Spanish Kings and Queens

In the 10th century all of Spain was under the control of the Islamic Caliphate of Cordoba, with the exception of the northern Kingdoms of Asturias and Navarre and the Spanish March. Sancho III of Navarre united the greater parts of these realms in the early 11th century, but upon his death his kingdom was split between his sons into Navarre, Aragon, and Castile. Castile soon merged with the Kingdom of León in the northwest of Spain, while Aragon and the county of Catalonia eventually merged in the east. Meanwhile the caliphate in the south had collapsed, and Castile and Aragon expanded their borders south until in 1248 the only Muslim possession in Spain was Granada (which lasted until 1492).

Castile and Aragon were united as Spain in 1479 when the husband and wife team of Fernando III of Aragon and Isabel I of Castile ascended the thrones. After their deaths the crown of Spain went to their grandson Carlos (the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V), a Habsburg, who also possessed extensive territories in Austria. Spain was ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs until 1700, at which time occurred the War of the Spanish Succession and the installment of a French Bourbon king, Felipe VI, as the ruler of Spain.

The monarchy was absent in Spain from 1808 to 1814 (as a result of Napoleon), and from 1931 to 1975.

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NameYearsAlso Known As
Sancho III the Great (Navarre)1000-1035
Ramiro I (Aragon)1035-1063
Fernando I the Great (Castile)1035-1065(Ferdinand)
Sancho Ramirez (Aragon)1063-1094
Sancho II the Strong (Castile)1065-1072
Alfonso VI the Valiant (Castile)1072-1073
Pedro I (Aragon)1094-1104(Peter)
Alfonso I the Warrior (Aragon)1104-1134
Urraca (Castile)1109-1126
Alfonso VII the Emperor (Castile)1126-1157
Ramiro II the Monk (Aragon)1134-1137
Petronilla (Aragon)1137-1164(Petronella, Petronila)
Sancho III the Desired (Castile)1157-1158
Fernando II (Leon)1157-1188(Ferdinand)
Alfonso VIII the Noble (Castile)1158-1214
Alfonso II the Chaste (Aragon)1164-1196
Alfonso IX (Leon)1188-1230
Pedro II (Aragon)1196-1213(Peter)
Jaime I the Conqueror (Aragon)1213-1276(James)
Enrique I (Castile)1214-1217(Henry)
Berenguela the Great (Castile)1217(Berengaria)
Fernando III the Saint (Castile)1217-1252(Ferdinand)
Alfonso X the Wise (Castile)1252-1284
Pedro III the Great (Aragon)1276-1285(Peter)
Sancho IV the Brave (Castile)1284-1295
Alfonso III (Aragon)1285-1291
Jaime II the Just (Aragon)1291-1327(James)
Fernando IV the Summoned (Castile)1295-1312(Ferdinand)
Alfonso XI the Just (Castile)1312-1350
Alfonso IV the Good (Aragon)1327-1336
Pedro IV the Ceremonious (Aragon)1336-1387(Peter)
Pedro the Cruel (Castile)1350-1369(Peter)
Enrique II the Bastard (Castile)1369-1379(Henry)
Juan I (Castile)1379-1390(John)
Juan I (Aragon)1387-1396(John)
Enrique III the Infirm (Castile)1390-1406(Henry)
Martín the Kind (Aragon)1396-1410
Juan II (Castile)1406-1454(John)
Fernando I (Aragon)1412-1416(Ferdinand)
Alfonso V the Magnanimous (Aragon)1416-1458
Enrique IV the Impotent (Castile)1454-1474(Henry)
Juan II (Aragon)1458-1479(John)
Isabel I the Catholic (Castile)1474-1504(Isabella)
Fernando II the Catholic (Aragon)1479-1516(Ferdinand)
Juana the Mad1504-1555(Joan, Joanna)
Felipe I the Handsome (Castile)1506(Philip)
Carlos I1517-1556(Charles, Karl)
Felipe II the Prudent1556-1598(Philip)
Felipe III the Pious1598-1621(Philip)
Felipe IV1621-1665(Philip)
Carlos II the Bewitched1665-1700(Charles)
Felipe V of Anjou1700-1724; 1724-1746(Philip)
Luis I1724(Louis)
Fernando VI1746-1759(Ferdinand)
Carlos III1759-1788(Charles)
Carlos IV1788-1808(Charles)
José Bonaparte1808-1813(Giuseppe, Joseph)
Fernando VII1808; 1814-1833(Ferdinand)
Isabel II the Glorious1833-1868(Isabella)
Amadeo I of Savoy1870-1873(Amadeus)
Alfonso XII1874-1885
Alfonso XIII1885-1931
Juan Carlos I1975-(John, Charles)