Islamic Caliphs

This list is comprised of the caliphs of the Islamic World. The caliphs (from Arabic خليفة literally meaning "successor") were the political successors to Muhammad.

First are the Rashidun caliphs of Medina, beginning with Muhammad's father-in-law Abu Bakr and ending with Muhammad's son-in-law Ali (and briefly Ali's son Hassan). Next are the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus, who were relatives of the third Rashidun caliph Uthman. In 750 the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasids who were descendents of Muhammad's uncle Abbas and who ruled from Baghdad. Over centuries the Abbasids lost territory and power, and in 1258 the Mongols sacked Baghdad and executed the caliph there. After this, the ruling Mamluks of Egypt installed a line of the Abbasid family as caliphs in Cairo, but they held only ceremonial powers. When the Mamluks were defeated by the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman sultans (beginning with Selim I) assumed the title. The office was abolished 1924, shortly after the formation of the modern country of Turkey.

Others have held the title of caliph, including the Umayyads of Córdoba and the Fatimids of North Africa, but they are not included on these lists.

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NameYearsDynastyOther Names
Abu Bakr632-634Rashidun(Abdullah)
Umar ibn Al-Khattab634-644Rashidun
Uthman ibn Affan644-656Rashidun
Ali ibn Abi-Talib656-661Rashidun
Hasan ibn Ali661Rashidun
Muawiyah I661-680Umayyad
Yazid I ibn Muawiyah680-683Umayyad
Muawiyah II ibn Yazid683-684Umayyad
Marwan I ibn al-Hakam684-685Umayyad
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan685-705Umayyad
Al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik705-715Umayyad(Walid)
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik715-717Umayyad
Umar II ibn Abd al-Aziz717-720Umayyad
Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik720-724Umayyad
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik724-743Umayyad
Al-Walid II ibn Yazid743-744Umayyad(Walid)
Marwan II ibn Muhammad744-750Umayyad
Yazid III ibn al-Walid744Umayyad
Ibrahim ibn al-Walid744Umayyad
Abdullah as-Saffah750-754Abbasid(Al-Saffah)
Abdullah al-Mansur754-775Abbasid(Abdallah, Mansur)
Muhammad al-Mahdi775-785Abbasid
Musa al-Hadi785-786Abbasid
Harun al-Rashid786-809Abbasid
Muhammad al-Amin809-813Abbasid
Abdullah al-Ma'mun813-833Abbasid
'Abbas al-Mu'tasim833-842Abbasid
Harun al-Wathiq842-847Abbasid
Ahmad al-Mu'tadid892-902Abbasid
Ali al-Muktafi902-908Abbasid
Jafar al-Muqtadir908-932Abbasid
Muhammad al-Qahir932-934Abbasid
Muhammad ar-Radi934-940Abbasid
Abdullah al-Mustakfi944-946Abbasid(Abdallah)
Al-Fadl al-Muti946-974Abbasid
Hassan Al-Mustadi1170-1180Abbasid
Ahmad Al-Nasir1180-1225Abbasid(An-Nasir)
Abdullah Al-Musta'sim1242-1258Abbasid
Al-Mustansir II1261-1262Abbasid
Al-Hakim I1262-1302Abbasid
Al-Mustakfi II1302-1340Abbasid
Al-Hakim II1341-1352Abbasid
Al-Mu'tadid II1352-1362Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil II1362-1377; 1377-1383; 1383-1406Abbasid
Al-Musta'sim II1377; 1386-1389Abbasid(Al-Mu'tasim)
Al-Wathiq II1383-1386Abbasid
Al-Mu'tadid III1414-1441Abbasid
Al-Mustakfi III1441-1451Abbasid
Al-Qa'im II1451-1455Abbasid
Al-Mustanjid II1455-1479Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil III1479-1497Abbasid
Al-Mustamsik1497-1508; 1516-1517Abbasid
Al-Mutawakkil IV1508-1516; 1517Abbasid
Selim I1517-1520Ottoman
Süleyman I the Magnificent1520-1566Ottoman(Sulayman, Suleiman)
Selim II1566-1574Ottoman
Murad III1574-1595Ottoman
Mehmed III1595-1603Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Ahmed I1603-1617Ottoman(Ahmad, Ahmet)
Mustafa I1617-1618; 1622-1623Ottoman
Osman II1618-1622Ottoman(Othman, Usman, Uthman)
Murad IV1623-1640Ottoman
Mehmed IV1648-1687Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Süleyman II1687-1691Ottoman(Sulayman, Suleiman)
Ahmed II1691-1695Ottoman(Ahmad, Ahmet)
Mustafa II1695-1703Ottoman
Ahmed III1703-1730Ottoman(Ahmad, Ahmet)
Mahmud I1730-1754Ottoman
Osman III1754-1757Ottoman(Othman, Usman, Uthman)
Mustafa III1757-1774Ottoman
Abdülhamid I1774-1789Ottoman(Abd ul-Hamid)
Selim III1789-1807Ottoman
Mustafa IV1807-1808Ottoman
Mahmud II1808-1839Ottoman
Abdülmecid I1839-1861Ottoman(Abd ul-Majid)
Abdülaziz1861-1876Ottoman(Abd ul-Aziz)
Murad V1876Ottoman
Abdülhamid II1876-1909Ottoman(Abd ul-Hamid)
Mehmed V1909-1918Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Mehmed VI Vahideddin1918-1922Ottoman(Mehmet, Muhammad)
Abdülmecid II1922-1924Ottoman(Abd ul-Majid)