Scottish Kings and Queens

Thanks to J. Evans for providing the list of rulers.

Gaels migrated from Ireland to western Scotland (which was called Caledonia at the time by the Romans) in the 5th century, after the Romans had retreated from Britain, and there established the kingdom of Dál Riata in Argyllshire. The lists presented here begin with the kings of Dál Riata.

The north of Scotland was controlled by the Picts, an ancient Celtic people. Conflict and intermixing between the Scots and the Picts continued until the two realms were finally merged under the Dál Riatan king Kenneth mac Alpin around the year 850. The exact reasons for Kenneth's rise to power over the Picts are not clear, but it is apparent that many of the lords of both the Picts and the Scots had been killed in wars with invading Vikings. The kingdom was known as Alba, and by 1034 it had incorporated the Briton kingdom of Strathclyde in the south.

Struggles with the English and periods of domination followed over the next few centuries, but Scottish independence was ultimately asserted by Robert the Bruce, who became king of Scotland in 1306. Shortly afterwards, starting with Robert II, the Stuart royal family began its long rule in Scotland. Their reign was marked by periods of internal unrest and conflict with England. However in 1603 the Stuart king James VI, son of Mary Queen of Scots, succeeded to the English throne, and the Scottish Crown was formally merged with that of England by the Act of Union in 1707.

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NameYearsOther Names
Fergus Morc. 500-c. 501
Domangart mac Fergusc. 501-c. 507
Comgall mac Domangartc. 507-c. 538
Gabhran mac Domangartc. 538-c. 558
Conall mac Comgall558-574
Aedan mac Gabhranc. 574-c. 609(Aiden)
Eochaid Buidec. 609-629
Connad Cerr629
Domnall Brecc the Freckled629-642(Donald)
Ferchar mac Connad642-650
Dunchad mac Conaing650-654
Conall Crandomna650-660
Domangart mac Domnal660-673
Maelduin mac Conall673-688
Domnall Donn688-696(Donald)
Ferchar Fota696-697
Eochaid Crook-Nose697
Ainbcellach mac Ferchar697-698
Fiannamail mac Conall698-700
Selbach mac Ferchar700-723
Dungal mac Selbach723-726
Eochaid mac Eochaid726-733
Alpín mac Eochaidc. 733
Muiredach mac Ainbcellachc. 733-c. 736
Eogan mac Muiredachc. 736-c. 739
Aed Find the White739-778(Aodh)
Bridei mac Fergus761-763(Bruide)
Ciniod mac Feradaig763-775
Alpín mac Feredaig775-778
Fergus mac Eochaid778-781
Talorc mac Óengusa778-782(Talorgan)
Conall mac Taidg785-789
Causantín mac Fergus789-820(Constantine)
Oengus mac Fergus820-834(Angus)
Drust mac Constantine834-837(Drest)
Eoganan mac Oengus837-839
Cináed I mac Ailpín841-859(Coinneach, Kenneth)
Domnall I859-862(Domhnall, Donald)
Causantín I862-877(Constantine)
Aed Whitefoot877-878(Aodh)
Domnall II Dasachtach889-900(Domhnall, Donald)
Causantín II900-943(Constantine)
Máel Coluim I943-954(Malcolm)
Dub962-967(Dubh, Duff)
Cuilén967-971(Colin, Culen)
Cináed II971-995(Coinneach, Kenneth)
Causantín III995-997(Constantine)
Cináed III997-1005(Coinneach, Kenneth)
Máel Coluim II1005-1034(Malcolm)
Donnchad I the Gracious1034-1040(Duncan)
Mac Bethad1040-1057(Macbeth)
Lulach the Simple1057-1058
Máel Coluim III Canmore Bighead1058-1093(Malcolm)
Domnall III Bane1093-1094; 1094-1097(Domhnall, Donald)
Donnchad II1094(Duncan)
Edmund1094-1097(Eamonn, Etmond)
Alexander I the Fierce1107-1124(Alasdair)
David I1124-1153(Daibhidh)
Malcolm IV the Maiden1153-1165(Máel Coluim)
William I the Lion1165-1214(Uilleam)
Alexander II1214-1249(Alasdair)
Alexander III1249-1286(Alasdair)
Margaret the Maid of Norway1286-1290(Maighread, Mairead)
John Balliol1292-1296(Iain)
Robert I the Bruce1306-1329(Raibeart)
David II1329-1332; 1336-1371(Daibhidh)
Edward Balliol1332-1336(Eideard)
Robert II1371-1390(Raibeart)
Robert III1390-1406(Raibeart)
James I1406-1437(Seumas)
James II1437-1460(Seumas)
James III1460-1488(Seumas)
James IV1488-1513(Seumas)
James V1513-1542(Seumas)
Mary I Queen of Scots1542-1567(Màiri)
James VI1567-1625(Seumas)
Charles I1625-1649
Charles II1649-1685
James VII1685-1689(Seumas)
Mary II1689-1694(Màiri)
William III of Orange1689-1702(Uilleam)