ohdarlingno's Personal Name List

ADELINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English
Pronounced: A-DU-LEEN(French) AD-ə-lien(English)
French and English form of ADELINA.
AERONWY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Extended form of AERON.
AGNES
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Estonian, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Ἁγνή(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: AG-nis(English) AK-nəs(German) AHKH-nehs(Dutch) ANG-nehs(Swedish)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἁγνή (Hagne), derived from Greek ἁγνός (hagnos) meaning "chaste". Saint Agnes was a virgin martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian. The name became associated with Latin agnus "lamb", resulting in the saint's frequent depiction with a lamb by her side. Due to her renown, the name became common in Christian Europe.

As an English name it was highly popular from the Middle Ages until the 17th century. It was revived in the 19th century and was common into the 20th, but it fell into decline after the 1930s. It last appeared on the American top 1000 rankings in 1972.

AGOSTINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: a-go-STEE-na
Italian feminine form of Augustinus (see AUGUSTINE (1)).
AISLING
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish
Pronounced: ASH-lyən
Means "dream" or "vision" in Irish Gaelic. This name was created in the 20th century.
AISLINN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish
Variant of AISLING.
ALESSANDRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: a-lehs-SAN-dra
Italian form of ALEXANDRA.
ALEXANDER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Hungarian, Slovak, Biblical, Ancient Greek (Latinized), Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Ἀλέξανδρος(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: al-ig-ZAN-dər(English) a-leh-KSAN-du(German) a-lehk-SAHN-dər(Dutch) a-lehk-SAN-dehr(Swedish) A-lehk-san-tehr(Icelandic) AW-lehk-sawn-dehr(Hungarian) A-lehk-san-dehr(Slovak)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant "defending men" from Greek ἀλέξω (alexo) meaning "to defend, help" and ἀνήρ (aner) meaning "man" (genitive ἀνδρός). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, king of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.

The name has been used by kings of Scotland, Poland and Yugoslavia, emperors of Russia, and eight popes. Other notable bearers include English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744), American statesman Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), Scottish-Canadian explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820), Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837), and Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor of the telephone.

ALEXANDRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Greek, Portuguese, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Catalan, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Ukrainian, Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Αλεξάνδρα(Greek) Александра(Russian, Ukrainian) Ἀλεξάνδρα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: al-ig-ZAN-drə(English) a-leh-KSAN-dra(German, Romanian) ah-lək-SAHN-drah(Dutch) A-LUG-ZAHN-DRA(French) a-leh-KSAN-dhra(Greek) u-li-SHUNN-dru(European Portuguese) a-leh-SHUN-dru(Brazilian Portuguese) A-lehk-san-dra(Czech, Slovak) AW-lehk-sawn-draw(Hungarian) a-lehk-SAN-dra(Spanish, Italian) A-LEH-KSAN-DRA(Classical Greek)
Feminine form of ALEXANDER. In Greek mythology this was a Mycenaean epithet of the goddess Hera, and an alternate name of Cassandra. It was borne by several early Christian saints, and also by the wife of Nicholas II, the last czar of Russia. She was from Germany and had the birth name Alix, but was renamed Александра (Aleksandra) upon joining the Russian Church.
ALFRED
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Polish, Dutch
Pronounced: AL-frəd(English) AL-FREHD(French) AL-freht(German, Polish) AHL-frət(Dutch)
Means "elf counsel", derived from the Old English name Ælfræd, composed of the elements ælf "elf" and ræd "counsel". Alfred the Great was a 9th-century king of Wessex who fought unceasingly against the Danes living in northeast England. He was also a scholar, and he translated many Latin books into Old English. His fame helped to ensure the usage of this name even after the Norman Conquest, when most Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. It became rare by the end of the Middle Ages, but was revived in the 18th century.

Famous bearers include the British poet Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892), the Swedish inventor and Nobel Prize founder Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), and the British-American film director Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980).

ALICE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Italian, German, Czech
Pronounced: AL-is(English) A-LEES(French) u-LEE-si(European Portuguese) a-LEE-see(Brazilian Portuguese) a-LEE-cheh(Italian) a-LEE-sə(German) A-li-tseh(Czech)
From the Old French name Aalis, a short form of Adelais, itself a short form of the Germanic name Adalheidis (see ADELAIDE). This name became popular in France and England in the 12th century. It was among the most common names in England until the 16th century, when it began to decline. It was revived in the 19th century.

This name was borne by the heroine of Lewis Carroll's novels Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Glass (1871).

ALIX
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: A-LEEKS
Medieval French variant of ALICE.
ALODIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Germanic (Latinized)
Possibly from a Visigothic name derived from the Germanic elements alja "other, foreign" and aud "riches, wealth" [1]. Saint Alodia was a 9th-century Spanish martyr with her sister Nunilo.
AMABEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Medieval feminine form of AMABILIS.
AMABILIS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "lovable". Saint Amabilis was a 5th-century priest in Riom, central France.
AMADEUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Late Roman
Pronounced: ahm-ə-DAY-əs(English) ahm-ə-DEE-əs(English)
Means "love of God", derived from Latin amare "to love" and Deus "God". A famous bearer was the Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), who was actually born Wolfgang Theophilus Mozart but preferred the Latin translation of his Greek middle name. This name was also assumed as a middle name by the German novelist E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), who took it in honour of Mozart.
AMARANTHA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Various
From the name of the amaranth flower, which is derived from Greek ἀμάραντος (amarantos) meaning "unfading". Ἀμάραντος (Amarantos) was also an Ancient Greek given name.
AMATERASU
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Japanese Mythology
Other Scripts: 天照(Japanese Kanji)
Pronounced: A-MA-TEH-RA-SOO(Japanese)
Means "shining over heaven", from Japanese (ama) meaning "heaven, sky" and (terasu) meaning "shine". This was the name of the Japanese sun goddess, the ruler of the heavens. She was born when Izanagi washed his left eye after returning from the underworld. At one time the Japanese royal family claimed descent from her.
AMAURY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: A-MAW-REE
French form of AMALRIC.
AMELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Dutch, German, Ancient Germanic
Pronounced: ə-MEE-lee-ə(English) ə-MEEL-yə(English) a-MEH-lya(Spanish, Italian) an-MEH-lya(Polish) ah-MAY-lee-ah(Dutch) a-MEH-lee-a(German)
Variant of AMALIA, though it is sometimes confused with EMILIA, which has a different origin. The name became popular in England after the German House of Hanover came to the British throne in the 18th century - it was borne by daughters of both George II and George III. The author Henry Fielding used it for the title character in his novel Amelia (1751). Another famous bearer was Amelia Earhart (1897-1937), the first woman to make a solo flight over the Atlantic Ocean.

This name experienced a rise in popularity at the end of the 20th century. It was the most popular name for girls in England and Wales from 2011 to 2015.

AMÉLIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: A-MEH-LEE
French form of AMELIA.
AMINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Arabic, Bosnian, Tatar, Kazakh
Other Scripts: آمنة, أمينة(Arabic) Әминә(Tatar) Әмина(Kazakh)
Pronounced: A-mee-nah(Arabic) a-MEE-nah(Arabic)
Alternate transcription of Arabic AMINAH (1) or AMINAH (2), as well as the Bosnian, Tatar and Kazakh forms.
ANASTASIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, English, Spanish, Italian, Georgian, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Αναστασία(Greek) Анастасия(Russian) Анастасія(Ukrainian, Belarusian) ანასტასია(Georgian) Ἀναστασία(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: a-na-sta-SEE-a(Greek) u-nu-stu-SYEE-yə(Russian) u-nu-stu-SYEE-yu(Ukrainian) an-ə-STAY-zhə(English) a-na-STA-sya(Spanish) a-na-STA-zya(Italian) A-NA-STA-SEE-A(Classical Greek)
Feminine form of ANASTASIUS. This was the name of a 4th-century Dalmatian saint who was martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian. Due to her, the name has been common in Eastern Orthodox Christianity (in various spellings). As an English name it has been in use since the Middle Ages. A famous bearer was the youngest daughter of the last Russian tsar Nicholas II, who was rumoured to have escaped the execution of her family in 1918.
ANDROMEDA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ἀνδρομέδα, Ἀνδρομέδη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: AN-DRO-MEH-DA(Classical Greek) an-DRAH-mi-də(English)
Means "to be mindful of a man" from the Greek element ἀνήρ (aner) meaning "man" (genitive ἀνδρός) combined with μέδομαι (medomai) meaning "to be mindful of". In Greek mythology Andromeda was an Ethiopian princess rescued from sacrifice by the hero Perseus. A constellation in the northern sky is named for her. This is also the name of a nearby galaxy, given because it resides (from our point of view) within the constellation.
ANISSA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
This name was first brought to public attention in 1966 by the child actress Anissa Jones (1958-1976) [1]. In her case it was a transcription of the Arabic name أنيسة (see ANISA), given to honour her Lebanese heritage. Other parents who have since used this name may view it simply as an elaboration of ANNA using the popular name suffix issa.
ANNA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Icelandic, Faroese, Catalan, Occitan, Breton, Biblical, Old Church Slavic, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Άννα(Greek) Анна(Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Church Slavic) Ἄννα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: AN-ə(English) AN-na(Italian, Polish, Icelandic) A-na(German, Swedish, Greek, Czech) AH-na(Dutch) AHN-nah(Norwegian, Finnish) AN-nah(Danish) AWN-naw(Hungarian) AN-nə(Russian, Catalan)
Form of Channah (see HANNAH) used in the Greek and Latin Old Testament. Many later Old Testament translations, including the English, use the Hannah spelling instead of Anna. The name appears briefly in the New Testament belonging to a prophetess who recognized Jesus as the Messiah. It was a popular name in the Byzantine Empire from an early date, and in the Middle Ages it became common among Western Christians due to veneration of Saint Anna (usually known as Saint Anne in English), the name traditionally assigned to the mother of the Virgin Mary.

In England, this Latin form has been used alongside the vernacular forms Ann and Anne since the late Middle Ages. Anna is currently the most common of these spellings in all English-speaking countries (since the 1970s), however the biblical form Hannah is presently more popular than all three.

The name was borne by several Russian royals, including an 18th-century empress of Russia. It is also the name of the main character in Leo Tolstoy's novel Anna Karenina (1877), about a married aristocrat who begins an ultimately tragic relationship with Count Vronsky.

ANNABEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: AN-ə-behl(English)
Variant of AMABEL influenced by the name ANNA. This name appears to have arisen in Scotland in the Middle Ages.
ANNEGRET
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German
Pronounced: A-nə-greht
Combination of ANNA and GRETE.
ANNELIESE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Dutch
Pronounced: A-nə-lee-zə(German) ah-nə-LEE-sə(Dutch)
Combination of ANNA and LIESE.
ANNORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Medieval English variant of HONORA.
ANNUNZIATA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: an-noon-TSYA-ta
Means "announced" in Italian, referring to the event in the New Testament in which the angel Gabriel tells the Virgin Mary of the imminent birth of Jesus.
ANOUK
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Dutch, French
Pronounced: a-NOOK(Dutch)
Dutch and French diminutive of ANNA.
ANOUSHKA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Various
Variant of ANNUSHKA.
ANTIGONE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ἀντιγόνη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: an-TIG-ə-nee(English)
Derived from Greek ἀντί (anti) meaning "against, compared to, like" and γονή (gone) meaning "birth, offspring". In Greek legend Antigone was the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. King Creon of Thebes declared that her slain brother Polynices was to remain unburied, a great dishonour. She disobeyed and gave him a proper burial, and for this she was sealed alive in a cave.
ANTOINETTE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: AHN-TWA-NEHT
Feminine diminutive of ANTOINE. This name was borne by Marie Antoinette, the queen of France during the French Revolution. She was executed by guillotine.
ANTONIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Romanian, Greek, Croatian, Bulgarian, Ancient Roman
Other Scripts: Αντωνία(Greek) Антония(Bulgarian)
Pronounced: an-TO-nya(Italian, Spanish, German) an-TO-nee-ə(English) ahn-TO-nee-a(Dutch)
Feminine form of Antonius (see ANTHONY).
AOIFE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: EE-fyə(Irish)
Means "beauty" from the Irish word aoibh. In Irish legend Aoife was a warrior princess. In war against her sister Scathach, she was defeated in single combat by the hero Cúchulainn. Eventually she was reconciled with her sister and became the lover of Cúchulainn. This name is sometimes used as a Gaelic form of EVE or EVA.
ARAMINTA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Meaning unknown. This name was (first?) used by William Congreve in his comedy The Old Bachelor (1693) and later by Sir John Vanbrugh in his comedy The Confederacy (1705). This was the real name of abolitionist Harriet Tubman (1820-1913), who was born Araminta Ross.
ARCHIBALD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish, English
Pronounced: AHR-chi-bawld
Derived from the Germanic elements ercan "genuine" and bald "bold". The first element was altered due to the influence of Greek names beginning with the element ἀρχός (archos) meaning "master". The Normans brought this name to England. It first became common in Scotland in the Middle Ages.
ARTEMIS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology, Greek
Other Scripts: Ἄρτεμις(Ancient Greek) Άρτεμις(Greek)
Pronounced: AR-TEH-MEES(Classical Greek) AHR-tə-mis(English)
Meaning unknown, possibly related either to Greek ἀρτεμής (artemes) meaning "safe" or ἄρταμος (artamos) meaning "a butcher". Artemis was the Greek goddess of the moon and hunting, the twin of Apollo and the daughter of Zeus and Leto. She was known as Diana to the Romans.
ARTHUR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Welsh Mythology, Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: AHR-thər(English) AR-TUYR(French) AR-tuwr(German) AHR-tuyr(Dutch)
The meaning of this name is unknown. It could be derived from the Celtic elements artos "bear" combined with viros "man" or rigos "king". Alternatively it could be related to an obscure Roman family name Artorius.

Arthur is the name of the central character in Arthurian legend, a 6th-century king of the Britons who resisted Saxon invaders. He may or may not have been based on a real person. He first appears in Welsh poems and chronicles (perhaps briefly in the 7th-century poem Y Gododdin and more definitively and extensively in the 9th-century History of the Britons by Nennius [1]). However, his character was not developed until the chronicles of the 12th-century Geoffrey of Monmouth [2]. His tales were later taken up and expanded by French and English writers.

The name came into general use in England in the Middle Ages due to the prevalence of Arthurian romances, and it enjoyed a surge of popularity in the 19th century. Famous bearers include German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), mystery author and Sherlock Holmes creator Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), and science-fiction author Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008).

ASHER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Hebrew, English, Biblical, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: אָשֵׁר(Hebrew)
Pronounced: ASH-ər(English)
Means "happy, blessed" in Hebrew. Asher in the Old Testament is a son of Jacob by Leah's handmaid Zilpah, and the ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The meaning of his name is explained in Genesis 30:13.
ASHTORETH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical, Semitic Mythology
Other Scripts: עַשְׁתֹרֶת(Ancient Hebrew)
From עַשְׁתֹרֶת ('Ashtoret), the Hebrew form of the name of a Phoenician goddess of love, war and fertility. Her name is cognate to that of the East Semitic goddess ISHTAR.
AUDREY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AWD-ree
Medieval diminutive of ÆÐELÞRYÐ. This was the name of a 7th-century saint, a princess of East Anglia who founded a monastery at Ely. It was also borne by a character in Shakespeare's comedy As You Like It (1599). At the end of the Middle Ages the name became rare due to association with the word tawdry (which was derived from St. Audrey, the name of a fair where cheap lace was sold), but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was British actress Audrey Hepburn (1929-1993).
AUGUST
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Catalan, English
Pronounced: OW-guwst(German) OW-goost(Polish) OW-guyst(Swedish) AW-gəst(English)
German, Polish, Scandinavian and Catalan form of AUGUSTUS. This was the name of three Polish kings.

As an English name it can also derive from the month of August, which was named for the Roman emperor Augustus.

AUGUSTA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Portuguese, English, German, Ancient Roman
Pronounced: ow-GOOS-ta(Italian) ə-GUS-tə(English) ow-GUWS-ta(German)
Feminine form of AUGUSTUS. It was introduced to Britain when King George III, a member of the German House of Hanover, gave this name to his second daughter in the 18th century.
AUGUSTINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Roman
Feminine form of Augustinus (see AUGUSTINE (1)).
AUGUSTINE (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AW-gə-steen, aw-GUS-tin
From the Roman name Augustinus, itself derived from the Roman name AUGUSTUS. Saint Augustine of Hippo was a 5th-century Christian theologian and author from North Africa. For his contributions to Christian philosophy he is known as a Doctor of the Church. Due to his renown, the name came into general use in the Christian world. It became popular in England in the Middle Ages partly because of a second saint by this name, Augustine of Canterbury, a 6th-century Italian monk sent to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons.
AURÉLIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: O-REH-LEE
French feminine form of AURELIUS.
AVA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AY-və
Variant of EVE. A famous bearer was the American actress Ava Gardner (1922-1990). This name became very popular throughout the English-speaking world in the early 21st century, entering the top ten for girls in the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
AYELET
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew
Other Scripts: אַיֶלֶת(Hebrew)
Means "doe, female deer, gazelle". It is taken from the Hebrew phrase אַיֶלֶת הַשַׁחַר ('ayelet hashachar), literally "gazelle of dawn", which is a name of the morning star.
BARABAL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Scottish
Scottish form of BARBARA.
BARTHOLOMEW
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: bahr-THAHL-ə-myoo(English)
English form of Βαρθολομαῖος (Bartholomaios), which was the Greek form of an Aramaic name meaning "son of TALMAI". In the New Testament Bartholomew is the byname of an apostle, possibly the same person as the apostle Nathanael. According to tradition he was a missionary to India before returning westward to Armenia, where he was martyred by flaying. Due to the popularity of this saint the name became common in England during the Middle Ages.
BEATRIX
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Hungarian, Dutch, English, Late Roman
Pronounced: beh-A-triks(German) BEH-a-triks(German) BEH-aw-treeks(Hungarian) BEH-ya-triks(Dutch) BEE-ə-triks(English) BEE-triks(English)
Probably from Viatrix, a feminine form of the Late Latin name Viator meaning "voyager, traveller". It was a common name amongst early Christians, and the spelling was altered by association with Latin beatus "blessed, happy". Viatrix or Beatrix was a 4th-century saint who was strangled to death during the persecutions of Diocletian.

In England the name became rare after the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century, more commonly in the spelling Beatrice. Famous bearers include the British author and illustrator Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), the creator of Peter Rabbit, and Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands (1938-).

BELLE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: BEHL
Short form of ISABELLA or names ending in belle. It is also associated with the French word belle meaning "beautiful". A famous bearer was Belle Starr (1848-1889), an outlaw of the American west, whose real given name was Maybelle.
BERENGARIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Germanic (Latinized)
Latinized feminine form of BERENGAR. This name was borne by a 13th-century queen of Castile.
BESS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: BEHS
Diminutive of ELIZABETH.
BIBIANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Italian, Late Roman
Pronounced: bee-BYA-na(Spanish, Italian)
Possibly an early variant of VIVIANA. Alternatively, it may be a feminine derivative of the earlier Roman cognomen VIBIANUS.
BILLIE
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: BIL-ee
Diminutive of BILL. It is also used as a feminine form of WILLIAM.
BOAZ
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, Hebrew, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: בֹּעַז(Hebrew)
Pronounced: BO-az(English)
Means "swiftness" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of the man who marries Ruth. This was also the name of one of the two pillars that stood outside Solomon's Temple (with Jachin).
BRIDGET
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, English, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: BRIJ-it(English)
Anglicized form of the Irish name Brighid meaning "exalted one". In Irish mythology this was the name of the goddess of fire, poetry and wisdom, the daughter of the god Dagda. In the 5th century it was borne by Saint Brigid, the founder of a monastery at Kildare and a patron saint of Ireland. Because of the saint, the name was considered sacred in Ireland, and it did not come into general use there until the 17th century. In the form Birgitta this name has been common in Scandinavia, made popular by the 14th-century Saint Birgitta of Sweden, patron saint of Europe.
BRIGID
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, Irish Mythology
Irish variant of Brighid (see BRIDGET).
CALLIOPE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Καλλιόπη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: kə-LIE-ə-pee(English)
Latinized form of KALLIOPE.
CAMILLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, German, Ancient Roman, Roman Mythology
Pronounced: kə-MIL-ə(English) ka-MEEL-la(Italian) kah-MEEL-lah(Danish) KAH-meel-lah(Finnish) ka-MI-la(German)
Feminine form of CAMILLUS. This was the name of a legendary warrior maiden of the Volsci, as told by Virgil in the Aeneid. It was popularized in the English-speaking world by Fanny Burney's novel Camilla (1796).
CAMILLE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: French, English
Pronounced: KA-MEE(French) kə-MEEL(English)
French feminine and masculine form of CAMILLA. It is also used in the English-speaking world, where it is generally only feminine.
CARMEN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, English, Italian, Romanian
Pronounced: KAR-mehn(Spanish, Italian) KAHR-mən(English)
Medieval Spanish form of CARMEL influenced by the Latin word carmen "song". This was the name of the main character in George Bizet's opera Carmen (1875).
CAROLINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch
Pronounced: KA-RAW-LEEN(French) KAR-ə-lien(English) KAR-ə-lin(English) ka-ro-LEE-nə(German)
French feminine form of CAROLUS.
CARYS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: KAHR-is
Derived from Welsh caru meaning "love". This is a relatively modern Welsh name, in common use only since the middle of the 20th century.
CASIMIR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: KAZ-i-meer(English) KA-ZEE-MEER(French)
English form of the Polish name Kazimierz, derived from the Slavic element kaziti "to destroy" combined with miru "peace, world". Four kings of Poland have borne this name, including Casimir III the Great, who greatly strengthened the Polish state in the 14th century. It was also borne Saint Casimir, a 15th-century Polish prince and a patron saint of Poland and Lithuania. The name was imported into Western Europe via Germany, where it was borne by some royalty.
CASPAR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Judeo-Christian Legend
Latin variant of JASPER.
CASPIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: KAS-pee-ən(English)
Used by author C. S. Lewis for a character in his Chronicles of Narnia series, first appearing in 1950. Prince Caspian first appears in the fourth book, where he is the rightful king of Narnia driven into exile by his evil uncle Miraz. Lewis probably based the name on the Caspian Sea, which was named for the city of Qazvin, which was itself named for the ancient Cas tribe.
CATHERINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English
Pronounced: KA-TU-REEN(French) KA-TREEN(French) KATH-ə-rin(English) KATH-rin(English)
French form of KATHERINE, and also a common English variant.
CECILY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: SEHS-ə-lee
English form of CECILIA. This was the usual English form during the Middle Ages.
CÉLESTIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: SEH-LEHS-TEHN
French form of CAELESTINUS.
CHANNARY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Khmer
Means "moon-faced girl" from Khmer ចន្ទ (chan) meaning "moon" and នារី (neari) meaning "woman, girl".
CHANTREA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Khmer
Other Scripts: ចន្ទ្រា(Khmer)
Means "moonlight" in Khmer.
CHARLIE
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: CHAHR-lee
Diminutive or feminine form of CHARLES. A famous bearer was the British comic actor Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977). It is also borne by Charlie Brown, the main character in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles Schulz.
CHARLOTTE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch
Pronounced: SHAR-LAWT(French) SHAHR-lət(English) shar-LAW-tə(German) sha-LOT(Swedish) shahr-LAW-tə(Dutch)
French feminine diminutive of CHARLES. It was introduced to Britain in the 17th century. It was the name of a German-born 18th-century queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland. Another notable bearer was Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), the eldest of the three Brontë sisters and the author of Jane Eyre and Villette.

This name was fairly common in France, England and the United States in the early 20th century. It became quite popular in France and England at the end of the 20th century, just when it was at a low point in the United States. It quickly climbed the American charts and entered the top ten in 2014.

CLAIRE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English
Pronounced: KLEHR
French form of CLARA.
CLAUDIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, Biblical, Ancient Roman
Pronounced: KLAW-dee-ə(English) KLOW-dya(German, Italian, Romanian) KLOW-dee-ah(Dutch) KLOW-dhya(Spanish) KLOW-dee-a(Latin)
Feminine form of CLAUDIUS. It is mentioned briefly in the New Testament. As a Christian name it was very rare until the 16th century.
CLEMENCE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: KLEHM-əns
Feminine form of Clementius (see CLEMENT). It has been in use since the Middle Ages, though it became rare after the 17th century.
CLEMENT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: KLEHM-ənt
English form of the Late Latin name Clemens (or sometimes of its derivative Clementius), which meant "merciful, gentle". This was the name of 14 popes, including Saint Clement I, the third pope, one of the Apostolic Fathers. Another saint by this name was Clement of Alexandria, a 3rd-century theologian and church father who attempted to reconcile Christian and Platonic philosophies. It has been in general as a given name in Christian Europe (in various spellings) since early times. In England it became rare after the Protestant Reformation, though it was revived in the 19th century.
CLÉMENTINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: KLEH-MAHN-TEEN
French feminine form of CLEMENT. This is also the name of a variety of orange (fruit).
COLUMBINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: KAWL-əm-bien
From the name of a variety of flower. It is also an English form of COLOMBINA, the pantomime character.
CONSTANCE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: KAHN-stəns(English) KAWNS-TAHNS(French)
Medieval form of CONSTANTIA. The Normans introduced this name to England (it was the name of a daughter of William the Conqueror).
CORALIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: KAW-RA-LEE
Either a French form of KORALIA, or a derivative of Latin corallium "coral" (see CORAL).
CORDELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: kawr-DEE-lee-ə, kawr-DEEL-yə
From Cordeilla, possibly a Celtic name of unknown meaning. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Cordeilla was the youngest of the three daughters of King Lear and the only one to remain loyal to her father. When adapting the character for his play King Lear (1606), Shakespeare altered the spelling to Cordelia.
DAISY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: DAY-zee
Simply from the English word for the white flower, ultimately derived from Old English dægeseage meaning "day eye". It was first used as a given name in the 19th century, at the same time many other plant and flower names were coined.
DASHIELL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: də-SHEEL, DASH-il
In the case of American author Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961) it was from his mother's surname, which was possibly an Anglicized form of French de Chiel, of unknown meaning.
DIANTHA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Dutch, English (Rare)
Pronounced: die-AN-thə(English)
From dianthus, the name of a type of flower (ultimately from Greek meaning "heavenly flower").
DIEUDONNÉ
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: DYUU-DAW-NEH
Means "given by God" in French, used as a French form of DEUSDEDIT.
DOMINIC
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: DAHM-i-nik
From the Late Latin name Dominicus meaning "of the Lord". This name was traditionally given to a child born on Sunday. Several saints have borne this name, including the 13th-century founder of the Dominican order of friars. It was in this saint's honour that the name was first used in England, starting around the 13th century. It is primarily used by Catholics.
DOROTHEA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, English, Late Greek [1]
Other Scripts: Δωροθέα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: do-ro-TEH-a(German) dawr-ə-THEE-ə(English)
Feminine form of the Late Greek name Δωρόθεος (Dorotheos), which meant "gift of God" from Greek δῶρον (doron) meaning "gift" and θεός (theos) meaning "god". The name Theodore is composed of the same elements in reverse order. Dorothea was the name of two early saints, notably the 4th-century martyr Dorothea of Caesarea. It was also borne by the 14th-century Saint Dorothea of Montau, who was the patron saint of Prussia.
DOROTHY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: DAWR-ə-thee, DAWR-thee
Usual English form of DOROTHEA. It has been in use since the 16th century. The author L. Frank Baum used it for the central character in his fantasy novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and several of its sequels.
EDEN
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: Hebrew, English (Modern)
Other Scripts: עֵדֶן(Hebrew)
Pronounced: EE-dən(English)
Possibly from Hebrew עֵדֶן ('eden) meaning "pleasure, delight", or perhaps derived from Sumerian 𒂔 (edin) meaning "plain". According to the Old Testament the Garden of Eden was the place where the first people, Adam and Eve, lived before they were expelled.
EDIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EE-dee
Diminutive of EDITH.
EDWIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: EHD-win(English) EHT-vin(Dutch)
Means "rich friend", from the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and wine "friend". This was the name of a 7th-century Northumbrian king, regarded as a saint. After the Norman Conquest the name was not popular, but it was eventually revived in the 19th century. A notable bearer was the astronaut Edwin Aldrin (1930-), also known as Buzz, the second man to walk on the moon.
EFFIE (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EHF-ee
Diminutive of EUPHEMIA.
EIRLYS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: AYR-lis
Means "snowdrop (flower)" in Welsh.
EIRWEN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Means "white snow" from the Welsh elements eira "snow" and gwen "white, blessed".
ELEANOR
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EHL-ə-nawr
From the Old French form of the Occitan name Alienòr. Among the name's earliest bearers was the influential Eleanor of Aquitaine (12th century), who was the queen of Louis VII, the king of France, and later Henry II, the king of England. She was named Aenor after her mother, and was called by the Occitan phrase alia Aenor "the other AENOR" in order to distinguish her from her mother. However, there appear to be examples of bearers prior to Eleanor of Aquitaine. It is not clear whether they were in fact Aenors who were retroactively recorded as having the name Eleanor, or whether there is an alternative explanation for the name's origin.

The popularity of the name Eleanor in England during the Middle Ages was due to the fame of Eleanor of Aquitaine, as well as two queens of the following century: Eleanor of Provence, the wife of Henry III, and Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward I. More recently, it was borne by first lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), the wife of American president Franklin Roosevelt.

ELIJAH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical
Other Scripts: אֱלִיָּהוּ(Hebrew)
Pronounced: i-LIE-jə(English) i-LIE-zhə(English)
From the Hebrew name אֱלִיָּהוּ ('Eliyyahu) meaning "my God is YAHWEH", derived from the elements אֵל ('el) and יָה (yah), both referring to the Hebrew God. Elijah was a Hebrew prophet and miracle worker, as told in the two Books of Kings in the Old Testament. He was active in the 9th century BC during the reign of King Ahab of Israel and his Phoenician-born queen Jezebel. Elijah confronted the king and queen over their idolatry of the Canaanite god Ba'al and other wicked deeds. At the end of his life he was carried to heaven in a chariot of fire, and was succeeded by Elisha. In the New Testament, Elijah and Moses appear next to Jesus when he is transfigured.

Because Elijah was a popular figure in medieval tales, and because his name was borne by a few early saints (who are usually known by the Latin form Elias), the name came into general use during the Middle Ages. In medieval England it was usually spelled Elis. It died out there by the 16th century, but it was revived by the Puritans in the form Elijah after the Protestant Reformation.

ELIZA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Polish, Portuguese (Brazilian), Georgian
Other Scripts: ელიზა(Georgian)
Pronounced: i-LIE-zə(English) eh-LYEE-za(Polish)
Short form of ELIZABETH. It was borne by the character Eliza Doolittle in George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion (1913) and the subsequent musical adaptation My Fair Lady (1956).
ELIZAVETA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Russian
Other Scripts: Елизавета(Russian)
Pronounced: yi-lyi-zu-VYEH-tə, i-lyi-zu-VYEH-tə
Alternate transcription of Russian Елизавета (see YELIZAVETA).
ELLIOTT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EHL-ee-ət
From an English surname that was derived from a diminutive of the medieval name ELIAS.
ELSA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Swedish, Icelandic, Finnish, Italian
Pronounced: EHL-sə(English) EHL-za(German) EHL-sah(Finnish)
Short form of ELISABETH.
ELVIRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, Dutch, Russian
Other Scripts: Эльвира(Russian)
Pronounced: ehl-BEE-ra(Spanish) ehl-VEE-ra(Italian)
Spanish form of a Visigothic name, possibly composed of the Germanic elements ala "all" and wer "true". This is the name of a character in Mozart's opera Don Giovanni (1787).
EMILIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Romanian, Finnish, Polish, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Bulgarian
Other Scripts: Емилия(Bulgarian)
Pronounced: eh-MEE-lya(Italian, Spanish) EH-mee-lee-ah(Finnish) ehn-MYEE-lya(Polish) eh-MEE-lee-ah(Swedish) i-MEE-lee-ə(English)
Feminine form of Aemilius (see EMIL).
ÉMILIENNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: EH-MEE-LYEHN
French feminine form of Aemilianus (see EMILIANO).
EMRYS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Welsh
Welsh form of AMBROSE. Emrys Wledig (or Ambrosius Aurelianus) was a Romano-British military leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century. Tales of his life were used by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth to create the character of Merlin, who he called Merlinus Ambrosius or Myrddin Emrys.
ÉOWYN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: AY-ə-win(English)
Means "horse joy" in Old English. This name was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien who used Old English to represent the Rohirric language. In his novel The Lord of the Rings (1954) Eowyn is the niece of King Theoden of Rohan. She slays the Lord of the Nazgul in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.
EPONINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: EHP-ə-neen(English)
Meaning unknown. Victor Hugo used this name in his novel Les Misérables (1862) for a daughter of the Thénardiers. Her mother got her name from a romance novel.
ESMÉE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (British), Dutch
Pronounced: EHZ-may(English) EHZ-mee(English) ehs-MEH(Dutch)
Feminine form of ESMÉ.
ESTELLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: ehs-TEHL-ə
Latinate form of ESTELLE. This was the name of the heroine, Estella Havisham, in Charles Dickens' novel Great Expectations (1860).
ESTELLE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: ehs-TEHL(English) EHS-TEHL(French)
From an Old French name meaning "star", ultimately derived from Latin stella. It was rare in the English-speaking world in the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century, perhaps due to the character Estella Havisham in Charles Dickens' novel Great Expectations (1860).
ESTHER
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French, Spanish, Dutch, German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Jewish, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: אֶסְתֵר(Hebrew) Ἐσθήρ(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: EHS-tər(English, Dutch) EHS-TEHR(French) ehs-TEHR(Spanish)
Possibly means "star" in Persian. Alternatively it could be a derivative of the name of the Near Eastern goddess ISHTAR. The Book of Esther in the Old Testament tells the story of Queen Esther, the Jewish wife of the king of Persia. The king's advisor Haman persuaded the king to exterminate all the Jews in the realm. Warned of this plot by her cousin Mordecai, Esther revealed her Jewish ancestry and convinced the king to execute Haman instead. Her original Hebrew name was Hadassah.

This name has been used in the English-speaking world since the Protestant Reformation. In America it received a boost in popularity after the birth of Esther Cleveland (1893-1980), the daughter of President Grover Cleveland [1].

EVANDER (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized), Roman Mythology
Other Scripts: Εὔανδρος(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: ee-VAN-dər(English) ə-VAN-dər(English)
Variant of Evandrus, the Latin form of the Greek name Εὔανδρος (Euandros) meaning "good of man", derived from εὖ (eu) meaning "good" and ἀνήρ (aner) meaning "man" (genitive ἀνδρός). In Roman mythology Evander was an Arcadian hero of the Trojan War who founded the city of Pallantium near the spot where Rome was later built.
EVE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Biblical
Other Scripts: חַוָּה(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: EEV(English)
From the Hebrew name חַוָּה (Chawwah), which was derived from the Hebrew word חָוָה (chawah) meaning "to breathe" or the related word חָיָה (chayah) meaning "to live". According to the Old Testament Book of Genesis, Eve and Adam were the first humans. God created her from one of Adam's ribs to be his companion. At the urging of a serpent she ate the forbidden fruit and shared some with Adam, causing their expulsion from the Garden of Eden.

Despite this potentially negative association, the name was occasionally used by Christians during the Middle Ages. In the English-speaking world both Eve and the Latin form Eva were revived in the 19th century, with the latter being more common.

EVELINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French, Dutch
Pronounced: EHV-ə-leen(English) EHV-ə-lien(English) EHV-LEEN(French) eh-və-LEE-nə(Dutch) eh-və-LEEN(Dutch)
Variant of EVELINA.
EVELYN
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English, German
Pronounced: EHV-ə-lin(English) EEV-lin(British English) EEV-ə-lin(British English) EH-və-leen(German)
From an English surname that was derived from the given name AVELINE. In the 17th century when it was first used as a given name it was more common for boys, but it is now regarded as mainly feminine due to association with the related name Evelina.
EVERARD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Means "brave boar", derived from the Germanic elements ebur "wild boar" and hard "brave, hardy". The Normans introduced it to England, where it joined the Old English cognate Eoforheard. It has only been rarely used since the Middle Ages. Modern use of the name may be inspired by the surname Everard, itself derived from the medieval name.
EVIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EE-vee, EHV-ee
Diminutive of EVE or EVELYN.
EZEKIEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, English
Other Scripts: יְחֶזְקֵאל(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: i-ZEE-kee-əl(English)
From the Hebrew name יְחֶזְקֵאל (Yechezqel) meaning "God will strengthen", from the roots חָזַק (chazaq) meaning "to strengthen" and אֵל ('el) meaning "God". Ezekiel is a major prophet of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Ezekiel. He lived in Jerusalem until the Babylonian conquest and captivity of Israel, at which time he was taken to Babylon. The Book of Ezekiel describes his vivid symbolic visions that predict the restoration of the kingdom of Israel. As an English given name, Ezekiel has been used since the Protestant Reformation.
EZRA
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, English, Hebrew
Other Scripts: עֶזְרָא(Hebrew)
Pronounced: EHZ-rə(English)
Means "help" in Hebrew. Ezra is a prophet of the Old Testament and the author of the Book of Ezra. It has been used as a given name in the English-speaking world since the Protestant Reformation. The American poet Ezra Pound (1885-1972) was a famous bearer.
FABIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, Polish, English
Pronounced: FA-byan(German, Polish) FA-bee-ahn(Dutch) FAY-bee-ən(English)
From the Roman cognomen Fabianus, which was derived from FABIUS. Saint Fabian was a 3rd-century pope.
FELIX
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Romanian, Ancient Roman, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Pronounced: FEH-liks(German, Swedish) FAY-liks(Dutch) FEE-liks(English) FEH-leeks(Latin)
From a Roman cognomen meaning "lucky, successful" in Latin. It was acquired as an agnomen, or nickname, by the 1st-century BC Roman general Sulla. It also appears in the New Testament belonging to the governor of Judea who imprisoned Saint Paul.

Due to its favourable meaning, this name was popular among early Christians, being borne by many early saints and four popes. It has been used in England since the Middle Ages, though it has been more popular in continental Europe. A notable bearer was the German composer Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847).

FIERA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Esperanto
Pronounced: fee-EH-ra
Means "proud" in Esperanto.
FINBAR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish
Pronounced: FIN-bar
Variant of FIONNBHARR.
FINN (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish Mythology, Irish, English, Dutch, German
Pronounced: FIN(English)
Older Irish form of FIONN. This is also the usual Anglicized spelling of the name. As a surname it is borne by Huckleberry Finn, a character in Mark Twain's novels.
FINOLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, Scottish
Anglicized form of FIONNUALA.
FLORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Roman Mythology
Pronounced: FLAWR-ə(English) FLO-ra(German, Spanish) FLAW-ru(Portuguese)
Derived from Latin flos meaning "flower". Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers and spring, the wife of Zephyr the west wind. It has been used as a given name since the Renaissance, starting in France. In Scotland it was sometimes used as an Anglicized form of Fionnghuala.
FLORENCE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: FLAWR-əns(English) FLAW-RAHNS(French)
From the Latin name Florentius or the feminine form Florentia, which were derived from florens "prosperous, flourishing". Florentius was borne by many early Christian saints, and it was occasionally used in their honour through the Middle Ages. In modern times it is mostly feminine.

The name can also be given in reference to the city in Italy, as in the case of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). She was a nurse in British hospitals during the Crimean War and is usually considered the founder of modern nursing.

FOX
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: FAHKS
Either from the English word fox or the surname Fox, which originally given as a nickname. The surname was borne by George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the Quakers.
FRANCIS
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: FRAN-sis(English) FRAHN-SEES(French)
English form of the Late Latin name Franciscus meaning "Frenchman", ultimately from the Germanic tribe of the Franks, who were named for a type of spear that they used. This name was borne by the 13th-century Saint Francis of Assisi, who was originally named Giovanni but was given the nickname Francesco by his father, an admirer of the French. Francis went on to renounce his father's wealth and devote his life to the poor, founding the Franciscan order of friars. Later in his life he apparently received the stigmata.

Due to the renown of the saint, this name became widespread in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. However, it was not regularly used in Britain until the 16th century. Famous bearers include Saint Francis Xavier (1506-1552), a missionary to East Asia, the philosopher and scientist Francis Bacon (1561-1626), and the explorer and admiral Sir Francis Drake (1540-1595).

In the English-speaking world this name is occasionally used for girls, as a variant of the homophone Frances.

FRANKIE
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: FRANGK-ee
Diminutive of FRANK or FRANCES.
FRANKLIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: FRANGK-lin
From an English surname that was derived from Middle English frankelin "freeman". A famous bearer of the surname was Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), an American statesman, inventor, scientist and philosopher. The name has commonly been given in his honour in the United States. It also received a boost during the term of American president Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).
FRANZ
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German
Pronounced: FRANTS
German form of Franciscus (see FRANCIS). This name was borne by the influential writer Franz Kafka (1883-1924), author of The Trial and The Castle among other works. It was also the name of rulers of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire.
FREDERICK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: FREHD-ə-rik, FREHD-rik
English form of a Germanic name meaning "peaceful ruler", derived from frid "peace" and ric "ruler, mighty". This name has long been common in continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Notables among these rulers include the 12th-century Holy Roman emperor and crusader Frederick I Barbarossa, the 13th-century emperor and patron of the arts Frederick II, and the 18th-century Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great.

The Normans brought the name to England in the 11th century but it quickly died out. It was reintroduced by the German House of Hanover when they inherited the British throne in the 18th century. A famous bearer was Frederick Douglass (1818-1895), an American ex-slave who became a leading advocate of abolition.

GABRIEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Catalan, English, Romanian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: გაბრიელ(Georgian) גַּבְרִיאֵל(Ancient Hebrew) Γαβριήλ(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: GA-BREE-YEHL(French) ga-BRYEHL(Spanish) ga-bree-EHL(European Portuguese, Romanian) ga-bree-EW(Brazilian Portuguese) GA-bree-ehl(German, Slovak, Latin) GAH-bri-ehl(Swedish) GAHB-ree-ehl(Finnish) gə-bree-EHL(Catalan) GAY-bree-əl(English) GAB-ryehl(Polish) GA-bri-yehl(Czech)
From the Hebrew name גַבְרִיאֵל (Gavri'el) meaning "God is my strong man", derived from גֶּבֶר (gever) meaning "strong man, hero" and אֵל ('el) meaning "God". Gabriel is an archangel in Hebrew tradition, often appearing as a messenger of God. In the Old Testament he is sent to interpret the visions of the prophet Daniel, while in the New Testament he serves as the announcer of the births of John to Zechariah and Jesus to Mary. According to Islamic tradition he was the angel who dictated the Quran to Muhammad.

This name has been used occasionally in England since the 12th century. It was not common in the English-speaking world until the end of the 20th century.

GALAHAD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: GAL-ə-had(English)
Meaning unknown. In Arthurian legend Sir Galahad was the son of Lancelot and Elaine. He was the most pure of the Knights of the Round Table, and he was the only one to succeed in finding the Holy Grail. He first appears in the medieval French Lancelot-Grail cycle.
GEMMA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Catalan, English (British), Dutch
Pronounced: JEHM-ma(Italian) ZHEHM-mə(Catalan) JEHM-ə(English) KHEH-mah(Dutch)
Medieval Italian nickname meaning "gem, precious stone". It was borne by the wife of the 13th-century Italian poet Dante Alighieri.
GENEVIEVE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JEHN-ə-veev
English form of GENEVIÈVE.
GEORGE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Romanian
Pronounced: JAWRJ(English) JYOR-jeh(Romanian)
From the Greek name Γεώργιος (Georgios), which was derived from the Greek word γεωργός (georgos) meaning "farmer, earthworker", itself derived from the elements γῆ (ge) meaning "earth" and ἔργον (ergon) meaning "work". Saint George was a 3rd-century Roman soldier from Palestine who was martyred during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. Later legends describe his defeat of a dragon, with which he was often depicted in medieval art.

Initially Saint George was primarily revered by Eastern Christians, but returning crusaders brought stories of him to Western Europe and he became the patron of England, Portugal, Catalonia and Aragon. The name was rarely used in England until the German-born George I came to the British throne in the 18th century. Five subsequent British kings have borne the name.

Other famous bearers include two kings of Greece, the composer George Frideric Handel (1685-1759), the first president of the United States, George Washington (1732-1797), and the Pacific explorer George Vancouver (1757-1798). This was also the pen name of authors George Eliot (1819-1880) and George Orwell (1903-1950), real names Mary Anne Evans and Eric Arthur Blair respectively.

GEORGIE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JAWR-jee
Diminutive of GEORGIA or GEORGE.
GIDEON
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, English, Hebrew
Other Scripts: גִּדְעוֹן(Hebrew)
Pronounced: GID-ee-ən(English)
Means "feller, hewer" in Hebrew. Gideon is a hero and judge of the Old Testament. He led the vastly outnumbered Israelites against the Midianites, defeated them, and killed their two kings. In the English-speaking world, Gideon has been used as a given name since the Protestant Reformation, and it was popular among the Puritans.
GIULIANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: joo-LYA-na
Feminine form of GIULIANO.
GRACE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: GRAYS
From the English word grace, which ultimately derives from Latin gratia. This was one of the virtue names created in the 17th century by the Puritans. The actress Grace Kelly (1929-1982) was a famous bearer.
GRETA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Italian, Swedish, Lithuanian, Polish, English
Pronounced: GREH-ta(German, Italian, Swedish, Polish) GREHT-ə(English)
Short form of MARGARETA. A famous bearer of this name was the Swedish actress Greta Garbo (1905-1990).
GUINEVERE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: GWIN-ə-vir(English)
From the Norman French form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar meaning "white phantom", ultimately from the Old Celtic roots *windos meaning "fair, white, blessed" (modern Welsh gwen) and *sebros meaning "phantom, magical being". In Arthurian legend she was the beautiful wife of King Arthur. According to the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, she was seduced by Mordred before the battle of Camlann, which led to the deaths of both Mordred and Arthur. According to the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes, she engaged in an adulterous affair with Sir Lancelot.

The Cornish form of this name, Jennifer, has become popular in the English-speaking world.

GWENDOLEN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: GWEHN-də-lin(English)
Means "white ring", derived from the Welsh elements gwen meaning "white, fair, blessed" and dolen meaning "ring, loop". This was the name of a mythical queen of the Britons who defeated her husband in battle, as told by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
GWENFREWI
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Derived from the Welsh elements gwen meaning "white, fair, blessed" and ffrewi meaning "reconciliation, peace". Saint Gwenffrewi or Winifred was a 7th-century Welsh martyr.
HAMISH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish
Pronounced: HAY-mish
Anglicized form of a Sheumais, the vocative case of SEUMAS.
HANA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Arabic, Bosnian
Other Scripts: هناء(Arabic)
Pronounced: ha-NA(Arabic)
Means "bliss, happiness" in Arabic.
HANNA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German, Dutch, Icelandic, Hungarian, Hebrew
Other Scripts: Ганна(Ukrainian, Belarusian) חַנָּה(Hebrew)
Pronounced: HAN-nah(Danish) HAHN-nah(Finnish, Ukrainian) KHAN-na(Polish) HA-na(German) HAN-na(Icelandic) HAWN-naw(Hungarian)
Form of Channah (see HANNAH) in several languages.
HAZEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: HAY-zəl
From the English word hazel for the tree or the light brown colour, derived ultimately from Old English hæsel. It was coined as a given name in the 19th century.
HEIDI
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, English
Pronounced: HIE-dee(German, English) HAY-dee(Finnish)
German diminutive of ADELHEID. This is the name of the title character in the children's novel Heidi (1880) by the Swiss author Johanna Spyri. The name began to be used in the English-speaking world shortly after the 1937 release of the movie adaptation, which starred Shirley Temple.
HELENA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Portuguese, Catalan, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Finnish, Estonian, Slovene, Croatian, Sorbian, English, Ancient Greek (Latinized), Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Ἑλένη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: HEH-leh-na(German, Czech) heh-LEH-na(German) heh-LEH-nah(Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish) i-LEH-nu(European Portuguese) eh-LEH-nu(Brazilian Portuguese) ə-LEH-nə(Catalan) kheh-LEH-na(Polish) HEH-leh-nah(Finnish) HEHL-ə-nə(English) hə-LAYN-ə(English) hə-LEEN-ə(English)
Latinate form of HELEN.
HELMI
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Finnish, Swedish
Pronounced: HEHL-mee(Finnish)
Diminutive of VILHELMIINA or VILHELMINA. It also means "pearl" in Finnish.
HENRY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: HEHN-ree
From the Germanic name Heimirich meaning "home ruler", composed of the elements heim "home" and ric "ruler". It was later commonly spelled Heinrich, with the spelling altered due to the influence of other Germanic names like Haganrich, in which the first element is hagan "enclosure".

Heinrich was popular among continental royalty, being the name of seven German kings, starting with the 10th-century Henry I the Fowler, and four French kings. In France it was usually rendered Henri from the Latin form Henricus.

The Normans introduced the French form to England, and it was subsequently used by eight kings, ending with the infamous Henry VIII in the 16th century. During the later Middle Ages it was fairly popular, and was generally rendered as Harry or Herry in English pronunciation. Notable bearers include arctic naval explorer Henry Hudson (1570-1611), British novelist Henry James (1843-1916), American automobile manufacturer Henry Ford (1863-1947), and American actor Henry Fonda (1905-1982).

HERMIONE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ἑρμιόνη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: HEHR-MEE-O-NEH(Classical Greek) hər-MIE-ə-nee(English)
Derived from the name of the Greek messenger god HERMES. In Greek myth Hermione was the daughter of Menelaus and Helen. This is also the name of the wife of Leontes in Shakespeare's play The Winter's Tale (1610). It is now closely associated with the character Hermione Granger from the Harry Potter series of books, first released in 1997.
HORATIO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: hə-RAY-shee-o, hə-RAY-sho
Variant of HORATIUS. It was borne by the British admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), famous for his defeat of Napoleon's forces in the Battle of Trafalgar, in which he was himself killed. Since his time the name has been occasionally used in his honour.
IGNATIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Late Roman
Pronounced: ig-NAY-shəs(English)
From the Roman family name Egnatius, meaning unknown, of Etruscan origin. The spelling was later altered to resemble Latin ignis "fire". This was the name of several saints, including the third bishop of Antioch who was thrown to wild beasts by Emperor Trajan, and by Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), founder of the Jesuits, whose real birth name was in fact Íñigo.
IMELDA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish
Pronounced: ee-MEHL-da
Italian and Spanish form of IRMHILD. The Blessed Imelda was a young 14th-century nun from Bologna.
IMOGEN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (British)
Pronounced: IM-ə-jehn
The name of a princess in the play Cymbeline (1609) by Shakespeare. He based her on a legendary character named Innogen, but the name was printed incorrectly and never corrected. The name Innogen is probably derived from Gaelic inghean meaning "maiden".
INDIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: IN-dee-ə
From the name of the country, which is itself derived from the name of the Indus River. The river's name is ultimately from Sanskrit सिन्धु (Sindhu) meaning "body of trembling water, river".
INDIGO
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: IN-di-go
From the English word indigo for the purplish-blue dye or the colour. It is ultimately derived from Greek Ἰνδικὸν (Indikon) meaning "Indic, from India".
INGRID
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, German, Dutch
Pronounced: ING-rid(Swedish) ING-ri(Norwegian) ING-grit(German, Dutch) ING-greet(German)
From the Old Norse name Ingríðr meaning "Ing is beautiful", derived from the name of the Germanic god ING combined with fríðr "beautiful". A famous bearer was the Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman (1915-1982).
IRIS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology, English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, French, Spanish, Catalan, Italian, Greek
Other Scripts: Ἶρις(Ancient Greek) Ίρις(Greek)
Pronounced: IE-ris(English) EE-ris(German, Dutch) EE-rees(Finnish, Spanish, Catalan, Italian) EE-REES(French)
Means "rainbow" in Greek. Iris was the name of the Greek goddess of the rainbow, also serving as a messenger to the gods. This name can also be given in reference to the word (which derives from the same Greek source) for the iris flower or the coloured part of the eye.
ISAAC
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Spanish, Catalan, Jewish, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: יִצְחָק(Hebrew)
Pronounced: IE-zək(English) ee-sa-AK(Spanish)
From the Hebrew name יִצְחָק (Yitzchaq) meaning "he will laugh, he will rejoice", derived from צָחַק (tzachaq) meaning "to laugh". The Old Testament explains this meaning, by recounting that Abraham laughed when God told him that his aged wife Sarah would become pregnant with Isaac (see Genesis 17:17), and later Sarah laughed when overhearing the same prophecy (see Genesis 18:12). When Isaac was a boy, God tested Abraham's faith by ordering him to sacrifice his son, though an angel prevented the act at the last moment. Isaac went on to become the father of Esau and Jacob with his wife Rebecca.

As an English Christian name, Isaac was occasionally used during the Middle Ages, though it was more common among Jews. It became more widespread after the Protestant Reformation. Famous bearers include the physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and the science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1920-1992).

ISABEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, German, Dutch
Pronounced: ee-sa-BEHL(Spanish) ee-zu-BEHL(European Portuguese) ee-za-BEW(Brazilian Portuguese) IZ-ə-behl(English) EE-ZA-BEHL(French) ee-za-BEHL(German, Dutch)
Medieval Occitan form of ELIZABETH. It spread throughout Spain, Portugal and France, becoming common among the royalty by the 12th century. It grew popular in England in the 13th century after Isabella of Angoulême married the English king John, and it was subsequently bolstered when Isabella of France married Edward II the following century.

This is the usual form of the name Elizabeth in Spain and Portugal, though elsewhere it is considered a parallel name, such as in France where it is used alongside Élisabeth. The name was borne by two Spanish ruling queens, including Isabel of Castile, who sponsored the explorations of Christopher Columbus.

ISADORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: iz-ə-DAWR-ə
Variant of ISIDORA. A famous bearer was the American dancer Isadora Duncan (1877-1927).
ISIDORE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Georgian (Rare), Jewish
Other Scripts: ისიდორე(Georgian)
Pronounced: IZ-ə-dawr(English) EE-ZEE-DAWR(French)
From the Greek name Ἰσίδωρος (Isidoros) meaning "gift of Isis", derived from the name of the Egyptian goddess ISIS combined with Greek δῶρον (doron) meaning "gift". Saint Isidore of Seville was a 6th-century archbishop, historian and theologian.

Though it has never been popular in the English-speaking world among Christians, it has historically been a common name for Jews, who have used it as an Americanized form of names such as Isaac, Israel and Isaiah.

ISMENE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ἰσμήνη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: EEZ-MEH-NEH(Classical Greek) is-MEE-nee(English)
Possibly from Greek ἰσμή (isme) meaning "knowledge". This was the name of the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta in Greek legend.
ISOLDE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare), German, Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: i-SOL-də(English) i-ZOL-də(English) i-SOLD(English) i-ZOLD(English) ee-ZAWL-də(German)
The origins of this name are uncertain, though some Celtic roots have been suggested. It is possible that the name is ultimately Germanic, perhaps from a hypothetic name like Ishild, composed of the elements is "ice, iron" and hild "battle".

In medieval Arthurian legend Isolde was an Irish princess betrothed to King Mark of Cornwall. After accidentally drinking a love potion, she became the lover of his knight Tristan, which led to their tragic deaths. The story was popular during the Middle Ages and the name became relatively common in England at that time. It was rare by the 19th century, though some interest was generated by Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde (1865).

ITHIEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: אִיתִיאֵל(Ancient Hebrew)
Possibly means "God is with me" in Hebrew. This is the name of a minor character in the Old Testament.
JACK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JAK
Derived from Jackin (earlier Jankin), a medieval diminutive of JOHN [1]. There could be some early influence from the unrelated French name JACQUES [2]. It is often regarded as an independent name. During the Middle Ages it was very common, and it became a slang word meaning "man". It was frequently used in fairy tales and nursery rhymes, such as Jack and the Beanstalk, Little Jack Horner, and Jack Sprat.

American writers Jack London (1876-1916) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) were two famous bearers of this name. It is also borne by the actor Jack Nicholson (1937-) and the golfer Jack Nicklaus (1940-). Apart from Nicklaus, none of these famous bearers were given the name Jack at birth.

In the United Kingdom this form has been bestowed more frequently than John since the 1990s, being the most popular name for boys from 1996 to 2008.

JAMES
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: JAYMZ(English)
English form of the Late Latin name Iacomus, a variant of the Biblical Latin form Iacobus, from the Hebrew name Ya'aqov (see JACOB). This was the name of two apostles in the New Testament. The first was Saint James the Greater, the apostle John's brother, who was beheaded under Herod Agrippa in the Book of Acts. The second was James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus. Another James (known as James the Just) is also mentioned in the Bible as being the brother of Jesus.

This name has been used in England since the 13th century, though it became more common in Scotland where it was borne by several kings. In the 17th century the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne, becoming the first ruler of all Britain, and the name grew much more popular. In American name statistics (recorded since 1880) this name has never been out of the top 20, making it arguably the era's most consistently popular name. It was the top ranked name for boys in the United States from 1940 to 1952.

Famous bearers include the English explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779), the Scottish inventor James Watt (1736-1819), and the Irish novelist and poet James Joyce (1882-1941). This name has also been borne by six American presidents. A notable fictional bearer is the British spy James Bond, created by author Ian Fleming.

JASPER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Dutch, Judeo-Christian Legend
Pronounced: JAS-pər(English) YAHS-pər(Dutch)
From Latin Gaspar, perhaps from the biblical Hebrew word גִּזְבָּר (gizbar) meaning "treasurer", derived from Persian ganzabara. This name was traditionally assigned to one of the wise men (also known as the Magi, or three kings) who were said to have visited the newborn Jesus. It has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world since the Middle Ages. The name can also be given in reference to the English word for the gemstone.
JAVIER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Spanish
Pronounced: kha-BYEHR
Spanish form of XAVIER.
JEM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JEHM
Diminutive of JEREMY (and formerly of JAMES).
JEMIMA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical, English
Other Scripts: יְמִימָה(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: jə-MIE-mə(English)
Means "dove" in Hebrew. This was the oldest of the three daughters of Job in the Old Testament. As an English name, Jemima first became common during the Puritan era.
JEREMY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: JEHR-ə-mee(English) JEHR-mee(English)
Medieval English form of JEREMIAH, and the form used in some English versions of the New Testament.
JESSA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JEHS-ə
Diminutive of JESSICA.
JOSEPH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Biblical
Other Scripts: יוֹסֵף(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: JO-səf(English) ZHO-ZEHF(French) YO-zehf(German)
From Ioseph, the Latin form of Greek Ἰωσήφ (Ioseph), which was from the Hebrew name יוֹסֵף (Yosef) meaning "he will add", from the root יָסַף (yasaf). In the Old Testament Joseph is the eleventh son of Jacob and the first with his wife Rachel. Because he was the favourite of his father, his older brothers sent him to Egypt and told their father that he had died. In Egypt, Joseph became an advisor to the pharaoh, and was eventually reconciled with his brothers when they came to Egypt during a famine. This name also occurs in the New Testament, belonging to Saint Joseph the husband of Mary, and to Joseph of Arimathea.

In the Middle Ages, Joseph was a common Jewish name, being less frequent among Christians. In the late Middle Ages Saint Joseph became more highly revered, and the name became popular in Spain and Italy. In England it became common after the Protestant Reformation. In the United States it has stayed within the top 25 names for boys since 1880, making it one of the most enduringly popular names of this era.

This name was borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Portugal. Other notable bearers include the founder of Mormonism Joseph Smith (1805-1844), Polish-British author Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) and the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin (1878-1953).

JOSEPHINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch
Pronounced: JO-sə-feen(English) yo-zeh-FEE-nə(German)
English, German and Dutch form of JOSÉPHINE.
JUDAH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: יְהוּדָה(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: JOO-də(English)
From the Hebrew name יְהוּדָה (Yehudah), probably derived from יָדָה (yadah) meaning "praise". In the Old Testament Judah is the fourth of the twelve sons of Jacob by Leah, and the ancestor of the tribe of Judah. An explanation for his name is given in Genesis 29:35. His tribe eventually formed the Kingdom of Judah in the south of Israel. King David and Jesus were among the descendants of him and his wife Tamar. This name was also borne by Judah Maccabee, the Jewish priest who revolted against Seleucid rule in the 2nd century BC, as told in the Books of Maccabees.

The name appears in the New Testament using the spellings Judas and Jude.

JUDE (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: JOOD(English)
Variant of JUDAS. It is used in many English versions of the New Testament to denote the second apostle named Judas, in order to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot. He was supposedly the author of the Epistle of Jude. In the English-speaking world, Jude has occasionally been used as a given name since the time of the Protestant Reformation.
JUDITH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Jewish, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Spanish, French, Biblical
Other Scripts: יְהוּדִית(Hebrew)
Pronounced: JOO-dith(English) YOO-dit(German) khoo-DHEET(Spanish) ZHUY-DEET(French)
From the Hebrew name יְהוּדִית (Yehudit) meaning "Jewish woman", feminine of יְהוּדִי (yehudi), ultimately referring to a person from the tribe of Judah. In the Old Testament Judith is one of the Hittite wives of Esau. This is also the name of the main character of the apocryphal Book of Judith. She killed Holofernes, an invading Assyrian commander, by beheading him in his sleep.

As an English name it did not become common until after the Protestant Reformation, despite a handful of early examples during the Middle Ages. It was however used earlier on the European continent, being borne by several European royals, such as the 9th-century Judith of Bavaria.

JULIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Russian, Ukrainian, Ancient Roman, Biblical
Other Scripts: Юлия(Russian) Юлія(Ukrainian)
Pronounced: JOO-lee-ə(English) YOO-lya(German, Danish, Polish) YOO-lee-ah(Swedish, Finnish) KHOO-lya(Spanish) YOO-lyi-yə(Russian) YOO-lee-a(Latin)
Feminine form of the Roman family name JULIUS. Among the notable women from this family were Julia Augusta (also known as Livia Drusilla), the wife of Emperor Augustus, and Julia the Elder, the daughter of Augustus and the wife of Tiberius. A person by this name has a brief mention in the New Testament. It was also borne by a few early saints and martyrs, including the patron saint of Corsica. Additionally, Shakespeare used it in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594).

It has been common as a given name in the English-speaking world only since the 18th century. A famous modern bearer is American actress Julia Roberts (1967-).

JULIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Polish, German
Pronounced: JOO-lee-ən(English) JOOL-yən(English) YOO-lyan(Polish, German)
From the Roman name Iulianus, which was derived from JULIUS. This was the name of the last pagan Roman emperor, Julian the Apostate (4th century). It was also borne by several early saints, including the legendary Saint Julian the Hospitaller. This name has been used in England since the Middle Ages, at which time it was also a feminine name (from Juliana, eventually becoming Gillian).
JUNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JOON
From the name of the month, which was originally derived from the name of the Roman goddess Juno. It has been used as a given name since the 19th century.
JUNIPER
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: JOON-i-pər
From the English word for the type of tree, derived ultimately from Latin iuniperus.
KATE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Croatian
Pronounced: KAYT(English)
Diminutive of KATHERINE, often used independently. It has been used in England since the Middle Ages. This was the name of the woman who Petruchio marries and tries to tame in Shakespeare's comedy Taming of the Shrew (1593). A famous bearer is the British actress Kate Winslet (1975-).
KATHARINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German
Pronounced: KATH-ə-rin(English) KATH-rin(English) ka-ta-REE-nə(German)
English variant of KATHERINE and German variant of KATHARINA. A famous bearer was American actress Katharine Hepburn (1907-2003).
KESTER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Diminutive of CHRISTOPHER.
KITTY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: KIT-ee
Diminutive of KATHERINE.
LACHLAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish, English (Australian)
Pronounced: LAKH-lən(Scottish) LAK-lən(English)
Originally a Scottish nickname for a person who was from Norway. In Scotland, Norway was known as the "land of the lochs", or Lochlann.
LAURENCE (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LAWR-əns
From the Roman cognomen Laurentius, which meant "from Laurentum". Laurentum was a city in ancient Italy, its name probably deriving from Latin laurus "laurel". Saint Laurence was a 3rd-century deacon and martyr from Rome. According to tradition he was roasted alive on a gridiron because, when ordered to hand over the church's treasures, he presented the sick and poor. Due to the saint's popularity, the name came into general use in the Christian world (in various spellings).

In the Middle Ages this name was common in England, partly because of a second saint by this name, a 7th-century archbishop of Canterbury. Likewise it has been common in Ireland due to the 12th-century Saint Laurence O'Toole (whose real name was Lorcán). Since the 19th century the spelling Lawrence has been more common, especially in America. A famous bearer was the British actor Laurence Olivier (1907-1989).

LAURIE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: LAWR-ee(English) LOW-ree(Dutch)
Diminutive of LAURA or LAURENCE (1).
LENA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Polish, Russian, English, Italian, Portuguese, Greek
Other Scripts: Лена(Russian) Λένα(Greek)
Pronounced: LEH-na(Swedish, German, Polish, Italian) LYEH-nə(Russian) LEE-nə(English)
Short form of names ending in lena, such as HELENA, MAGDALENA or YELENA.
LEO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, English, Croatian, Late Roman
Pronounced: LEH-o(German, Danish, Finnish) LEH-yo(Dutch) LEE-o(English)
Derived from Latin leo meaning "lion", a cognate of LEON. It was popular among early Christians and was the name of 13 popes, including Saint Leo the Great who asserted the dominance of the Roman bishops (the popes) over all others in the 5th century. It was also borne by six Byzantine emperors and five Armenian kings. Another famous bearer was Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), a Russian novelist whose works include War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Leo is also the name of a constellation and the fifth sign of the zodiac.
LEONTINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Late Roman
Feminine form of LEONTIUS.
LEOPOLD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, English, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Polish
Pronounced: LEH-o-pawlt(German, Dutch) LEE-ə-pold(English) LEH-o-polt(Czech) LEH-aw-pawld(Slovak) leh-AW-pawlt(Polish)
Derived from the Germanic elements leud "people" and bald "bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo "lion". This name was common among German royalty, first with the Babenbergs and then the Habsburgs. Saint Leopold was a 12th-century Babenberg margrave of Austria, who is now considered the patron of that country. It was also borne by two Habsburg Holy Roman emperors, as well as three kings of Belgium. Since the 19th century this name has been occasionally used in England, originally in honour of Queen Victoria's uncle, a king of Belgium, after whom she named one of her sons. It was later used by James Joyce for the main character, Leopold Bloom, in his novel Ulysses (1922).
LEWIS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LOO-is
Medieval English form of LOUIS. A famous bearer was Lewis Carroll (1832-1898), the author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. This was also the surname of C. S. Lewis (1898-1963), the author of the Chronicles of Narnia.
LIAT
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew
Other Scripts: לִיאַת(Hebrew)
Means "you are mine" in Hebrew.
LIBBY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LIB-ee
Originally a medieval diminutive of Ibb, itself a diminutive of ISABEL. It is also used as a diminutive of ELIZABETH.
LILIBETH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Diminutive of ELIZABETH.
LILY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LIL-ee
From the name of the flower, a symbol of purity. The word is ultimately derived from Latin lilium.
LINNÉA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish
Pronounced: lin-NEH-a
From the name of a flower, also known as the twinflower. The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus named it after himself, it being his favourite flower.
LIORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew
Other Scripts: לִיאוֹרָה(Hebrew)
Strictly feminine form of LIOR.
LIRON
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: Hebrew
Other Scripts: לִירוֹן(Hebrew)
Means "song for me" or "joy for me" in Hebrew.
LOLITA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish
Pronounced: lo-LEE-ta
Diminutive of LOLA.
LOTTIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Swedish
Pronounced: LAHT-ee(English)
Diminutive of CHARLOTTE or LISELOTTE.
LOUIE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LOO-ee
Diminutive of LOUIS.
LOUIS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French, English, Dutch
Pronounced: LWEE(French) LOO-is(English) LOO-ee(English) loo-EE(Dutch)
French form of Ludovicus, the Latinized form of LUDWIG. This was the name of 18 kings of France, starting with Louis I the son of Charlemagne. Others include Louis IX (Saint Louis) who led two crusades and Louis XIV (called the Sun King) who was the ruler of France during the height of its power, the builder of the Palace of Versailles, and the longest reigning monarch in the history of Europe. It was also borne by kings of Germany (as Ludwig), Hungary (as Lajos), and other places.

Apart from royalty, this name was only moderately popular in France during the Middle Ages. After the French Revolution, when Louis XVI was guillotined, it became less common.

The Normans brought the name to England, where it was usually spelled Lewis, though the spelling Louis has been more common in America. Famous bearers include French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), Métis leader Louis Riel (1844-1885), who led a rebellion against Canada, Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), who wrote Treasure Island and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and American jazz musician Louis Armstrong (1901-1971).

LOUISA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch
Pronounced: loo-EEZ-ə(English) loo-EE-za(German)
Latinate feminine form of LOUIS. A famous bearer was the American novelist Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888), the author of Little Women.
LUCIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Romanian, Slovak, Ancient Roman
Pronounced: loo-CHEE-a(Italian) loo-TSEE-a(German) LOO-tsya(German) LOO-shə(English) loo-SEE-ə(English) luy-SEE-a(Swedish) LOO-chya(Romanian) LOO-kee-a(Latin)
Feminine form of LUCIUS. Saint Lucia was a 4th-century martyr from Syracuse. She was said to have had her eyes gouged out, and thus she is the patron saint of the blind. She was widely revered in the Middle Ages, and her name has been used throughout Christian Europe (in various spellings). It has been used in the England since the 12th century, usually in the spellings Lucy or Luce.
LUCY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LOO-see
English form of LUCIA, in use since the Middle Ages.
LUDOVIC
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: LUY-DAW-VEEK
Medieval Latinized form of LUDWIG. This was the name of an 1833 opera by the French composer Fromental Halévy.
LUKE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: LOOK(English)
English form of Latin Lucas, from the Greek name Λουκᾶς (Loukas) meaning "from Lucania", Lucania being a region in southern Italy (of uncertain meaning). Luke was a doctor who travelled in the company of the apostle Paul. According to tradition, he was the author of the third gospel and Acts in the New Testament. He was probably of Greek ethnicity. He is considered a saint by many Christian denominations.

Due to the saint's renown, the name became common in the Christian world (in various spellings). As an English name, Luke has been in use since the 12th century alongside the Latin form Lucas. A famous fictional bearer was the hero Luke Skywalker from the Star Wars movies, beginning in 1977.

LUNA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Roman Mythology, Italian, Spanish, English
Pronounced: LOO-na(Italian, Spanish) LOO-nə(English)
Means "the moon" in Latin. Luna was the Roman goddess of the moon, frequently depicted driving a white chariot through the sky.
LUX
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: Various
Pronounced: LUKS(English)
Derived from Latin lux meaning "light".
LYDIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Biblical, Old Church Slavic, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Λυδία(Ancient Greek) Лѷдіа(Church Slavic)
Pronounced: LID-ee-ə(English) LUY-dya(German)
Means "from Lydia" in Greek. Lydia was a region on the west coast of Asia Minor, said to be named for the legendary king LYDOS. In the New Testament this is the name of a woman converted to Christianity by Saint Paul. In the modern era the name has been in use since the Protestant Reformation.
LYSANDER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Λύσανδρος(Ancient Greek)
Latinized form of the Greek name Λύσανδρος (Lysandros), derived from Greek λύσις (lysis) meaning "a release" and ἀνήρ (aner) meaning "man" (genitive ἀνδρός). This was the name of a notable 5th-century BC Spartan general and naval commander.
MADELEINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, Swedish
Pronounced: MAD-LEHN(French) MAD-ə-lin(English) MAD-ə-lien(English) MAD-lin(English) mahd-eh-LEHN(Swedish)
French form of MAGDALENE.
MAE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MAY
Variant of MAY. A famous bearer was the American actress Mae West (1893-1980), whose birth name was Mary.
MAEVE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: MAYV(Irish)
Anglicized form of the Gaelic name Medb meaning "intoxicating". In Irish legend this was the name of a warrior queen of Connacht. Her fight against Ulster and the hero Cúchulainn is told in the Irish epic The Cattle Raid of Cooley.
MAGDALENE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Μαγδαληνή(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: mak-da-LEH-nə(German) MAG-də-lin(English)
From a title meaning "of Magdala". Mary Magdalene, a character in the New Testament, was named thus because she was from Magdala - a village on the Sea of Galilee whose name meant "tower" in Hebrew. She was cleaned of evil spirits by Jesus and then remained with him during his ministry, witnessing the crucifixion and the resurrection. She was a popular saint in the Middle Ages, and the name became common then. In England it is traditionally rendered Madeline, while Magdalene or Magdalen is the learned form.
MAGGIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MAG-ee
Diminutive of MARGARET.
MAGNOLIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: mag-NO-lee-ə
From the English word magnolia for the flower, which was named for the French botanist Pierre Magnol.
MAGNUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Late Roman
Pronounced: MANG-nuys(Swedish) MAHNG-noos(Norwegian) MOW-noos(Danish) MAG-nəs(English)
Late Latin name meaning "great". It was borne by a 7th-century saint who was a missionary in Germany. It became popular in Scandinavia after the time of the 11th-century Norwegian king Magnus I, who was said to have been named after Charlemagne, or Carolus Magnus in Latin (however there was also a Norse name Magni). The name was borne by six subsequent kings of Norway as well as three kings of Sweden. It was imported to Scotland and Ireland during the Middle Ages.
MAIA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology, Roman Mythology, Portuguese, Georgian
Other Scripts: Μαῖα(Ancient Greek) მაია(Georgian)
Pronounced: MIE-A(Classical Greek) MAY-ə(English) MIE-ə(English) MIE-AH(Georgian)
From Greek μαῖα (maia) meaning "good mother, dame, foster mother", perhaps in origin a nursery form of μήτηρ (meter). In Greek and Roman mythology she was the eldest of the Pleiades, the group of seven stars in the constellation Taurus, who were the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. Her son by Zeus was Hermes.
MANAMI
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Japanese
Other Scripts: 愛美, 愛海, etc.(Japanese Kanji)
Pronounced: MA-NA-MEE
From Japanese (mana) meaning "love, affection" combined with (mi) meaning "beautiful" or (mi) meaning "sea, ocean". Other kanji combinations are possible.
MANON
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, Dutch
Pronounced: MA-NAWN(French)
French diminutive of MARIE.
MARAMA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Polynesian Mythology
Means "moon" in Maori. In Maori and other Polynesian mythology she was the goddess of the moon and death.
MARCELINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: MAR-SU-LEEN
French feminine form of MARCELLINUS.
MARCY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MAHR-see
Diminutive of MARCIA.
MARGARET
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MAHR-grit, MAHR-gə-rit
Derived from Latin Margarita, which was from Greek μαργαρίτης (margarites) meaning "pearl", a word that was probably ultimately a borrowing from an Indo-Iranian language. Saint Margaret, the patron of expectant mothers, was martyred at Antioch in the 4th century. Later legends told of her escape from a dragon, with which she was often depicted in medieval art. The saint was popular during the Middle Ages, and her name has been widely used in the Christian world.

As an English name it has been very popular since the Middle Ages. It was the top name for girls in England and Wales in the 1920s, 30s and 40s, but it declined in the latter half of the 20th century.

Other saints by this name include a queen of Scotland and a princess of Hungary. It was also borne by Queen Margaret I of Denmark, who united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway in the 14th century. Famous literary bearers include American writer Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949), the author of Gone with the Wind, and Canadian writer Margaret Atwood (1939-). Others include American anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-1978) and British prime minister Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013).

MARGOT
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: MAR-GO
French short form of MARGARET.
MARIAMNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: History
From Μαριάμη (Mariame), the form of MARIA used by the historian Josephus when referring to the wife of King Herod.
MARIANNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish
Pronounced: MA-RYAN(French) mar-ee-AN(English) ma-RYA-nə(German) MAH-ree-ahn-neh(Finnish)
Originally a French diminutive of MARIE. It is also considered a combination of MARIE and ANNE (1). Shortly after the formation of the French Republic in 1792, a female figure by this name was adopted as the symbol of the state.
MARIEKE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Dutch
Pronounced: ma-REE-kə
Dutch diminutive of MARIA.
MARION (2)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MEHR-ee-ən, MAR-ee-ən
From a French surname that was derived from MARION (1). This was the real name of American actor John Wayne (1907-1979), who was born Marion Robert Morrison.
MARIS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: MEHR-is, MAR-is
Means "of the sea", taken from the Latin title of the Virgin Mary, Stella Maris, meaning "star of the sea".
MARLOWE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: MAHR-lo
From a surname that was derived from a place name meaning "remnants of a lake" in Old English. A famous bearer of the surname was the English playwright Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593).
MARY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: MEHR-ee(English) MAR-ee(English)
Usual English form of Maria, the Latin form of the New Testament Greek names Μαριάμ (Mariam) and Μαρία (Maria) - the spellings are interchangeable - which were from Hebrew מִרְיָם (Miryam), a name borne by the sister of Moses in the Old Testament. The meaning is not known for certain, but there are several theories including "sea of bitterness", "rebelliousness", and "wished for child". However it was most likely originally an Egyptian name, perhaps derived in part from mry "beloved" or mr "love".

This is the name of several New Testament characters, most importantly Mary the mother of Jesus. According to the gospels, Jesus was conceived in her by the Holy Spirit while she remained a virgin. This name was also borne by Mary Magdalene, a woman cured of demons by Jesus. She became one of his followers and later witnessed his crucifixion and resurrection.

Due to the Virgin Mary this name has been very popular in the Christian world, though at certain times in some cultures it has been considered too holy for everyday use. In England it has been used since the 12th century, and it has been among the most common feminine names since the 16th century. In the United States in 1880 it was given more than twice as often as the next most popular name for girls (Anna). It remained in the top rank in America until 1946 when it was bumped to second (by Linda). Although it regained the top spot for a few more years in the 1950s it was already falling in usage, and has since dropped out of the top 100 names.

This name has been borne by two queens of England, as well as a queen of Scotland, Mary Queen of Scots. Another notable bearer was Mary Shelley (1797-1851), the author of Frankenstein. A famous fictional character by this name is Mary Poppins from the children's books by P. L. Travers, first published in 1934.

The Latinized form of this name, Maria, is also used in English as well as in several other languages.

MARYAM
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Bashkir, Tatar
Other Scripts: مريم(Arabic) مریم(Persian, Urdu) Мәрйәм(Bashkir) Мәрьям(Tatar)
Pronounced: MAR-yam(Arabic)
Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Bashkir and Tatar form of Miryam (see MARY). In Iran it is also the name of a flower, the tuberose, which is named after the Virgin Mary.
MASSIMILIANO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: mas-see-mee-LYA-no
Italian form of MAXIMILIAN.
MATHILDE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish
Pronounced: MA-TEELD(French) ma-TIL-də(German) ma:-TIL-də(Dutch)
Form of MATILDA in several languages.
MATILDA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Swedish, Finnish, Slovak
Pronounced: mə-TIL-də(English) MAH-teel-dah(Finnish) MA-teel-da(Slovak)
From the Germanic name Mahthildis meaning "strength in battle", from the elements maht "might, strength" and hild "battle". Saint Matilda was the wife of the 10th-century German king Henry I the Fowler. The name was common in many branches of European royalty in the Middle Ages. It was brought to England by the Normans, being borne by the wife of William the Conqueror himself. Another notable royal by this name was a 12th-century daughter of Henry I of England, known as the Empress Matilda because of her first marriage to the Holy Roman emperor Henry V. She later invaded England, laying the foundations for the reign of her son Henry II.

The name was very popular until the 15th century in England, usually in the vernacular form Maud. Both forms were revived by the 19th century. This name appears in the popular Australian folk song Waltzing Matilda, written in 1895.

MATTHIAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, French, Dutch, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Ματθίας(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: ma-TEE-as(German) MA-TYAS(French) mə-THIE-əs(English) MAT-tee-as(Latin)
From Greek Ματθίας (Matthias), a variant of Ματθαῖος (see MATTHEW). This form appears in the New Testament as the name of the apostle chosen to replace the traitor Judas Iscariot. This was also the name of kings of Hungary (spelled Mátyás in Hungarian), including Matthias I who made important reforms to the kingdom in the 15th century.
MAXENCE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: MAK-SAHNS
French form of the Roman name Maxentius, a derivative of Latin maximus "greatest". This was the agnomen of an early 4th-century Roman emperor, a rival of Constantine. It was also borne by a 6th-century saint from Agde in France.
MAXIM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Czech
Other Scripts: Максим(Russian, Ukrainian) Максім(Belarusian)
Pronounced: muk-SYEEM(Russian) MAK-sim(Czech)
Alternate transcription of Russian Максим or Belarusian Максім (see MAKSIM) or Ukrainian Максим (see MAKSYM). This is also the Czech form.
MAXIMILIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Swedish, Norwegian (Rare), Danish (Rare)
Pronounced: mak-see-MEE-lyan(German) mak-sə-MIL-yən(English)
From the Roman name Maximilianus, which was derived from MAXIMUS. It was borne by a 3rd-century saint and martyr. In the 15th century the Holy Roman emperor Frederick III gave this name to his son and eventual heir. In this case it was a blend of the names of the Roman generals Fabius Maximus and Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (see EMILIANO), who Frederick admired. It was subsequently borne by a second Holy Roman emperor, two kings of Bavaria, and a short-lived Habsburg emperor of Mexico.
MAYA (2)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MIE-ə, MAY-ə
Variant of MAIA (1). This name can also be given in reference to the Maya peoples, a Native American culture who built a great civilization in southern Mexico and Latin America.
MEHETABEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: מְהֵיטַבְאֵל(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: mi-HEHT-ə-behl(English)
From the Hebrew name מְהֵיטַבְאֵל (Meheitav'el) meaning "God makes happy". This name is mentioned briefly in the Old Testament.
METRODORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Greek [1]
Other Scripts: Μητροδώρα(Ancient Greek)
Derived from Greek μήτηρ (meter) meaning "mother" (genitive μητρός) and δῶρον (doron) meaning "gift". This was the name of a 4th-century saint and martyr who was killed with her sisters Menodora and Nymphodora.
MILES
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MIELZ
From the Germanic name Milo, introduced by the Normans to England in the form Miles. The meaning is not known for certain. It is possibly connected to the Slavic name element milu meaning "gracious". From an early date it was associated with Latin miles "soldier".

In Scotland this name was historically used as an Anglicized form of Maoilios.

MILLARAY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Indigenous American, Mapuche
Means "golden flower" in Mapuche.
MILLY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, English
Pronounced: MIL-ee(English)
Diminutive of EMILIE, MILDRED and other names containing the same sound.
MILO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Ancient Germanic [1]
Pronounced: MIE-lo(English)
Old Germanic form of MILES, as well as the Latinized form. This form of the name was used in official documents during the Middle Ages, and it has been used independently since the 19th century [2].
MINA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Dutch, Limburgish
Pronounced: MEE-nə(English) MEE-nah(Dutch, Limburgish)
Short form of WILHELMINA and other names ending in mina. This was the name of a character in the novel Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker.
MIRA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Indian, Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada
Other Scripts: मीरा(Hindi, Marathi) മീര(Malayalam) மீரா(Tamil) ಮೀರಾ(Kannada)
Means "sea, ocean" in Sanskrit. This was the name of a 16th-century Indian princess who devoted her life to the god Krishna.
MIRA (2)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Polish
Other Scripts: Мира(Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian)
Pronounced: MYEE-ra(Polish)
Short form of names containing the Slavic element miru meaning "peace" or "world".
MIRIAM
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Biblical, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: מִרְיָם(Hebrew)
Pronounced: MIR-ee-əm(English) MI-ryam(German) mee-RYAM(Spanish) MI-ri-yam(Czech) MEE-ree-am(Slovak)
Hebrew form of MARY. It is used in the Old Testament, where it belongs to the elder sister of Moses and Aaron. She watched over the infant Moses as the pharaoh's daughter drew him from the Nile. The name has long been popular among Jews, and it has been used as an English Christian name (alongside Mary) since the Protestant Reformation.
NAOMI (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical
Other Scripts: נָעֳמִי(Hebrew)
Pronounced: nay-O-mee(English) nie-O-mee(English)
From the Hebrew name נָעֳמִי (Na'omi) meaning "pleasantness". In the Old Testament this is the name of the mother-in-law of Ruth. After the death of her husband and sons, she returned to Bethlehem with Ruth. There she declared that her name should be Mara (see Ruth 1:20).

Though long common as a Jewish name, Naomi was not typically used as an English Christian name until after the Protestant Reformation. A notable bearer is the British model Naomi Campbell (1970-).

NED
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: NEHD
Diminutive of EDWARD or EDMUND. It has been used since the 14th century, and may have had root in the medieval affectionate phrase mine Ed, which was later reinterpreted as my Ned.
NELL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: NEHL
Medieval diminutive of names beginning with El, such as ELEANOR, ELLEN (1) or HELEN. It may have arisen from the medieval affectionate phrase mine El, which was later reinterpreted as my Nel.
NETTIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: NEHT-ee
Diminutive of names ending in nette, such as ANNETTE or JEANETTE.
NIAMH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: NYEE-əv(Irish) NYEEV(Irish)
Means "bright" in Irish. She was the daughter of the sea god in Irish legends. She fell in love with the poet Oisín, son of Fionn.
NICHOLAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: NIK-ə-ləs, NIK-ləs
From the Greek name Νικόλαος (Nikolaos) meaning "victory of the people", derived from Greek νίκη (nike) meaning "victory" and λαός (laos) meaning "people". Saint Nicholas was a 4th-century bishop from Anatolia who, according to legend, saved the daughters of a poor man from lives of prostitution. He is the patron saint of children, sailors and merchants, as well as Greece and Russia. He formed the basis for the figure known as Santa Claus (created in the 19th century from Dutch Sinterklaas), the bringer of Christmas presents.

Due to the renown of the saint, this name has been widely used in the Christian world. It has been common in England since the 12th century, though it became a bit less popular after the Protestant Reformation. The name has been borne by five popes and two czars of Russia.

NICODEMUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: Νικόδημος(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: nik-ə-DEE-məs(English) nee-ko-DEH-moos(Latin)
From the Greek name Νικόδημος (Nikodemos) meaning "victory of the people", derived from Greek νίκη (nike) meaning "victory" and δῆμος (demos) meaning "the people". This is the name of a character in the New Testament who helps Joseph of Arimathea entomb Jesus.
NOAM
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: Hebrew, French
Other Scripts: נוֹעַם(Hebrew)
Pronounced: NAW-AM(French)
Means "pleasantness" in Hebrew. A famous bearer is Noam Chomsky (1928-), an American linguist and philosopher.
NOOR (1)
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: Arabic, Urdu
Other Scripts: نور(Arabic, Urdu)
Pronounced: NOOR(Arabic)
Alternate transcription of Arabic/Urdu نور (see NUR).
NORA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Latvian, German, Dutch, Italian
Pronounced: NAWR-ə(Irish, English) NO-ra(German)
Short form of HONORA or ELEANOR. Henrik Ibsen used it for a character in his play A Doll's House (1879).
OBERON
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: O-bər-ahn(English)
Variant of AUBERON. Oberon was the king of the fairies in Shakespeare's comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream (1595). A moon of Uranus bears this name in his honour.
OCTAVIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Spanish, Ancient Roman
Pronounced: ahk-TAY-vee-ə(English) ok-TA-bya(Spanish) ok-TA-wee-a(Latin)
Feminine form of OCTAVIUS. Octavia was the wife of Mark Antony and the sister of the Roman emperor Augustus. In 19th-century England it was sometimes given to the eighth-born child.
OCTAVIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: History, Romanian
Pronounced: ahk-TAY-vee-ən(English)
From the Roman name Octavianus, which was derived from the name OCTAVIUS. After Gaius Octavius (later the Roman emperor Augustus) was adopted by Julius Caesar he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
OISÍN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: aw-SHEEN(Irish) o-SHEEN(English)
Means "little deer", derived from Irish os "deer" combined with a diminutive suffix. In Irish legend Oisín was a warrior hero and a poet, the son of Fionn mac Cumhail.
OLIVE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: AHL-iv(English) AW-LEEV(French)
From the English and French word for the type of tree, ultimately derived from Latin oliva.
OLIVER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, Catalan, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak
Other Scripts: Оливер(Serbian, Macedonian)
Pronounced: AHL-i-vər(English) O-lee-vu(German) O-lee-vehr(Finnish) oo-lee-BEH(Catalan) O-li-vehr(Czech) AW-lee-vehr(Slovak)
From Olivier, a Norman French form of a Germanic name such as ALFHER or an Old Norse name such as Áleifr (see OLAF). The spelling was altered by association with Latin oliva "olive tree". In the Middle Ages the name became well-known in Western Europe because of the French epic La Chanson de Roland, in which Olivier was a friend and advisor of the hero Roland.

In England Oliver was a common medieval name, however it became rare after the 17th century because of the military commander Oliver Cromwell, who ruled the country following the civil war. The name was revived in the 19th century, perhaps due in part to the title character in Charles Dickens' novel Oliver Twist (1838), which was about a poor orphan living on the streets of London. It became very popular at the beginning of the 21st century, reaching the top rank for boys in England and Wales in 2009 and entering the top ten in the United States in 2017.

OLYMPIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek, Slovak
Other Scripts: Ολυμπία(Greek)
Feminine form of OLYMPOS.
OPHELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Literature
Pronounced: o-FEEL-ee-ə(English) o-FEEL-yə(English)
Derived from Greek ὄφελος (ophelos) meaning "help, advantage". This name was probably created by the 15th-century poet Jacopo Sannazaro for a character in his poem Arcadia. It was borrowed by Shakespeare for his play Hamlet (1600), in which it belongs to Hamlet's lover who eventually goes insane and drowns herself. In spite of this, the name has been used since the 19th century.
OSCAR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Irish, Portuguese (Brazilian), Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, French, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: AHS-kər(English) AWS-kar(Italian, Swedish) AWS-KAR(French)
Possibly means "deer friend", derived from Gaelic os "deer" and cara "friend". Alternatively, it may derive from the Old English name OSGAR or its Old Norse cognate ÁSGEIRR, which may have been brought to Ireland by Viking invaders and settlers. In Irish legend Oscar was the son of the poet Oisín and the grandson of the hero Fionn mac Cumhail.

This name was popularized in continental Europe by the works of the 18th-century Scottish poet James Macpherson [1]. Napoleon was an admirer of Macpherson, and he suggested Oscar as the second middle name of his godson, who eventually became king of Sweden as Oscar I. Another notable bearer was the Irish writer and humourist Oscar Wilde (1854-1900).

OSMOND
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: AHZ-mənd
From the Old English elements os "god" and mund "protection". During the Anglo-Saxon period a Norse cognate Ásmundr was also used in England, and another version was imported by the Normans. Saint Osmund was an 11th-century Norman nobleman who became an English bishop. Though it eventually became rare, it was revived in the 19th century, in part from a surname that was derived from the given name.
OTTILIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German
Pronounced: aw-TEE-lyə
German form of ODILIA.
OTTOLINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Diminutive of OTTILIE. A famous bearer was the British socialite Lady Ottoline Morrell (1873-1938).
PANDORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Πανδώρα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: PAN-DAW-RA(Classical Greek) pan-DAWR-ə(English)
Means "all gifts", derived from a combination of Greek πᾶν (pan) meaning "all" and δῶρον (doron) meaning "gift". In Greek mythology Pandora was the first mortal woman. Zeus gave her a jar containing all of the troubles and ills that mankind now knows, and told her not to open it. Unfortunately her curiosity got the best of her and she opened it, unleashing the evil spirits into the world.
PANTALEON
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Πανταλέων(Ancient Greek)
Derived from the Greek elements πᾶν (pan) meaning "all" (genitive παντός) and λέων (leon) meaning "lion". This was the name of a 2nd-century BC king of Bactria. It was also borne by Saint Pantaleon (also called Panteleimon), a doctor from Asia Minor who was martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian in the early 4th century. He is a patron saint of doctors and midwives.
PARTHENOPE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Παρθενόπη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: pahr-THEHN-ə-pee(English)
Means "maiden's voice", derived from Greek παρθένος (parthenos) meaning "maiden, virgin" and ὄψ (ops) meaning "voice". In Greek legend this is the name of one of the Sirens who enticed Odysseus.
PATRICK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish, English, French, German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
Pronounced: PAT-rik(English) PA-TREEK(French) PA-trik(German)
From the Latin name Patricius, which meant "nobleman". This name was adopted in the 5th-century by Saint Patrick, whose birth name was Sucat. He was a Romanized Briton who was captured and enslaved in his youth by Irish raiders. After six years of servitude he escaped home, but he eventually became a bishop and went back to Ireland as a missionary. He is traditionally credited with Christianizing the island, and is regarded as Ireland's patron saint.

In England and elsewhere in Europe during the Middle Ages this name was used in honour of the saint. However, it was not generally given in Ireland before the 17th century because it was considered too sacred for everyday use. It has since become very common there.

PAUL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, Romanian, Biblical
Pronounced: PAWL(English, French) POWL(German, Dutch)
From the Roman family name Paulus, which meant "small" or "humble" in Latin. Paul was an important leader of the early Christian church. According to Acts in the New Testament, he was a Jewish Roman citizen who converted to Christianity after the resurrected Jesus appeared to him. After this he travelled the eastern Mediterranean as a missionary. His original Hebrew name was Saul. Many of the epistles in the New Testament were authored by him.

Due to the renown of Saint Paul the name became common among early Christians. It was borne by a number of other early saints and six popes. In England it was relatively rare during the Middle Ages, but became more frequent beginning in the 17th century. A notable bearer was the American Revolutionary War figure Paul Revere (1735-1818), who warned of the advance of the British army. Famous bearers in the art world include the French impressionists Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), and the Swiss expressionist Paul Klee (1879-1940). It is borne by British musician Paul McCartney (1942-). This is also the name of the legendary American lumberjack Paul Bunyan.

PEARL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: PURL
From the English word pearl for the concretions formed in the shells of some mollusks, ultimately from Late Latin perla. Like other gemstone names, it has been used as a given name in the English-speaking world since the 19th century. The pearl is the birthstone for June, and it supposedly imparts health and wealth.
PENNY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: PEHN-ee
Diminutive of PENELOPE.
PHILOMENA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Late Greek
Other Scripts: Φιλομένα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: fil-ə-MEEN-ə(English)
From Greek φίλος (philos) meaning "friend, lover" and μένος (menos) meaning "mind, strength, force". This was the name of an obscure early saint and martyr. The name came to public attention in 1802 after a tomb seemingly marked with the name Filumena was found in Rome, supposedly belonging to another martyr named Philomena. This may have in fact been a representation of the Greek word φιλομήνη (philomene) meaning "loved".
PHINEAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: פִּינְחָס(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: FIN-ee-əs(English)
Variant of PHINEHAS used in some English versions of the Old Testament.
PHOEBE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Greek Mythology (Latinized), Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: Φοίβη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: FEE-bee(English)
Latinized form of the Greek name Φοίβη (Phoibe), which meant "bright, pure" from Greek φοῖβος (phoibos). In Greek mythology Phoibe was a Titan associated with the moon. This was also an epithet of her granddaughter, the moon goddess Artemis. The name appears in Paul's epistle to the Romans in the New Testament, where it belongs to a female minister in the church at Cenchreae. In England, it began to be used as a given name after the Protestant Reformation. A moon of Saturn bears this name (in honour of the Titan).
PIM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Dutch
Pronounced: PIM
Diminutive of WILLEM.
POMONA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Roman Mythology
From Latin pomus "fruit tree". This was the name of the Roman goddess of fruit trees.
PURNIMA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Indian, Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Tamil, Kannada
Other Scripts: पूर्णिमा(Hindi, Marathi) পূর্ণিমা(Bengali) பூர்ணிமா(Tamil) ಪೂರ್ಣಿಮಾ(Kannada)
Means "full moon" in Sanskrit.
QUINN
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: Irish, English
Pronounced: KWIN(English)
From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Cuinn meaning "descendant of CONN".
RACHEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Hebrew, French, Dutch, German, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: רָחֵל(Hebrew)
Pronounced: RAY-chəl(English) RA-SHEHL(French) RAH-khəl(Dutch) RA-khəl(German)
From the Hebrew name רָחֵל (Rachel) meaning "ewe". In the Old Testament this is the name of the favourite wife of Jacob. Jacob was tricked by her father Laban into marrying her older sister Leah first, though in exchange for seven years of work Laban allowed Jacob to marry Rachel too. Initially barren and facing her husband's anger, she offered her handmaid Bilhah to Jacob to bear him children. Eventually she was herself able to conceive, becoming the mother of Joseph and Benjamin.

The name was common among Jews in the Middle Ages, but it was not generally used as a Christian name in the English-speaking world until after the Protestant Reformation. A notable bearer was the American conservationist Rachel Carson (1907-1964).

RAMONA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Romanian, English
Pronounced: ra-MO-na(Spanish) rə-MON-ə(English)
Feminine form of RAMÓN. It was popularized in the English-speaking world by Helen Hunt Jackson's novel Ramona (1884), as well as several subsequent movies based on the book.
RAPHAEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: רָפָאֵל, רְפָאֵל(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: RA-fa-ehl(German) RAF-ee-əl(English) RAF-ay-ehl(English) rah-fie-EHL(English)
From the Hebrew name רָפָאֵל (Rafa'el) meaning "God heals", from the roots רָפָא (rafa') meaning "to heal" and אֵל ('el) meaning "God". In Hebrew tradition Raphael is the name of an archangel. He appears in the Book of Tobit, in which he disguises himself as a man named Azarias and accompanies Tobias on his journey to Media, aiding him along the way. In the end he cures Tobias's father Tobit of his blindness. He is not mentioned in the New Testament, though tradition identifies him with the angel troubling the water in John 5:4.

This name has never been common in the English-speaking world, though it has been well-used elsewhere in Europe. A famous bearer was the 16th-century Renaissance master Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), usually known simply as Raphael.

REMIEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical
Variant of JEREMIEL appearing in some versions of the Old Testament.
REUBEN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, Hebrew, English
Other Scripts: רְאוּבֵן(Hebrew)
Pronounced: ROO-bən(English)
Means "behold, a son" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament he is the eldest son of Jacob and Leah and the ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Reuben was cursed by his father because he slept with Jacob's concubine Bilhah. It has been used as a Christian name in Britain since the Protestant Reformation.
ROBERT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Finnish, Estonian, Czech, Polish, Russian, Slovene, Croatian, Romanian, Catalan, Ancient Germanic [1]
Other Scripts: Роберт(Russian)
Pronounced: RAHB-ərt(American English) RAWB-ət(British English) RAW-BEHR(French) RO-beht(Swedish) RO-behrt(German, Finnish, Czech) RO-bərt(Dutch) RAW-behrt(Polish) RO-byirt(Russian) roo-BEHRT(Catalan)
From the Germanic name Hrodebert meaning "bright fame", derived from the Germanic elements hrod "fame" and beraht "bright". The Normans introduced this name to Britain, where it replaced the Old English cognate Hreodbeorht. It has been consistently among the most common English names from the 13th to 20th century. In the United States it was the most popular name for boys between 1924 and 1939 (and again in 1953).

This name has been borne by two early kings of France, two Dukes of Normandy, and three kings of Scotland, including Robert the Bruce who restored the independence of Scotland from England in the 14th century. The author Robert Browning (1812-1889) and poets Robert Burns (1759-1796) and Robert Frost (1874-1963) are famous literary bearers of this name. Other bearers include Robert E. Lee (1807-1870), the commander of the Confederate army during the American Civil War, and American actors Robert Redford (1936-), Robert De Niro (1943-) and Robert Downey Jr. (1965-).

ROBIN
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: English, French, Dutch, Swedish
Pronounced: RAHB-in(American English) RAWB-in(British English) RAW-BEHN(French) RAW-bin(Dutch)
Medieval diminutive of ROBERT, now usually regarded as an independent name. Robin Hood was a legendary hero and archer of medieval England who stole from the rich to give to the poor. In modern times it has also been used as a feminine name, and it may sometimes be given in reference to the red-breasted bird.
ROMOLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: RO-mo-la
Italian feminine form of ROMULUS.
ROMULUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Roman Mythology
Pronounced: RO-moo-loos(Latin) RAHM-yuw-ləs(English)
Means "of Rome" in Latin. In Roman legend Romulus and Remus were the founders of the city of Rome.
ROMY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Dutch, English
Pronounced: RO-mee(German, English)
Diminutive of ROSEMARIE or ROSEMARY.
ROSAIRE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: RO-ZEHR
Means "rosary" French.
ROSALIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, German, Dutch, English
Pronounced: RAW-ZA-LEE(French) ro-za-LEE(German) RO-zə-lee(English)
French, German and Dutch form of ROSALIA. In the English-speaking this name received a boost after the release of the movie Rosalie (1938), which was based on an earlier musical.
ROSCOE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: RAHS-ko
From an English surname, originally derived from a place name, itself derived from Old Norse "roebuck" and skógr "wood, forest".
ROSE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: ROZ
Originally a Norman form of the Germanic name Hrodohaidis meaning "famous type", composed of the elements hrod "fame" and heid "kind, sort, type". The Normans introduced it to England in the forms Roese and Rohese. From an early date it was associated with the word for the fragrant flower rose (derived from Latin rosa). When the name was revived in the 19th century, it was probably with the flower in mind.
ROSEMARY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: ROZ-mə-ree, ROZ-mehr-ee
Combination of ROSE and MARY. This name can also be given in reference to the herb, which gets its name from Latin ros marinus meaning "dew of the sea". It came into use as a given name in the 19th century.
ROSHANARA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Persian (Archaic)
Other Scripts: روشنآرا(Persian)
From Persian روشن (roshan) meaning "light" and آرا (ara) meaning "decorate, adorn". This was the name of the second daughter of the 17th-century Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
ROSIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: RO-zee
Diminutive of ROSE.
ROWAN
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: Irish, English (Modern)
Pronounced: RO-ən(English)
From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Ruadháin meaning "descendant of RUADHÁN". This name can also be given in reference to the rowan tree.
ROXANNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: rahk-SAN(English) RAWK-SAN(French)
Variant of ROXANE.
RUBY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: ROO-bee
Simply from the name of the precious stone (which ultimately derives from Latin ruber "red"), which is the birthstone of July. It came into use as a given name in the 19th century.
RUDY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: ROO-dee
Diminutive of RUDOLF.
RUFUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman, English, Biblical
Pronounced: ROO-foos(Latin) ROO-fəs(English)
Roman cognomen meaning "red-haired" in Latin. Several early saints had this name, including one mentioned in one of Paul's epistles in the New Testament. As a nickname it was used by William II Rufus, a king of England, because of his red hair. It came into general use in the English-speaking world after the Protestant Reformation.
RUPERT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, English
Pronounced: ROO-pehrt(German) RUY-pərt(Dutch) ROO-pərt(English)
German variant form of ROBERT. The military commander Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a nephew of Charles I, introduced this name to England in the 17th century.
RUTH (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Spanish, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: רוּת(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: ROOTH(English) ROOT(German, Spanish)
From a Hebrew name that was derived from the Hebrew word רְעוּת (re'ut) meaning "friend". This is the name of the central character in the Book of Ruth in the Old Testament. She was a Moabite woman who accompanied her mother-in-law Naomi back to Bethlehem after Ruth's husband died. There she met and married Boaz. She was an ancestor of King David.

As a Christian name, Ruth has been in use since the Protestant Reformation. It became very popular in America following the birth of "Baby" Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904), the daughter of President Grover Cleveland.

SABINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, German, Dutch, Danish
Pronounced: SA-BEEN(French) za-BEE-nə(German)
French, German, Dutch and Danish form of SABINA.
SAGE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: SAYJ
From the English word sage, which denotes either a type of spice or else a wise person.
SALVATORE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: sal-va-TO-reh
Italian cognate of SALVADOR.
SAMSON
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, English, French, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: שִׁמְשׁוֹן(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: SAM-sən(English) SAHN-SAWN(French)
From the Hebrew name שִׁמְשׁוֹן (Shimshon), derived from שֶׁמֶשׁ (shemesh) meaning "sun". Samson was an Old Testament hero granted exceptional strength by God. His mistress Delilah betrayed him and cut his hair, stripping him of his power. Thus he was captured by the Philistines, blinded, and brought to their temple. However, in a final act of strength, he pulled down the pillars of the temple upon himself and his captors.

This name was known among the Normans due to the Welsh bishop Saint Samson, who founded monasteries in Brittany and Normandy in the 6th century. In his case, the name may have been a translation of his true Celtic name. As an English name, Samson was common during the Middle Ages, having been introduced by the Normans.

SAMUEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Jewish, Biblical
Other Scripts: שְׁמוּאֵל(Hebrew)
Pronounced: SAM-yoo-əl(English) SAM-yəl(English) SA-MWEHL(French) ZA-mwehl(German) sa-MWEHL(Spanish) san-MOO-ehl(Polish) SA-moo-ehl(Czech, Slovak, Swedish) SAH-moo-ehl(Finnish)
From the Hebrew name שְׁמוּאֵל (Shemu'el), which could mean either "name of God" or "God has heard". As told in the Books of Samuel in the Old Testament, Samuel was the last of the ruling judges. He led the Israelites during a period of domination by the Philistines, who were ultimately defeated in battle at Mizpah. Later he anointed Saul to be the first king of Israel, and even later anointed his successor David.

As a Christian name, Samuel came into common use after the Protestant Reformation. Famous bearers include American inventor Samuel Morse (1791-1872), Irish writer Samuel Beckett (1906-1989), and American author Samuel Clemens (1835-1910), who wrote under the pen name Mark Twain.

SAOIRSE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish
Pronounced: SEER-shə
Means "freedom" in Irish Gaelic.
SARANGEREL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Mongolian
Other Scripts: Сарангэрэл(Mongolian Cyrillic)
Pronounced: sah-RAHN-geh-rehl
Means "moonlight" in Mongolian.
SASHA
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: Russian, Ukrainian, English, French
Other Scripts: Саша(Russian, Ukrainian)
Pronounced: SASH-ə(English) SAH-shə(English) SA-SHA(French)
Russian and Ukrainian diminutive of ALEKSANDR or ALEKSANDRA.
SASITHORN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Thai
Other Scripts: ศศิธร(Thai)
Pronounced: sa-see-TAWN
Means "the moon" in Thai (a poetic word).
SASKIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Dutch, German
Pronounced: SAHS-kee-a:(Dutch) ZAS-kya(German)
From the Germanic element sahs "Saxon". The Saxons were a Germanic tribe, their name ultimately deriving from the Germanic word sahs meaning "knife".
SCHOLASTICA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Late Roman
From a Late Latin name that was derived from scholasticus meaning "rhetorician, orator". Saint Scholastica was a 6th-century Benedictine abbess, the sister of Saint Benedict of Nursia.
SEBASTIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Finnish, Romanian, Czech
Pronounced: zeh-BAS-tyan(German) sə-BAS-chən(English) seh-BAS-dyan(Danish) seh-BAS-tyan(Polish) SEH-bahs-tee-ahn(Finnish) seh-bas-tee-AN(Romanian) SEH-bas-ti-yan(Czech)
From the Latin name Sebastianus, which meant "from Sebaste". Sebaste was the name a town in Asia Minor, its name deriving from Greek σεβαστός (sebastos) meaning "venerable" (a translation of Latin Augustus, the title of the Roman emperors). According to Christian tradition, Saint Sebastian was a 3rd-century Roman soldier martyred during the persecutions of the emperor Diocletian. After he was discovered to be a Christian, he was tied to a stake and shot with arrows. This however did not kill him. Saint Irene of Rome healed him and he returned to personally admonish Diocletian, whereupon the emperor had him beaten to death.

Due to the saint's popularity, the name came into general use in medieval Europe, especially in Spain and France. It was also borne by a 16th-century king of Portugal who died in a crusade against Morocco.

SERAPHINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare), German (Rare), Late Roman
Pronounced: sehr-ə-FEEN-ə(English) zeh-ra-FEE-na(German)
Feminine form of the Late Latin name Seraphinus, derived from the biblical word seraphim, which was Hebrew in origin and meant "fiery ones". The seraphim were an order of angels, described by Isaiah in the Bible as having six wings each.

This was the name of a 13th-century Italian saint who made clothes for the poor. As an English name, it has never been common.

SEREN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: SEH-rehn
Means "star" in Welsh.
SHOSHANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew
Other Scripts: שׁוֹשַׁנָּה(Hebrew)
Modern Hebrew form of SUSANNA.
SHOSHANNAH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: שׁוֹשַׁנָּה(Ancient Hebrew)
Biblical Hebrew form of SUSANNA.
SIBYL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: SIB-əl
From Greek Σίβυλλα (Sibylla), meaning "prophetess, sibyl". In Greek and Roman legend the sibyls were female prophets who practiced at different holy sites in the ancient world. In later Christian theology, the sibyls were thought to have divine knowledge and were revered in much the same way as the Old Testament prophets. Because of this, the name came into general use in the Christian world during the Middle Ages. The Normans imported it to England, where it was spelled both Sibyl and Sybil. It became rare after the Protestant Reformation, but it was revived in the 19th century, perhaps helped by Benjamin Disraeli's novel Sybil (1845).
SIBYLLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Late Roman, German
Pronounced: zee-BI-la(German)
Latinate form of SIBYL.
SIGRID
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Estonian, Finnish (Archaic)
Pronounced: SEE-grid(Swedish) SEEG-reed(Finnish)
From the Old Norse name Sigríðr, which was derived from the elements sigr "victory" and fríðr "beautiful, fair".
SIMON (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Hungarian, Slovene, Romanian, Macedonian, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Симон(Macedonian) სიმონ(Georgian) Σίμων(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: SIE-mən(English) SEE-MAWN(French) SEE-mawn(Danish, Dutch) ZEE-mawn(German) SHEE-mon(Hungarian)
From Σίμων (Simon), the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name שִׁמְעוֹן (Shim'on) meaning "he has heard". This name is spelled Simeon, based on Greek Συμεών, in many translations of the Old Testament, where it is borne by the second son of Jacob. The New Testament spelling may show influence from the otherwise unrelated Greek name SIMON (2).

In the New Testament Simon is the name of several characters, including the man who carried the cross for Jesus. Most importantly however it was borne by the leading apostle Simon, also known as Peter (a name given to him by Jesus).

Because of the apostle, this name has been common in the Christian world. In England it was popular during the Middle Ages, though it became more rare after the Protestant Reformation.

SIOFRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish
Pronounced: SHEE-frə
Means "elf, sprite" in Irish Gaelic.
SIRI
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Pronounced: SEE-ree(Swedish)
Short form of SIGRID.
SOLEDAD
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish
Pronounced: so-leh-DHADH
Means "solitude" in Spanish. It is taken from the title of the Virgin Mary, María de Soledad, meaning "Mary of Solitude".
SOPHIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Greek, German, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Σοφία(Greek)
Pronounced: so-FEE-ə(English) sə-FIE-ə(British English) so-FEE-a(Greek) zo-FEE-a(German)
Means "wisdom" in Greek. This was the name of an early, probably mythical, saint who died of grief after her three daughters were martyred during the reign of the emperor Hadrian. Legends about her probably arose as a result of a medieval misunderstanding of the phrase Hagia Sophia "Holy Wisdom", which is the name of a large basilica in Constantinople.

This name was common among continental European royalty during the Middle Ages, and it was popularized in Britain by the German House of Hanover when they inherited the British throne in the 18th century. It was the name of characters in the novels Tom Jones (1749) by Henry Fielding and The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) by Oliver Goldsmith.

In the United States this name was only moderately common until the 1990s when it began rising in popularity, eventually becoming the most popular for girls from 2011 to 2013. A famous bearer is the Italian actress Sophia Loren (1934-).

SOPHIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, German, Dutch
Pronounced: SAW-FEE(French) SO-fee(English) zo-FEE(German) so-FEE(Dutch)
French form of SOPHIA.
SOPHRONIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature, Late Greek
Other Scripts: Σωφρονία(Ancient Greek)
Feminine form of SOPHRONIUS. Torquato Tasso used it in his epic poem Jerusalem Delivered (1580), in which it is borne by the lover of Olindo.
STELLA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, Dutch, German
Pronounced: STEHL-ə(English)
Means "star" in Latin. This name was created by the 16th-century poet Sir Philip Sidney for the subject of his collection of sonnets Astrophel and Stella. It was a nickname of a lover of Jonathan Swift, real name Esther Johnson (1681-1728), though it was not commonly used as a given name until the 19th century. It appears in Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire (1947), belonging to the sister of Blanche DuBois and the wife of Stanley Kowalski.
STELLAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Swedish
Meaning unknown, perhaps related to Old Norse stilling "calm", or perhaps of German origin.
SUNNIVA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Norwegian
Scandinavian form of the Old English name Sunngifu, which meant "sun gift" from the Old English elements sunne "sun" and giefu "gift". This was the name of a legendary English saint who was shipwrecked in Norway and killed by the inhabitants.
SUSANNAH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: שׁוֹשַׁנָּה(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: soo-ZAN-ə(English)
Form of SUSANNA found in some versions of the Old Testament.
SYLVESTER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Danish
Pronounced: sil-VEHS-tər(English) zil-VEHS-tu(German)
Medieval variant of SILVESTER. This is currently the usual English spelling of the name. A famous bearer is the American actor Sylvester Stallone (1946-).
SYLVIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish
Pronounced: SIL-vee-ə(English) SUYL-vee-ah(Finnish)
Variant of SILVIA. This has been the most common English spelling since the 19th century.
SYLVIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, Czech
Pronounced: SEEL-VEE(French) SIL-vi-yeh(Czech)
French and Czech form of SILVIA.
SYNNÖVE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish
Swedish form of SUNNIVA.
TABASSUM
Gender: Masculine & Feminine
Usage: Arabic
Other Scripts: تبسّم(Arabic)
Pronounced: ta-BAS-soom
Means "smiling" in Arabic.
TALIESIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Welsh, Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: tal-YEH-sin(Welsh) tal-ee-EHS-in(English)
Means "shining brow", derived from Welsh tal "brow" and iesin "shining". This was the name of a 6th-century Welsh poet and bard. In later Welsh legends he is portrayed as a wizard and prophet, or as a companion of King Arthur.
TALITHA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical
Pronounced: TAL-i-thə(English) tə-LEE-thə(English)
Means "little girl" in Aramaic. The name is taken from the phrase talitha cumi meaning "little girl arise" spoken by Jesus in order to restore a young girl to life (see Mark 5:41).
TAMAR
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: תָּמָר(Hebrew) თამარ(Georgian)
Pronounced: TAHM-ahr(English) TAY-mahr(English)
Means "date palm" in Hebrew. According to the Old Testament Tamar was the daughter-in-law of Judah and later his wife. This was also the name of a daughter of King David. She was raped by her half-brother Amnon, leading to his murder by her brother Absalom. The name was borne by a 12th-century ruling queen of Georgia who presided over the kingdom at the peak of its power.
TAPIWA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Southern African, Shona
Means "given" in Shona.
TATE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: TAYT
From an English surname that was derived from the Old English given name Tata, of unknown origin.
TATUM
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: TAY-təm
From a surname that was originally derived from a place name meaning "Tata's homestead" in Old English.
TEODORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Romanian, Polish, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian
Other Scripts: Теодора(Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian)
Pronounced: teh-o-DO-ra(Italian, Romanian) teh-o-DHO-ra(Spanish) teh-aw-DAW-ra(Polish)
Feminine form of Theodoros (see THEODORE).
TESS
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: TEHS
Diminutive of THERESA. This is the name of the main character in Thomas Hardy's novel Tess of the D'Ubervilles (1891).
TESSA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: TEHS-ə(English)
Diminutive of THERESA.
THADDEUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: Θαδδαῖος(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: THAD-ee-əs(English) tha-DEE-əs(English)
From Θαδδαῖος (Thaddaios), the Greek form of the Aramaic name Thaddai. It is possibly derived from a word meaning "heart", but it may in fact be an Aramaic form of a Greek name such as Θεόδωρος (see THEODORE). In the Gospel of Matthew, Thaddaeus is listed as one of the twelve apostles, though elsewhere in the New Testament his name is omitted and Jude's appears instead. It is likely that the two names refer to the same person.
THEODORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Greek, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Θεοδώρα(Greek)
Pronounced: thee-ə-DAWR-ə(English)
Feminine form of THEODORE. This name was common in the Byzantine Empire, being borne by several empresses including the influential wife of Justinian in the 6th century.
THEODORE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: THEE-ə-dawr
From the Greek name Θεόδωρος (Theodoros), which meant "gift of god" from Greek θεός (theos) meaning "god" and δῶρον (doron) meaning "gift". The name Dorothea is derived from the same roots in reverse order. This was the name of several saints, including Theodore of Amasea, a 4th-century Greek soldier; Theodore of Tarsus, a 7th-century archbishop of Canterbury; and Theodore the Studite, a 9th-century Byzantine monk. It was also borne by two popes.

This was a common name in classical Greece, and, due to both the saints who carried it and the favourable meaning, it came into general use in the Christian world, being especially popular among Eastern Christians. It was however rare in Britain before the 19th century. Famous bearers include three tsars of Russia (in the Russian form Fyodor) and American president Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919).

THERESA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Danish
Pronounced: tə-REE-sə(English) tə-REE-zə(English) teh-REH-za(German)
From the Spanish and Portuguese name Teresa. It was first recorded as Therasia, being borne by the Spanish wife of Saint Paulinus of Nola in the 4th century. The meaning is uncertain, but it could be derived from Greek θέρος (theros) meaning "summer", from Greek θερίζω (therizo) meaning "to harvest", or from the name of the Greek island of Therasia (the western island of Santorini).

The name was mainly confined to Spain and Portugal during the Middle Ages. After the 16th century it was spread to other parts of the Christian world, due to the fame of the Spanish nun and reformer Saint Teresa of Ávila. Another famous bearer was the Austrian Habsburg queen Maria Theresa (1717-1780), who inherited the domains of her father, the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, beginning the War of the Austrian Succession.

THOMAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Greek, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Θωμάς(Greek) Θωμᾶς(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: TAHM-əs(American English) TAWM-əs(British English) TAW-MA(French) TO-mas(German) TO-mahs(Dutch) tho-MAHS(Greek)
Greek form of the Aramaic name תָּאוֹמָא (Ta'oma') meaning "twin". In the New Testament this is the name of an apostle. When he heard that Jesus had risen from the dead he initially doubted the story, until Jesus appeared before him and he examined his wounds himself. According to tradition he was martyred in India. Due to his renown, the name came into general use in the Christian world.

In England the name was introduced by the Normans and became very popular due to Saint Thomas Becket, a 12th-century archbishop of Canterbury and martyr. It was reliably among the top five most common English names for boys from the 13th to the 19th century, and it has remained consistently popular to this day.

Another notable saint by this name was the 13th-century Italian philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas, who is regarded as a Doctor of the Church. Other famous bearers include philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), American president Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), novelist Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), and inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931).

THOMASINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: tahm-ə-SEE-nə
Medieval feminine form of THOMAS.
TIBERIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman
Pronounced: tee-BEH-ree-oos(Latin) tie-BEHR-ee-əs(English)
Roman praenomen, or given name, meaning "of the Tiber" in Latin. The Tiber is the river that runs through Rome. Tiberius was the second Roman emperor, the stepson of Emperor Augustus.
TIGER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: TIE-gər
From the name of the large striped cat, derived (via Old French and Latin) from Greek τίγρις (tigris), ultimately of Iranian origin. A famous bearer is American golfer Tiger Woods (1975-).
TILLY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: TIL-ee
Diminutive of MATILDA.
TOBIAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, English, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Τωβίας(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: to-BEE-as(German) tuw-BEE-ahs(Swedish) tə-BIE-əs(English)
Greek form of TOBIAH. This is the name of the hero of the apocryphal Book of Tobit, which appears in many English versions of the Old Testament. It relates how Tobit's son Tobias, with the help of the angel Raphael, is able to drive away a demon who has plagued Sarah, who subsequently becomes his wife. This story was popular in the Middle Ages, and the name came into occasional use in parts of Europe at that time. In England it became common after the Protestant Reformation.
TORIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish
Means "chief" in Irish Gaelic.
TORQUIL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish
Anglicized form of TORCUIL.
VALENTINO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: va-lehn-TEE-no
Italian form of Valentinus (see VALENTINE (1)).
VERA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Russian, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, Hungarian, Romanian, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Belarusian, Georgian
Other Scripts: Вера(Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Belarusian) ვერა(Georgian)
Pronounced: VYEH-rə(Russian) VEE-rə(English) VEHR-ə(English) VEH-ra(German, Dutch) VEH-rah(Swedish) BEH-ra(Spanish) VEH-raw(Hungarian)
Means "faith" in Russian, though it is sometimes associated with the Latin word verus "true". It has been in general use in the English-speaking world since the late 19th century.
VICTOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Romanian, Dutch, Swedish, Late Roman
Pronounced: VIK-tər(English) VEEK-TAWR(French)
Roman name meaning "victor, conqueror" in Latin. It was common among early Christians, and was borne by several early saints and three popes. It was rare as an English name during the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was the French writer Victor Hugo (1802-1885), who authored The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Misérables.
VINCENT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Slovak
Pronounced: VIN-sənt(English, Dutch) VEHN-SAHN(French) VEEN-tsent(Slovak)
From the Roman name Vincentius, which was derived from Latin vincere meaning "to conquer". This name was popular among early Christians, and it was borne by many saints. As an English name, Vincent has been in use since the Middle Ages, though it did not become common until the 19th century. Famous bearers include the French priest Saint Vincent de Paul (1581-1660) and the post-impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890).
VIVIANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Late Roman
Pronounced: vee-VYA-na(Italian) bee-BYA-na(Spanish)
Feminine form of Vivianus (see VIVIAN). Saint Viviana (also known as Bibiana) was a Roman saint and martyr of the 4th century.
VIVIEN (2)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature, Hungarian
Pronounced: VEE-vee-ehn(Hungarian)
Used by Alfred Lord Tennyson as the name of the Lady of the Lake in his Arthurian epic Idylls of the King (1859). Tennyson may have based it on VIVIENNE, but it possibly arose as a misreading of NINIAN [1]. A famous bearer was British actress Vivien Leigh (1913-1967), who played Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind.
VIVIENNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: VEE-VYEHN
French form of VIVIANA.
WALTER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Italian, Ancient Germanic [1]
Pronounced: WAWL-tər(English) VAL-tu(German) VAL-tehr(Swedish, Italian)
From a Germanic name meaning "ruler of the army", composed of the elements wald "rule" and hari "army". The Normans brought it to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Wealdhere. A famous bearer of the name was the English courtier, poet and explorer Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618). It was also borne by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), a Scottish novelist who wrote Ivanhoe and other notable works.
WESLEY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: WEHS-lee, WEHZ-lee
From a surname that was derived from a place name meaning "west meadow" in Old English. It has been sometimes given in honour of John Wesley (1703-1791), the founder of Methodism.
WILHELMINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Dutch, German (Rare), English
Pronounced: vil-hehl-MEE-na(Dutch, German) wil-ə-MEEN-ə(English) wil-hehl-MEEN-ə(English)
Dutch and German feminine form of WILHELM. This name was borne by a queen of the Netherlands (1880-1962).
WILLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: WIL-ə
Feminine form of WILLIAM.
WILLIAM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: WIL-yəm
From the Germanic name Willahelm meaning "will helmet", composed of the elements wil "will, desire" and helm "helmet, protection". Saint William of Gellone was an 8th-century cousin of Charlemagne who became a monk. The name was common among the Normans, and it became extremely popular in England after William the Conqueror was recognized as the first Norman king of England in the 11th century. From then until the modern era it has been among the most common of English names (with John, Thomas and Robert).

This name was later borne by three other English kings, as well as rulers of Scotland, Sicily (of Norman origin), the Netherlands and Prussia. Other famous bearers include William Wallace, a 13th-century Scottish hero, and William Tell, a legendary 14th-century Swiss hero (called Wilhelm in German, Guillaume in French and Guglielmo in Italian). In the literary world it was borne by dramatist William Shakespeare (1564-1616), poet William Blake (1757-1827), poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), dramatist William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), author William Faulkner (1897-1962), and author William S. Burroughs (1914-1997).

In the American rankings (since 1880) this name has never been out of the top 20, making it one of the most consistently popular names (although it has never reached the top rank). In modern times its short form, Liam, has periodically been more popular than William itself, in the United Kingdom in the 1990s and the United States in the 2010s.

WILLOUGHBY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: WIL-ə-bee
From a surname that was originally derived from a place name meaning "willow town" in Old English.
WILLOW
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: WIL-o
From the name of the tree, which is ultimately derived from Old English welig.
WINIFRED
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh, English
Pronounced: WIN-ə-frid(English)
Anglicized form of GWENFREWI, the spelling altered by association with WINFRED. It became used in England in the 16th century.
WINTER
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: WIN-tər
From the English word for the season, derived from Old English winter.
WOLFGANG
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Ancient Germanic [1]
Pronounced: VAWLF-gang(German) WUWLF-gang(English)
Derived from the Germanic elements wulf meaning "wolf" and gang meaning "path". Two famous bearers of this name were Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) and German novelist and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832).
WREN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: REHN
From the English word for the small songbird. It is ultimately derived from Old English wrenna.
WYN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: WIN
Derived from Welsh gwyn meaning "blessed, white, fair".
WYNN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: WIN
Variant of WYN.
XANTHE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Ξανθή(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: KSAN-TEH(Classical Greek)
Derived from Greek ξανθός (xanthos) meaning "yellow" or "fair hair". This was the name of a few minor figures in Greek mythology.
XANTHIPPE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Greek [1]
Other Scripts: Ξανθίππη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: KSAN-TEEP-PEH(Classical Greek) zan-TIP-ee(English) zan-THIP-ee(English)
Feminine form of XANTHIPPOS. This was the name of the wife of Socrates. Because of her supposedly argumentative nature, the name has been adopted (in the modern era) as a word for a scolding, ill-tempered woman.
XAVIER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Catalan, Spanish (Archaic)
Pronounced: ZAY-vyər(English) ig-ZAY-vyər(English) GZA-VYEH(French) shu-vee-EHR(European Portuguese) sha-vee-EHR(Brazilian Portuguese) shə-bee-EH(Catalan)
Derived from the Basque place name Etxeberria meaning "the new house". This was the surname of the Jesuit priest Saint Francis Xavier (1506-1552) who was born in a village by this name. He was a missionary to India, Japan, China, and other areas in East Asia, and he is the patron saint of the Orient and missionaries. His surname has since been adopted as a given name in his honour, chiefly among Catholics.
XIOMARA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish
Pronounced: syo-MA-ra
Possibly a Spanish form of GUIOMAR.
YASMIN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Arabic, Hebrew, Urdu, English (Modern)
Other Scripts: ياسمين(Arabic) יַסְמִין(Hebrew) یاسمین(Urdu)
Pronounced: yas-MEEN(Arabic) YAZ-min(English)
Means "jasmine" in Arabic and Hebrew, derived from Persian یاسمین (yasamin). In modern times it has been used in the western world, as an Arabic-influenced variant of JASMINE.
ZARA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: ZAHR-ə
English form of ZAÏRE. In England it came to public attention when Princess Anne gave it to her daughter in 1981. Use of the name may also be influenced by the trendy Spanish clothing retailer Zara.
ZENOBIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Greek [1]
Other Scripts: Ζηνοβία(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: ZDEH-NO-BEE-A(Classical Greek) zə-NO-bee-ə(English)
Means "life of Zeus", derived from Greek Ζηνός (Zenos) meaning "of ZEUS" and βίος (bios) meaning "life". This was the name of a 3rd-century queen of Palmyra. After claiming the title Queen of the East and expanding her realm into Roman territory she was defeated by Emperor Aurelian. Her Greek name was used as an approximation of her native Aramaic name.
ZÉPHYRINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French (Rare)
French feminine form of Zephyrinus (see ZEFERINO).
ZILLAH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: צִלָּה(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: ZIL-ə(English)
Means "shade" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament she is the second wife of Lamech.
ZIMRI
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: זִמְרִי(Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: ZIM-rie(English)
Means "my praise" or "my music" in Hebrew. This is the name of a king of Israel in the Old Testament. He ruled for only seven days, when he was succeeded by the commander of the army Omri.
ZINNIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: ZIN-ee-ə
From the name of the flower, which was itself named for the German botanist Johann Zinn.
ZOE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, German, Czech, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Ζωή(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: ZO-ee(English) DZO-eh(Italian)
Means "life" in Greek. From early times it was adopted by Hellenized Jews as a translation of EVE. It was borne by two early Christian saints, one martyred under Emperor Hadrian, the other martyred under Diocletian. The name was common in the Byzantine Empire, being borne by a ruling empress of the 11th century.

As an English name, Zoe has only been in use since the 19th century. It has generally been more common among Eastern Christians (in various spellings).

ZOSIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Polish
Pronounced: ZAW-sha
Diminutive of ZOFIA.
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