creator Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), and science-fiction author Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008).

ÅSA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Swedish

Short form of Old Norse feminine names beginning with the element áss "god".

ATHENA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Greek Mythology

Other Scripts: Αθηνα (Ancient Greek)

Meaning unknown, perhaps derived from Greek αθηρ (ather) "sharp" and αινη (aine) "praise". Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom and warfare, the daughter of Zeus and the patron goddess of the city of Athens in Greece. She is associated with the olive tree and the owl.

AUDREY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: AWD-ree

Medieval diminutive of ÆÐELÞRYÐ. This was the name of a 7th-century saint, a princess of East Anglia who founded a monastery at Ely. It was also borne by a character in Shakespeare's comedy 'As You Like It' (1599). At the end of the Middle Ages the name became rare due to association with the word tawdry (which was derived from St. Audrey, the name of a fair where cheap lace was sold), but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was British actress Audrey Hepburn (1929-1993).

AUGUST

Gender: Masculine

Usage: German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Catalan, English

Pronounced: OW-guwst (German, Polish), AW-gəst (English)

German, Polish, Scandinavian and Catalan form of AUGUSTUS

AURÉLIE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: French

Pronounced: o-ray-LEE

French feminine form of AURELIUS

AVIVA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Hebrew

Other Scripts: אֲבִיבָה (Hebrew)

Pronounced: ah-VEEV-ah

Feminine variant of AVIV

BEATRICE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Italian, English, Swedish

Pronounced: be-ah-TREE-che (Italian), BEE-ə-tris (English), BEE-tris (English), BE-ah-trees (Swedish), be-ah-TREES (Swedish)

Italian form of BEATRIX. Beatrice Portinari was the woman who was loved by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. She served as Dante's guide through paradise in his epic poem 'The Divine Comedy' (1321). This was also the name of a character in Shakespeare's play 'Much Ado About Nothing' (1599).

BENJAMIN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Biblical

Other Scripts: בִּנְיָמִין (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: BEN-jə-min (English), ben-zha-MEN (French), BEN-yah-meen (German)

From the Hebrew name בִּנְיָמִין (Binyamin) which means "son of the south" or "son of the right hand". Benjamin in the Old Testament is the twelfth and youngest son of Jacob and the founder of one of the southern tribes of the Hebrews. He was originally named בֶּן־אוֹנִי (Ben-'oniy) meaning "son of my sorrow" by his mother Rachel, who died shortly after childbirth, but it was later changed by his father.

As an English name, Benjamin came into general use after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), an American statesman, inventor, scientist and philosopher.

CARLO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: KAHR-lo

Italian form of CHARLES

CATELINE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Medieval French

Medieval French form of KATHERINE

CHARLIE

Gender: Masculine & Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: CHAHR-lee

Diminutive or feminine form of CHARLES. A famous bearer is Charlie Brown, the main character in the comic strip 'Peanuts' by Charles Schulz.

DIANA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, German, Dutch, Romanian, Russian, Bulgarian, Lithuanian, Roman Mythology

Other Scripts: Диана (Russian, Bulgarian)

Pronounced: die-AN-ə (English), dee-AH-nah (Italian, German, Dutch)

Probably derived from an old Indo-European root meaning "heavenly, divine", related to dyeus (see ZEUS). Diana was a Roman goddess of the moon, hunting, forests, and childbirth, often identified with the Greek goddess Artemis.

As a given name, Diana has been regularly used since the Renaissance. It became more common in the English-speaking world following Sir Walter Scott's novel 'Rob Roy' (1817), which featured a character named Diana Vernon. It also appeared in George Meredith's novel 'Diana of the Crossways' (1885). A notable bearer was Diana Spencer (1961-1997), the Princess of Wales.

DOMENICO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Italian form of DOMINIC. Domenico Veneziano was a Renaissance painter who lived in Florence.

DOMINIC

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: DAHM-ə-nik

From the Late Latin name Dominicus meaning "of the Lord". This name was traditionally given to a child born on Sunday. Several saints have borne this name, including the 13th-century founder of the Dominican order of friars. It was in this saint's honour that the name was first used in England, starting around the 13th century. It is primarily used by Catholics.

DOROTHY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: DAWR-ə-thee, DAWR-thee

Usual English form of DOROTHEA. It has been in use since the 16th century. The author L. Frank Baum used it for the central character in his fantasy novel 'The Wonderful Wizard of Oz' (1900).

EDITH

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch

Pronounced: EE-dith (English), E-dit (German, Swedish)

From the Old English name Eadgyð, derived from the elements ead "wealth, fortune" and gyð "war". It was popular among Anglo-Saxon royalty, being borne for example by Saint Eadgyeth;, the daughter of King Edgar the Peaceful. The name remained common after the Norman conquest. It became rare after the 15th century, but was revived in the 19th century.

ELI (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew

Other Scripts: עֵלִי (Hebrew), Ηλι (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: EE-lie (English)

Means "ascension" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament he is the high priest of Israel and the teacher of Samuel. In England, Eli has been used as a Christian given name since the Protestant Reformation.

ENRICO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: en-REE-ko

Italian form of HENRY. Enrico Fermi was an Italian physicist who did work on the development of the nuclear bomb.

ESTELLE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: es-TEL

From an Old French name which was derived from Latin stella, meaning "star". It was rare in the English-speaking world in the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century, perhaps due to the character Estella Havisham in Charles Dickens' novel 'Great Expectations' (1860).

EVADNE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized)

Other Scripts: Ευαδνη (Ancient Greek)

From Greek Ευαδνη (Euadne), which is of unknown meaning, though the first element is derived from Greek ευ "good". In Greek legend Evadne was the wife of Capaneus. After Capaneus was killed by a lightning bolt sent from Zeus she committed suicide by throwing herself onto his burning body.

EZRA

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Biblical, English, Hebrew

Other Scripts: עֶזְרָא (Hebrew)

Pronounced: EZ-rə (English)

Means "help" in Hebrew. Ezra is a prophet of the Old Testament and the author of the Book of Ezra. It has been used as a given name in the English-speaking world since the Protestant Reformation. The American poet Ezra Pound (1885-1972) was a famous bearer.

FELICIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Spanish, Hungarian, Romanian, Dutch, Swedish, Late Roman

Pronounced: fə-LEE-shə (English), fe-LEE-thyah (Spanish), fe-LEE-syah (Latin American Spanish), fe-LEE-chyah (Romanian)

Feminine form of the Latin name Felicius, a derivative of FELIX. In England, it has occasionally been used since the Middle Ages.

FELICITY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: fi-LIS-i-tee

From the English word felicity meaning "happiness", which ultimately derives from Latin felicitas "good luck". This was one of the virtue names adopted by the Puritans around the 17th century. It can sometimes be used as an English form of the Latin name FELICITAS (1). This name was revived in the late 1990s after the appearance of the television series 'Felicity'.

FLORENCE

Gender: Feminine & Masculine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: FLAWR-ənts (English), flo-RAWNS (French)

From the Latin name Florentius or the feminine form Florentia, which were derived from florens "prosperous, flourishing". Florentius was borne by many early Christian saints, and it was occasionally used in their honour through the Middle Ages. In modern times it is mostly feminine.

The name can also be given in reference to the city in Italy, as in the case of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). She was a nurse in British hospitals during the Crimean War and is usually considered the founder of modern nursing.

FRANCO (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Ancient Germanic

Old Germanic form of FRANK (1)

FRANK (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Dutch, French

Pronounced: FRANGK (English), FRAHNK (German, Dutch), FRAWNK (French)

From a Germanic name which referred to a member of the Germanic tribe, the Franks. The Franks settled in the regions now called France and the Netherlands in the 3rd and 4th century. They derived their tribal name from the name of a type of spear that they used. From medieval times, the various forms of this name have been commonly conflated with the various forms of Francis.

The name was brought to England by the Normans. Notable bearers include author L. Frank Baum (1856-1919), architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), and singer Frank Sinatra (1915-1998).

GEORGIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Greek

Other Scripts: Γεωργια (Greek)

Pronounced: JOR-jə (English)

Latinate feminine form of GEORGE. This is the name of an American state, which was named after the British king George II. A famous bearer was the American painter Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986).

GIDEON

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Biblical, English, Hebrew

Other Scripts: גִּדְעוֹן (Hebrew)

Pronounced: GID-ee-ən (English)

Means "feller" or "hewer" in Hebrew. Gideon was a hero of the Old Testament who led the Israelites against the Midianites. In the English-speaking world, Gideon has been used as a given name since the Protestant Reformation, and it was popular among the Puritans.

GIUSEPPE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: joo-ZEP-pe

Italian form of JOSEPH. Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) was a military leader who united Italy in the 19th century.

GUINEVERE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Arthurian Romance

Pronounced: GWIN-ə-vir (English)

From the Norman French form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar, composed of the elements gwen meaning "fair, white" and hwyfar meaning "smooth". In Arthurian legend she was the beautiful wife of King Arthur. According to the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, she was seduced by Mordred before the battle of Camlann, which led to the deaths of both Mordred and Arthur. According to the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes, she engaged in an adulterous affair with Sir Lancelot.

The Cornish form of this name, Jennifer, has become popular in the English-speaking world.

HEZEKIAH

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Biblical

Other Scripts: חִזְקִיָהוּ (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: hez-ə-KIE-ə (English)

From the Hebrew name חִזְקִיָהוּ (Chizqiyahu), which means "YAHWEH strengthens". In the Old Testament this name is borne by a king of Judah and an ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah.

INGRID

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German

Pronounced: ING-rid (Swedish), ING-ree (Norwegian), ING-grit (German)

From the Old Norse name Ingríðr meaning "Ing is beautiful", derived from the name of the Germanic god ING combined with fríðr "beautiful". A famous bearer was the Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman (1915-1982).

IRA (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Biblical, English, Hebrew

Other Scripts: עִירָא (Hebrew)

Pronounced: IE-rə (English)

Means "watchful" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of King David's priest. As an English Christian given name, Ira began to be used after the Protestant Reformation. In the 17th century the Puritans brought it to America, where remained moderately common into the 20th century.

JACK

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JAK

Derived from Jackin (earlier Jankin), a medieval diminutive of JOHN. It is often regarded as an independent name. During the Middle Ages it was very common, and it became a slang word meaning "man". It was frequently used in fairy tales and nursery rhymes, such as 'Jack and the Beanstalk', 'Little Jack Horner', and 'Jack Sprat'. American writers Jack London (1876-1916) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) were two famous bearers of this name. It is also borne by American actor Jack Nicholson (1937-).

JANE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JAYN

Medieval English form of Jehanne, an Old French feminine form of Iohannes (see JOHN). This became the most common feminine form of John in the 17th century, surpassing Joan. Famous bearers include the uncrowned English queen Lady Jane Grey (1536-1554), who ruled for only 9 days, the British novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817), who wrote 'Sense and Sensibility' and 'Pride and Prejudice', and the British primatologist Jane Goodall (1934-). This was also the name of the central character in Charlotte Bronte's novel 'Jane Eyre' (1847).

JEAN (2)

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Scottish

Pronounced: JEEN

Medieval English variant of Jehanne (see JANE). It was common in England and Scotland during the Middle Ages, but eventually became rare in England. It was reintroduced to the English-speaking world from Scotland in the 19th century.

JEANETTE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: French, English

Pronounced: zha-NET (French), jə-NET (English)

Variant of JEANNETTE

JESSE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Dutch, Biblical

Other Scripts: יִשַׁי (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JES-ee (English), YES-sə (Dutch)

From the Hebrew name יִשַׁי (Yishay) which possibly means "gift". Jesse is the father of King David in the Old Testament. It began to be used as an English given name after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer of this name was Jesse James (1847-1882), an American outlaw who held up banks and stagecoaches. He was eventually shot by a fellow gang member for a reward. Another famous bearer was the American athlete Jesse Owens (1913-1980), whose real name was James Cleveland (or J. C.) Owens.

JOANNA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Polish, Biblical

Pronounced: jo-AN-ə (English), yaw-AHN-nah (Polish)

English and Polish form of Latin Iohanna, which was derived from Greek Ιωαννα (Ioanna), the feminine form of Ioannes (see JOHN). This is the spelling used in the English New Testament, where it belongs to a follower of Jesus who is regarded as a saint. In the Middle Ages in England it was used as a Latinized form of Joan (the usual feminine form of John) and it became common as a given name in the 19th century.

JOANNE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: jo-AN (English), zho-AN (French)

Variant of JOAN (1) or JOHANNE

JOEL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Swedish, Finnish, Biblical

Other Scripts: יוֹאֵל (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JOL (English), JO-əl (English), YO-el (Finnish)

From the Hebrew name יוֹאֵל (Yo'el) meaning "YAHWEH is God". Joel is one of the twelve minor prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Joel. In England, it was first used as a Christian name after the Protestant Reformation.

JOHN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Pronounced: JAHN (English)

English form of Iohannes, the Latin form of the Greek name Ιωαννης (Ioannes), itself derived from the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan) meaning "YAHWEH is gracious". This name owes its popularity to two New Testament characters, both highly revered saints. The first is John the Baptist, a Jewish ascetic who was considered the forerunner of Jesus Christ. The second is the apostle John, who is also traditionally regarded as the author of the fourth Gospel and Revelation.

This name was initially more common among Eastern Christians in the Byzantine Empire, but it flourished in Western Europe after the First Crusade. In England it became extremely popular: during the later Middle Ages it was given to approximately a fifth of all English boys.

The name (in various spellings) has been borne by 21 popes and eight Byzantine emperors, as well as rulers of England, France, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Portugal, Bulgaria, Russia and Hungary. It was also borne by the poet John Milton (1608-1674), philosopher John Locke (1632-1704), American founding father and president John Adams (1735-1826), and poet John Keats (1795-1821). Famous bearers of the 20th century include author John Steinbeck (1902-1968), assassinated American president John F. Kennedy (1917-1963), and musician John Lennon (1940-1980).

JOHNNY

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JAHN-ee

Diminutive of JOHN. A famous bearer is American actor Johnny Depp (1963-).

JOSEPH

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Biblical

Other Scripts: יוֹסֵף (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JO-səf (English), zho-ZEF (French), YO-zef (German)

From Ioseph, the Latin form of Greek Ιωσηφ (Ioseph), which was from the Hebrew name יוֹסֵף (Yosef) meaning "he will add". In the Old Testament, Joseph is the eleventh son of Jacob. Because he was the favourite of his father, his older brothers sent him to Egypt and told their father that he had died. In Egypt, Joseph became an advisor to the pharaoh, and was eventually reconciled with his brothers when they came to Egypt during a famine. This name also occurs in the New Testament, belonging to Saint Joseph the husband of Mary and Joseph of Arimathea.

In the Middle Ages, Joseph was a common Jewish name, being less frequent among Christians. In the late Middle Ages Saint Joseph became more highly revered, and the name became popular in Spain and Italy. In England it became common after the Protestant Reformation. This name was borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Portugal. Other notable bearers include Polish-British author Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) and the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin (1878-1953).

JUDAH

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Biblical

Other Scripts: יְהוּדָה (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JOO-də (English)

From the Hebrew name יְהוּדָה (Yehudah) which meant "praised". Judah was one of the twelve sons of Jacob and the ancestor of the tribe of Judah, as told in the Old Testament. This tribe eventually formed the kingdom of Judah in the south of Israel. King David and Jesus were descendents of Judah.

JUDE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Pronounced: JOOD (English)

Variant of JUDAS. It is used in many English versions of the New Testament to denote the second apostle named Judas, in order to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot. He was supposedly the author of the Epistle of Jude. In the English-speaking world, Jude has occasionally been used as a given name since the time of the Protestant Reformation.

JULIET

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JOO-lee-et, JOOL-yət

Anglicized form of JULIETTE or GIULIETTA. This spelling was first used by Shakespeare for the lover of Romeo in his play 'Romeo and Juliet' (1596).

KIT

Gender: Masculine & Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: KIT

Diminutive of CHRISTOPHER or KATHERINE. A notable bearer was Kit Carson (1809-1868), an American frontiersman and explorer.

LAUREN

Gender: Feminine & Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: LAWR-ən

Variant or feminine form of LAURENCE (1). Originally a masculine name, it was first popularized as a feminine name by actress Betty Jean Perske (1924-), who used Lauren Bacall as her stage name.

LENNY

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: LEN-ee

Diminutive of LEONARD

LEONARD

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Polish, Dutch, German, Ancient Germanic

Pronounced: LEN-ərd (English), le-AW-nahrt (Polish), LAY-o-nahrt (Dutch)

Means "brave lion", derived from the Germanic elements levon "lion" and hard "brave, hardy". This was the name of a 5th-century Frankish saint who is the patron of prisoners and horses. The Normans brought this name to England, though it did not become common there until the 19th century.

LEOPOLD

Gender: Masculine

Usage: German, Dutch, English, Slovene, Polish

Pronounced: LE-o-pawlt (German), LAY-o-pawlt (Dutch), LEE-ə-pold (English), le-AW-pawlt (Polish)

Derived from the Germanic elements leud "people" and bald "bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo "lion". This name was common among German royalty, first with the Babenbergs and then the Habsburgs. Saint Leopold was a 12th-century Babenberg margrave of Austria, who is now considered the patron of that country. It was also borne by two Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors, as well as three kings of Belgium. Since the 19th century this name has been occasionally used in England, originally in honour of Queen Victoria's uncle, a king of Belgium, after whom she named one of her sons. It was later used by James Joyce for the main character, Leopold Bloom, in his novel 'Ulysses' (1920).

LEVI

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Hebrew, English, Dutch, Biblical, Biblical Latin

Other Scripts: לֵוִי (Hebrew)

Pronounced: LEE-vie (English), LE:-vee (Dutch)

Means "attached" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament, Levi is the third son of Jacob and Leah, and the ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of the Israelites (the tribe that eventually became the priests of the Israelites). In the New Testament this is another name for the apostle Matthew. As an English Christian name, Levi came into use after the Protestant Reformation.

LIONEL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: French

Pronounced: lee-o-NEL

Diminutive of LÉON. A notable bearer is Argentine soccer star Lionel Messi (1987-).

LONNIE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: LAHN-ee

Short form of ALONZO and other names containing the same sound.

LUCY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: LOO-see

English form of LUCIA, in use since the Middle Ages.

MILO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Ancient Germanic

Pronounced: MIE-lo (English)

Old Germanic form of MILES, as well as the Latinized form. This form of the name was used in official documents during the Middle Ages, and it has been used independently since the 19th century.

MISHA

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Russian

Other Scripts: Миша (Russian)

Russian diminutive of MIKHAIL

MOISHE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Yiddish

Yiddish form of MOSES

MOSES

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Jewish, Biblical, Biblical Latin

Other Scripts: מֹשֶׁה (Hebrew)

Pronounced: MOZ-əs (English)

From the Hebrew name מֹשֶׁה (Mosheh) which is most likely derived from Egyptian mes meaning "son", but could also possibly mean "deliver" in Hebrew. The meaning suggested in the Old Testament of "drew out" from Hebrew משה (mashah) is probably an invented etymology. The biblical Moses was drawn out of the Nile by the pharaoh's daughter. He led the Jews out of captivity in Egypt and received the Ten Commandments from God.

In England, this name has been commonly used by Christians since the Protestant Reformation, though it had long been popular among Jews.

NICOLETTE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: French

Diminutive of NICOLE

OCTAVIAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: History, Romanian

Pronounced: ahk-TAYV-ee-ən (English)

From the Roman name Octavianus, which was derived from the name OCTAVIUS. After Gaius Octavius (later Roman emperor Augustus) was adopted by Julius Caesar he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.

OLIVER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak

Other Scripts: Оливер (Serbian, Macedonian)

Pronounced: AHL-ə-vər (English), AW-lee-ver (German), O-lee-ver (Finnish)

From Olivier, a Norman French form of a Germanic name such as ALFHER or an Old Norse name such as Áleifr (see OLAF). The spelling was altered by association with Latin oliva "olive tree". In the Middle Ages the name became well-known in Western Europe because of the French epic 'La Chanson de Roland', in which Olivier was a friend and advisor of the hero Roland.

In England Oliver was a common medieval name, however it became rare after the 17th century because of the military commander Oliver Cromwell, who ruled the country following the civil war. The name was revived in the 19th century, perhaps in part due to the title character in Charles Dickens' novel 'Oliver Twist' (1838), which was about a poor orphan living on the streets of London.

PAUL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Romanian, Biblical

Pronounced: PAWL (English), POL (French), POWL (German)

From the Roman family name Paulus, which meant "small" or "humble" in Latin. Saint Paul was an important leader of the early Christian church, his story told in Acts in the New Testament. His original Hebrew name was Saul. Most of the epistles in the New Testament were authored by him.

Due to the renown of Saint Paul the name became common among early Christians. It was borne by a number of other early saints and six popes. In England it was relatively rare during the Middle Ages, but became more frequent beginning in the 17th century. A notable bearer was the American Revolutionary War figure Paul Revere (1735-1818), who warned of the advance of the British army. Famous bearers in the art world include the French impressionists Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), and the Swiss expressionist Paul Klee (1879-1940). It is borne by British musician Paul McCartney (1942-). This is also the name of the legendary American lumberjack Paul Bunyan.

PHILIP

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Biblical

Pronounced: FIL-ip (English), FEE-lip (Dutch)

From the Greek name Φιλιππος (Philippos) which means "friend of horses", composed of the elements φιλος (philos) "friend, lover" and ‘ιππος (hippos) "horse". This was the name of five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great. The name appears in the New Testament belonging to two people who are regarded as saints. First, one of the twelve apostles, and second, an early figure in the Christian church known as Philip the Deacon.

This name was initially more common among Eastern Christians, though it came to the West by the Middle Ages. It was borne by six kings of France and five kings of Spain. It was regularly used in England during the Middle Ages, although the Spanish king Philip II, who attempted an invasion of England, helped make it less common by the 17th century. It was revived in the English-speaking world in the 19th century. A famous bearer was the Elizabethan courtier and poet Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586).

RACHEL

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Hebrew, French, German, Dutch, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew

Other Scripts: רָחֵל (Hebrew), Ραχηλ (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: RAY-chəl (English), ra-SHEL (French), RAH-khəl (Dutch)

From the Hebrew name רָחֵל (Rachel) meaning "ewe". In the Old Testament this is the name of the favourite wife of Jacob and the mother of Joseph and Benjamin. The name was common among Jews in the Middle Ages, but it was not generally used as a Christian name in the English-speaking world until after the Protestant Reformation.

ROMAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovene, Croatian, German

Other Scripts: Роман (Russian, Ukrainian)

Pronounced: rah-MAHN (Russian), RAW-mahn (Polish)

From the Late Latin name Romanus which meant "Roman".

ROSALIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Italian, Late Roman

Pronounced: ro-zah-LEE-ah (Italian)

Late Latin name derived from rosa "rose". This was the name of a 12th-century Sicilian saint.

ROWENA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: ro-EE-nə

Meaning uncertain, possibly a Latinized form of a Germanic name derived from the elements hrod "fame" and wunn "joy, bliss". According to the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, this was the name of a daughter of the Saxon chief Hengist. It was popularized by Sir Walter Scott, who used it for a character in his novel 'Ivanhoe' (1819).

SALVATORE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: sahl-vah-TO-re

Italian cognate of SALVADOR

SARAH

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French, German, Hebrew, Arabic, Biblical, Biblical Hebrew

Other Scripts: שָׂרָה (Hebrew), سارة (Arabic)

Pronounced: SER-ə (English), SAR-ə (English), ZAH-rah (German)

Means "lady, princess, noblewoman" in Hebrew. This is the name of the wife of Abraham in the Old Testament. She became the mother of Isaac at the age of 90. Her name was originally Sarai, but God changed it (see Genesis 17:15). In England, Sarah came into use after the Protestant Reformation.

SIMON

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Hungarian, Slovene, Romanian, Macedonian, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek

Other Scripts: Симон (Macedonian), სიმონ (Georgian), Σιμων (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: SIE-mən (English), see-MAWN (French), ZEE-mawn (German), SEE-mawn (Dutch)

From Σιμων (Simon), the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name שִׁמְעוֹן (Shim'on) which meant "he has heard". This was the name of several biblical characters, including the man who carried the cross for Jesus. However, the most important person of this name in the New Testament was the apostle Simon, also known as Peter (a name given to him by Jesus). Because of him, this name has been common in the Christian world. In England it was popular during the Middle Ages, though it became rarer after the Protestant Reformation.

THEODOSIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Ancient Greek, Greek

Other Scripts: Θεοδοσια (Greek)

Feminine form of THEODOSIUS

TRUMAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: TROO-mən

From a surname which meant "trusty man" in Middle English. A famous bearer of the surname was American president Harry S. Truman (1884-1972). It was also borne by American writer Truman Capote (1924-1984).

VALENTIN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, French, Czech, Russian, Bulgarian, Slovene, Croatian, Macedonian, Romanian

Other Scripts: Валентин (Russian, Bulgarian, Macedonian)

Pronounced: VAH-len-teen (German), vah-lyen-TEEN (Russian), vah-leen-TEEN (Russian)

Form of Valentinus (see VALENTINE (1)).

VANCE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: VANTS

From an English surname which was derived from Old English fenn meaning "marsh, fen".

VERITY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English (Archaic)

Pronounced: VER-i-tee

From the English word meaning "verity, truth". This was one of the virtue names adopted by the Puritans in the 17th century.

VERONA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Various

From the name of the city in Italy, which is itself of unknown meaning.

VICTOR

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Romanian, Late Roman

Pronounced: VIK-tər (English), veek-TOR (French)

Roman name meaning "victor, conqueror" in Latin. It was common among early Christians, and was borne by several early saints and three popes. It was rare as an English name during the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was the French writer Victor Hugo (1802-1885), who authored 'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' and 'Les Misérables'.

VINCENT

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Slovak

Pronounced: VIN-sənt (English), ven-SAWN (French)

From the Roman name Vincentius, which was from Latin vincere "to conquer". This name was popular among early Christians, and it was borne by many saints. As an English name, Vincent has been in use since the Middle Ages, though it did not become common until the 19th century. Famous bearers include the French priest Saint Vincent de Paul (1581-1660) and the post-impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890).

VINCENZO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian

Pronounced: veen-CHEN-tso

Italian form of VINCENT

VINNIE

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: VIN-ee

Diminutive of VINCENT

VIRGINIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Romanian, Ancient Roman

Pronounced: vər-JIN-yə (English), veer-JEE-nyah (Italian), beer-KHEE-nyah (Spanish)

Feminine form of the Roman family name Verginius or Virginius which is of unknown meaning, but long associated with Latin virgo "maid, virgin". According to a legend, it was the name of a Roman woman killed by her father so as to save her from the clutches of a crooked official.

This was the name of the first English baby born in the New World: Virginia Dare in 1587 on Roanoke Island. Perhaps because of this, the name has generally been more popular in America than elsewhere in the English-speaking world, though in both Britain and America it was not often used until the 19th century. The baby was named after the Colony of Virginia, which was itself named for Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen. A more recent bearer was the English novelist Virginia Woolf (1882-1941).

VITO

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Italian, Spanish

Pronounced: VEE-to (Italian), BEE-to (Spanish)

Italian and Spanish form of VITUS

WALTER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Italian, Ancient Germanic

Pronounced: WAWL-tər (English), VAHL-ter (German, Polish, Italian)

From a Germanic name meaning "ruler of the army", composed of the elements wald "rule" and hari "army". The Normans brought it to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Wealdhere. A famous bearer of the name was Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), a Scottish novelist who wrote 'Ivanhoe' and other notable works.

WILLIAM

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: WIL-ee-əm, WIL-yəm

From the Germanic name Willahelm, which was composed of the elements wil "will, desire" and helm "helmet, protection". Saint William of Gellone was an 8th-century cousin of Charlemagne who became a monk. The name was common among the Normans, and it became extremely popular in England after William the Conqueror was recognized as the first Norman king of England. It was later borne by three other English kings, as well as rulers of Scotland, Sicily (of Norman origin), the Netherlands and Prussia.

Other famous bearers include William Wallace, a 13th-century Scottish hero, and William Tell, a legendary 14th-century Swiss hero. In the literary world it was borne by dramatist William Shakespeare (1564-1616), poet William Blake (1757-1827), poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), dramatist William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), author William Faulkner (1897-1962), and author William S. Burroughs (1914-1997).

YURI (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Russian, Ukrainian

Other Scripts: Юрий (Russian), Юрій (Ukrainian)

Pronounced: YOO-ree (Russian)

Variant transcription of YURIY
Copyright © Mike Campbell 1996-2014.