Austrian Dukes and Emperors

The land of Austria, within the Holy Roman Empire, was elevated from a march to a duchy in 1156. Thus, the margrave Henry II was elevated to a duke. In 1278 the Habsburg family became the hereditary dukes. They eventually came to style themselves as archdukes. Austria became the center of power in the empire, and the archduke was often also the emperor.

In 1804 Francis I, who was the Archduke of Austria and the Holy Roman Emperor, formed the Austrian Empire. Two years later he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. In 1867 the crowns of Austria and Hungary, both possessed by the same person, were merged into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Following defeat in the First World War, Austria became a republic.

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NameYearsOther Names
Albrecht I1282-1308(Albert)
Albrecht II1330-1358(Albert)
Albrecht V the Magnanimous1404-1439(Albert)
Albrecht III1365-1395(Albert)
Albrecht IV1395-1404(Albert)
Albrecht VI1457-1463(Albert)
Albrecht VII1619(Albert)
Ferdinand I1521-1564
Ferdinand I1835-1848
Ferdinand II1619-1637
Ferdinand III1637-1657
Franz I1792-1835(Francis)
Franz Joseph I1848-1916(Francis)
Friedrich I1195-1198(Frederick)
Friedrich I the Fair1308-1330(Frederick)
Friedrich II1339-1344(Frederick)
Friedrich II the Quarrelsome1230-1246(Frederick)
Friedrich III the Peaceful1457-1493(Frederick)
Heinrich II Jasomirgott1156-1177(Henry)
Joseph I1705-1711
Joseph II1780-1790
Karl I1916-1918(Charles)
Karl I1519-1521(Charles)
Karl II1711-1740(Charles)
Ladislaus Posthumus1440-1457(László)
Leopold I1308-1326
Leopold IV1657-1705
Leopold II1339-1344
Leopold V1790-1792
Leopold III the Just1365-1379
Leopold V1177-1194
Leopold VI the Glorious1198-1230
Maria Theresia1740-1780(Theresa)
Maximilian I1493-1519
Maximilian II1564-1576
Otto the Merry1330-1339
Ottokar II1251-1276
Rudolf I1278-1282(Rudolph)
Rudolf III1298-1307(Rudolph)
Rudolf II1282-1283
Rudolf II1576-1608(Rudolph)
Rudolf IV the Founder1358-1365(Rudolph)