Russian Grand Dukes and Tsars

Rurik was a Scandinavian Varangian who assumed power in the city of Novgorod in the late 9th century. His successors ruled from the city of Kiev. They were known as the Veliki Kniaz, translated into English as "Grand Duke" or "Grand Prince". In 988 Vladimir I became the first duke to convert to Christianity.

The center of power was transferred to the city of Vladimir under Andrey Bogolyubsky in 1168, and then to Moscow under Daniil in 1263. The Mongols of the Golden Horde invaded in the 13th century, destroying Kiev and putting most of the region under their domination for the next two centuries. The dukes were vassals of the Mongols, and had to pay tribute.

Ivan III "the Great" was the first Grand Duke to use the title Tsar (meaning "emperor", ultimately related to Latin Caesar) but it was his grandson Ivan IV "the Terrible" who was first crowned as such. The line of Rurik ended shortly thereafter. The reigns of Boris Gudonov and the Polish king Ladislaus followed, and then the Romanov dynasty came to power. It continued until 1917, when Tsar Nikolai II was executed by the Bolsheviks.

There have been 4 female tsars, called tsaritsas or tsarinas, notably Yekaterina (Catherine) the Great.

Display           more options...
Aleksandr3 tsars, 1 duke4
Aleksey1 tsar1
Andrey3 dukes3
Anna1 tsaritsa1
Boris1 tsar1
Daniil1 duke1
Dimitri1 duke1
Dmitri1 tsar, 1 duke2
Feodor3 tsars3
Igor1 duke1
Ivan3 tsars, 3 dukes6
Iziaslav3 dukes3
Konstantin1 duke1
Mikhail2 tsars, 1 duke3
Mstislav2 dukes2
Nikolai2 tsars2
Oleg1 duke1
Olga1 regent1
Pavel1 tsar1
Pyotr3 tsars3
Rostislav1 duke1
Rurik1 duke1
Simeon1 tsar, 1 duke2
Sviatopolk2 dukes2
Sviatoslav3 dukes3
Vasiliy1 tsar, 4 dukes5
Vladimir2 dukes2
Vsevolod3 dukes3
Yaropolk2 dukes2
Yaroslav3 dukes3
Yekaterina2 tsaritsas2
Yelizaveta1 tsaritsa1
Yuriy3 dukes3