Razia (or Rad.iyya) is the name of a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, the first female ruler of a large kingdom in India (i.e. the Indian subcontinent). The muslim religion made it relatively easy for women to ascend to the throne (the first muslim monarch is somewhere in Yemen, if I remember correctly), but the Turk and Afghan nobles, and provincial rulers, in India were not happy being ruled by a woman. She was born around 1205, was a reasonable administrator and good on the battlefield, captured the throne from her brother around 1237 and was murdered, as she slept defeated and a refugee, in 1241. She was the daughter of Iltutmish shamsaddin of the turk Ibari tribe.