Austrian Dukes and Emperors

The land of Austria, within the Holy Roman Empire, was elevated from a march to a duchy in 1156. Thus, the margrave Henry II was elevated to a duke. In 1278 the Habsburg family became the hereditary dukes. They eventually came to style themselves as archdukes. Austria became the center of power in the empire, and the archduke was often also the emperor.

In 1804 Francis I, who was the Archduke of Austria and the Holy Roman Emperor, formed the Austrian Empire. Two years later he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. In 1867 the crowns of Austria and Hungary, both possessed by the same person, were merged into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Following defeat in the First World War, Austria became a republic.

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NameYearsOther Names
Heinrich II Jasomirgott1156-1177(Henry)
Leopold V1177-1194
Friedrich I1195-1198(Frederick)
Leopold VI the Glorious1198-1230
Friedrich II the Quarrelsome1230-1246(Frederick)
Ottokar II1251-1276
Rudolf I1278-1282(Rudolph)
Rudolf II1282-1283
Albrecht I1282-1308(Albert)
Rudolf III1298-1307(Rudolph)
Leopold I1308-1326
Friedrich I the Fair1308-1330(Frederick)
Otto the Merry1330-1339
Albrecht II1330-1358(Albert)
Friedrich II1339-1344(Frederick)
Leopold II1339-1344
Rudolf IV the Founder1358-1365(Rudolph)
Leopold III the Just1365-1379
Albrecht III1365-1395(Albert)
Albrecht IV1395-1404(Albert)
Albrecht V the Magnanimous1404-1439(Albert)
Ladislaus Posthumus1440-1457(László)
Albrecht VI1457-1463(Albert)
Friedrich III the Peaceful1457-1493(Frederick)
Maximilian I1493-1519
Karl I1519-1521(Charles)
Ferdinand I1521-1564
Maximilian II1564-1576
Rudolf II1576-1608(Rudolph)
Ferdinand II1590-1637
Albrecht VII1619(Albert)
Ferdinand III1637-1657
Leopold IV1657-1705
Joseph I1705-1711
Karl II1711-1740(Charles)
Maria Theresia1740-1780(Theresa)
Joseph II1765-1790
Leopold V1790-1792
Franz I1792-1835(Francis)
Ferdinand I1835-1848
Franz Joseph I1848-1916(Francis)
Karl I1916-1918(Charles)