Roman and Byzantine Emperors

The English word emperor derives from Latin imperator meaning "commander".

Augustus was the first Roman Emperor, emerging from the civil wars that followed the death of his adoptive father Julius Caesar in 44 BC to become the ruler of a realm that stretched from Spain to Syria, Northern Africa to France. The two centuries that followed saw the expansion and cultural flowering of the Roman Empire and also the beginnings of its slow demise. By the end of the 4th century the empire was split into eastern and western halves, the capital of the west being Ravenna and the capital of the east being Constantinople. The Western Empire lasted for another century before being overrun by Germanic peoples and the Huns. The Eastern Empire however survived for over 1000 years.

The Byzantine Empire, as the Eastern Roman Empire was known, was one of the important cultural centers of the Middle Ages. The language spoken was Greek and most of the names of the emperors were Greek, or else Greek forms of Christian biblical names, and the title Basileus (meaning "king" in Greek) was used for the emperor. The Byzantine Empire was finally destroyed by the Turks in 1453.

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NameDetailsTotal
Flavius32 emperors32
Marcus24 emperors24
Constantinus9 emperors9
Gaius9 emperors9
Michael9 emperors9
Johannes8 emperors8
Alexius5 emperors5
Leo5 emperors5
Lucius5 emperors5
Publius5 emperors5
Andronicus4 emperors4
Romanus4 emperors4
Titus4 emperors4
Nicephorus3 emperors3
Tiberius3 emperors3
Basil2 emperors2
Heraclius2 emperors2
Isaac2 emperors2
Julius2 emperors2
Manuel2 emperors2
Theodorus2 emperors2
Alexander1 emperor1
Anicius1 emperor1
Artemius1 emperor1
Aulus1 emperor1
Decimus1 emperor1
Eparchius1 emperor1
Glycerius1 emperor1
Irene1 empress1
John1 emperor1
Justinian1 emperor1
Justinianus1 emperor1
Nero1 emperor1
Philippicus1 emperor1
Procopius1 emperor1
Romulus1 emperor1
Servius1 emperor1
Stauracius1 emperor1
Theodora1 empress1
Theodosius1 emperor1
Theophilus1 emperor1
Valerius1 emperor1
Varius1 emperor1
Vetranio1 emperor1
Zeno1 emperor1
Zoe1 empress1