1) what sounds do the following letters make
dh? D = voiced, T = unvoiced; TH(DH) in 'then' = voiced, TH in 'thin'
ll? This is the Spanish letter, elle, pronounced el-yay, sound y or
ly: i.e. surname Padilla = pah-dee-yah or pah-deel-yah depending on
where in what Spanish-speaking country you are.
ñ? Again, eñe, ane-yay, sound ny: i.e. English canyon is from Sp. cañon, cahn-yone.
2) what do you mean voiced and unvoiced? See my second reply.
3) what about the vowel oy like from toy, nd uw like from two, but to me sounds like the double oo sound, but so many sites say it is unique
oy: say oh-ee fast. Two is oo, as far as I know.
4) the word long, the 'ong' sound, is it made of other elements, or is it unique? (aw+n+ng??)
ong, ing, ang, eng, ung are all ()ng, which is a unique sound, and
represented by the letter n with that little loop, which is borrowed
from the International Phonetic Alphabet. In ink and finger, the k
and g make the n have that sound, but because the k is not a g, it
keeps it's own sound, because the g is followed by other letters, it
keeps it's own sound.
5) the word picture, can be pronounced like 'peik-chuhr' or u can say the 'ch' part with a t like sound, where the t and ch kind of blur together
Pik-cher. The ture ending almost always sounds cher. I doen't know why, but this is one of the rules of phonics. I'd say sloppy pronounciation accounts for the other. Oh, and note tion = shun! This is what comes of speaking a melting-pot language!
CH is to me TSH. Try it! I'd say J is DZH. Just voice the same letters. Voiced/unvoiced makes for a lot of variations. Y :)