True. Most Jewish people not living in Israel will give 2 names, a religious and a secular, two their children. Sometimes the secular will be the English/French/whatever version of the religious (MaryMiriam), or the translation (BelleYaffa), or just begin with the same letter (MathildeMichal), or sound a bit alike (Andrew Dror), or they’ll not be related but the religious name will be the name of a grandparent (ClaireRahel for me lol).
The full religious name is, for men: [religious name] ben [religious name of the father], meaning X son of Y. For example my dad = Yehiel ben Moshe Women have two names: [religious name] bat [religious name of the father] and [religious name] bat [religious name of the mother], meaning X daughter of Y. For example me = Rahel bat Yehiel, or Rahel bat Miriam Nowadays a man would never be called X ben [mother name] unless he was an illegitimate child or his father converted to another religion or was excommunicated, 3 most horrible things that he wouldn’t want to show off anyway. In Biblical times it was a bit different, the son of a very great woman (Batyah, Moshe’s sister Miriam…) could be called “son of [mother name]”.
Jesus would have been: Yehoshua ben Yosef. Well, unless you believe he is the son of God, then he would be Yehoshua ben Miriam? This one is tricky.