BoiCrazii's Personal Name List

ABRAHAM

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Hebrew, Dutch, Biblical, Biblical Latin

Other Scripts: אַבְרָהָם (Hebrew)

Pronounced: AY-brə-ham (English), AH-brah-hahm (Dutch)

This name may be viewed either as meaning "father of many" in Hebrew or else as a contraction of ABRAM (1) and הָמוֹן (hamon) "many, multitude". The biblical Abraham was originally named Abram but God changed his name (see Genesis 17:5). He led his followers from Ur into Canaan, and is regarded by the Jews as being the founder of the Hebrews through his son Isaac and by the Muslims as being the founder of the Arabs through his son Ishmael.

As an English Christian name, Abraham became common after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), the American president during the Civil War.

ALASDAIR

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Scottish

Scottish form of ALEXANDER

ALEXANDER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Slovak, Biblical, Ancient Greek (Latinized), Greek Mythology (Latinized)

Other Scripts: Αλεξανδρος (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: al-əg-ZAN-dər (English), ah-lek-SAHN-der (German), ah-lək-SAHN-dər (Dutch)

Latinized form of the Greek name Αλεξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant "defending men" from Greek αλεξω (alexo) "to defend, help" and ανηρ (aner) "man" (genitive ανδρος). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.

The name has been used by kings of Scotland, Poland and Yugoslavia, emperors of Russia, and eight popes. Other notable bearers include English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744), American statesman Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), Scottish-Canadian explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820), Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837), and Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor of the telephone.

ALICE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Italian

Pronounced: AL-is (English), a-LEES (French), ah-LEE-che (Italian)

From the Old French name Aalis, a short form of Adelais, itself a short form of the Germanic name Adalheidis (see ADELAIDE). This name became popular in France and England in the 12th century. It was borne by the heroine of Lewis Carroll's 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' (1865) and 'Through the Looking Glass' (1871).

ANASTASIA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Greek, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, English, Spanish, Italian, Ancient Greek

Other Scripts: Αναστασια (Greek), Анастасия (Russian), Анастасія (Ukrainian, Belarusian)

Pronounced: ah-nah-stah-SEE-yah (Russian), a-nə-STAY-zhə (English), a-nə-STAS-yə (English), ah-nahs-TAH-syah (Spanish), ah-nahs-TAH-zyah (Italian)

Feminine form of ANASTASIUS. This was the name of a 4th-century Dalmatian saint who was martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian. Due to her, the name has been common in Eastern Orthodox Christianity (in various spellings). As an English name it has been in use since the Middle Ages. A famous bearer was the youngest daughter of the last Russian tsar Nicholas II, who was rumoured to have escaped the execution of her family in 1918.

ANDREW

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Pronounced: AN-droo (English)

From the Greek name Ανδρεας (Andreas), which was derived from ανηρ (aner) "man" (genitive ανδρος (andros) "of a man"). In the New Testament the apostle Andrew, the first disciple to join Jesus, is the brother of Simon Peter. According to tradition, he later preached in the Black Sea region, with some legends saying he was crucified on an X-shaped cross. Andrew, being a Greek name, was probably only a nickname or a translation of his real Hebrew name, which is not known.

This name has been common (in various spellings) throughout the Christian world, and it became very popular in the Middle Ages. Saint Andrew is regarded as the patron of Scotland, Russia, Greece and Romania. The name has been borne by three kings of Hungary, American president Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), and, more recently, English composer Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-).

ANTHONY

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: AN-thə-nee, AN-tə-nee

English form of the Roman family name Antonius, which is of unknown Etruscan origin. The most notable member of the Roman family was the general Marcus Antonius (called Mark Antony in English), who for a period in the 1st century BC ruled the Roman Empire jointly with Augustus. When their relationship turned sour, he and his mistress Cleopatra were attacked and forced to commit suicide, as related in Shakespeare's tragedy 'Antony and Cleopatra' (1606).

The name became regularly used in the Christian world due to the fame of Saint Anthony the Great, a 4th-century Egyptian hermit who founded Christian monasticism. Its popularity was reinforced in the Middle Ages by the 13th-century Saint Anthony of Padua, the patron saint of Portugal. It has been commonly (but incorrectly) associated with Greek ανθος (anthos) "flower", which resulted in the addition of the h to this spelling in the 17th century.

ARIANA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English (Modern)

Pronounced: ar-ee-AN-ə, ar-ee-AHN-ə

Variant of ARIANNA

CATHERINE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: French, English

Pronounced: ka-tə-REEN (French), ka-TREEN (French), KATH-ə-rin (English), KATH-rin (English)

French form of KATHERINE, and also a common English variant.

CHARLOTTE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: French, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch

Pronounced: shar-LOT (French), SHAHR-lət (English), shahr-LAW-tə (German), shahr-LAWT-tə (Dutch)

French feminine diminutive of CHARLES. It was introduced to Britain in the 17th century. A notable bearer was Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855), the eldest of the three Bronte sisters and the author of 'Jane Eyre' and 'Villette'.

CHRISTIAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish

Pronounced: KRIS-chən (English), KRISH-chən (English), krees-TYAWN (French), kris-TEE-ahn (German)

From the Medieval Latin name Christianus meaning "a Christian" (see CHRISTOS). In England it has been in use since the Middle Ages, during which time it was used by both males and females, but it did not become common until the 17th century. In Denmark the name has been borne by ten kings since the 15th century. A famous bearer was Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875), the Danish author of such fairy tales as 'The Ugly Duckling' and 'The Emperor's New Clothes'.

CHRISTOPHER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: KRIS-tə-fər

From the Late Greek name Χριστοφορος (Christophoros) meaning "bearing Christ", derived from Χριστος (Christos) combined with φερω (phero) "to bear, to carry". Early Christians used it as a metaphorical name, expressing that they carried Christ in their hearts. In the Middle Ages, literal interpretations of the name's etymology led to legends about a Saint Christopher who carried the young Jesus across a river. He has come to be regarded as the patron saint of travellers.

As an English given name, Christopher has been in general use since the 15th century. In Denmark it was borne by three kings (their names are usually spelled Christoffer), including the 15th-century Christopher of Bavaria who also ruled Norway and Sweden. Other famous bearers include Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), English playwright Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), and the fictional character Christopher Robin from A. A. Milne's 'Winnie-the-Pooh' books.

EDWARD

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Polish

Pronounced: ED-wərd (English), ED-vahrt (Polish)

Means "rich guard", derived from the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and weard "guard". Saint Edward the Confessor was the king of England shortly before the Norman conquest. He was known as a just ruler, and because of his popularity this name remained in use after the conquest when most other Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. The 13th-century king Henry III named his son and successor after the saint, and seven subsequent kings of England were also named Edward. This is one of the few Old English names to be used throughout Europe (in various spellings).

ELISABETH

Gender: Feminine

Usage: German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin

Pronounced: e-LEE-zah-bet (German), e-LEE-sah-bet (Danish), i-LIZ-ə-bəth (English)

German and Dutch form of ELIZABETH. It is also a variant English form, reflecting the spelling used in the Authorized Version of the New Testament.

EMMA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French, Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Dutch, German, Ancient Germanic

Pronounced: EM-ə (English), EM-mah (Finnish), E-mah (German)

Originally a short form of Germanic names that began with the element ermen meaning "whole" or "universal". It was introduced to England by Emma of Normandy, who was the wife both of king Ethelred II (and by him the mother of Edward the Confessor) and later of king Canute. It was also borne by an 11th-century Austrian saint, who is sometimes called Hemma.

After the Norman conquest this name became common in England. It was revived in the 18th century, perhaps in part due to Matthew Prior's poem 'Henry and Emma' (1709). It was also used by Jane Austen for the central character, the matchmaker Emma Woodhouse, in her novel 'Emma' (1816).

ETHAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Jewish, French, Biblical, Biblical Latin

Other Scripts: אֵיתָן (Hebrew)

Pronounced: EE-thən (English)

Means "solid, enduring" in Hebrew. This is the name of a wise man in the Old Testament. After the Protestant Reformation it was occasionally used as a given name in the English-speaking world, and it became somewhat common in America due to the fame of the revolutionary Ethan Allen (1738-1789). It only became popular towards the end of the 20th century. This was the name of the main character in Edith Wharton's novel 'Ethan Frome' (1911).

EVANDER (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized), Roman Mythology

Other Scripts: Ευανδρος (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: ee-VAN-dər (English), ə-VAN-dər (English)

Variant of Evandrus, Latin form of the Greek name Ευανδρος (Euandros) which meant "good man", derived from Greek ευ "good" and ανηρ (aner) "man" (genitive ανδρος). In Roman mythology Evander was an Arcadian hero of the Trojan War who founded the city of Pallantium near the spot where Rome was later built.

EVANGELINE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: ə-VAN-jə-leen

Means "good news" from Greek ευ "good" and αγγελμα (angelma) "news, message". It was (first?) used by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his epic poem 'Evangeline' (1847). It also appears in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' (1852) as the full name of the character Eva.

FINN (1)

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Irish Mythology, Irish

Older Irish form of FIONN. This is also the usual Anglicized spelling of the name. As a surname it is borne by Huckleberry Finn, a character in Mark Twain's novels.

GABRIEL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, English, Romanian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek

Other Scripts: גַּבְרִיאֵל (Ancient Hebrew), Γαβριηλ (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: ga-bree-EL (French), GAHP-ree-el (German), GAHB-ree-el (Finnish), GAH-bryel (Spanish), GAY-bree-əl (English), GAHP-ryel (Polish)

From the Hebrew name גַבְרִיאֵל (Gavri'el) meaning "God is my strong man". Gabriel was one of the seven archangels in Hebrew tradition. He appears in both the Old Testament and the New Testament, where he serves as the announcer of the births of John to Zechariah and Jesus to Mary. According to Islamic tradition he was the angel who dictated the Qur'an to Muhammad.

This name has been used occasionally in England since the 12th century. It was not common in the English-speaking world until the end of the 20th century.

GENEVIEVE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JEN-ə-veev

English form of GENEVIÈVE

GEOFFREY

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: JEF-ree (English), zhaw-FRAY (French)

From a Norman French form of a Germanic name. The second element is Germanic frid "peace", but the first element may be either gawia "territory", walha "foreign" or gisil "hostage". It is possible that two or more names merged into a single form. In the later Middle Ages Geoffrey was further confused with the distinct name Godfrey.

The Normans introduced this name to England where it became common among the nobility. Famous medieval literary bearers include the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth and the 14th-century poet Geoffrey Chaucer, writer of 'The Canterbury Tales'. By the end of the Middle Ages it had become uncommon, but it was revived in the 20th century, often in the spelling Jeffrey.

HAILEY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English (Modern)

Pronounced: HAY-lee

Variant of HAYLEY

HANNAH

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, Hebrew, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Biblical

Other Scripts: חַנָּה (Hebrew)

Pronounced: HAN-ə (English), HAH-nah (German)

From the Hebrew name חַנָּה (Channah) meaning "favour" or "grace". Hannah is the mother of the prophet Samuel in the Old Testament. As an English name, Hannah was not regularly used until after the Protestant Reformation. The Greek and Latin version Anna is used in the New Testament; this form has traditionally been more widely used as a Christian name.

JACK

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JAK

Derived from Jackin (earlier Jankin), a medieval diminutive of JOHN. It is often regarded as an independent name. During the Middle Ages it was very common, and it became a slang word meaning "man". It was frequently used in fairy tales and nursery rhymes, such as 'Jack and the Beanstalk', 'Little Jack Horner', and 'Jack Sprat'. American writers Jack London (1876-1916) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) were two famous bearers of this name. It is also borne by American actor Jack Nicholson (1937-).

JACOB

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Jewish, Biblical

Other Scripts: יַעֲקֹב (Hebrew)

Pronounced: JAY-kəb (English), YAH-kawp (Dutch)

From the Latin Iacobus, which was from the Greek Ιακωβος (Iakobos), which was from the Hebrew name יַעֲקֹב (Ya'aqov). In the Old Testament, Jacob (later called Israel) is the son of Isaac and Rebecca and the father of the twelve founders of the twelve tribes of Israel. He was born holding his twin brother Esau's heel, and his name is explained as meaning "holder of the heel" or "supplanter". Other theories claim that it is in fact derived from a hypothetical name like יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el) meaning "may God protect".

The English names Jacob and James derive from the same source, with James coming from Latin Iacomus, a later variant of Iacobus. Unlike English, many languages do not have separate spellings for the two names.

In England, Jacob was mainly regarded as a Jewish name during the Middle Ages, though the variant James was used among Christians. Jacob came into general use as a Christian name after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Jacob Grimm (1785-1863), the German linguist and writer who was, with his brother Wilhelm, the author of 'Grimm's Fairy Tales'.

JAMES

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Pronounced: JAYMZ (English)

English form of the Late Latin name Iacomus which was derived from Ιακωβος (Iakobos), the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name Ya'aqov (see JACOB). This was the name of two apostles in the New Testament. The first was Saint James the Greater, the apostle John's brother, who was beheaded under Herod Agrippa in the Book of Acts. The second was James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus. Another James (known as James the Just) is also mentioned in the Bible as being the brother of Jesus.

Since the 13th century this form of the name has been used in England, though it became more common in Scotland, where it was borne by several kings. In the 17th century the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne, becoming the first ruler of all Britain, and the name grew much more popular. Famous bearers include the explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779), the inventor James Watt (1736-1819), and the novelist and poet James Joyce (1882-1941). This name has also been borne by six American presidents. A notable fictional bearer is the British spy James Bond, created by author Ian Fleming.

JASPER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Dutch, Judeo-Christian Legend

Pronounced: JAS-pər (English), YAHS-pər (Dutch)

Means "treasurer" in Persian. This name was traditionally assigned to one of the wise men (also known as the Magi, or three kings) who were said to have visited the newborn Jesus. It has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world since the Middle Ages. The name can also be given in reference to the English word for the gemstone.

JEREMIAH

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Other Scripts: יִרְמְיָהוּ (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: jer-ə-MIE-ə (English)

From the Hebrew name יִרְמְיָהוּ (Yirmiyahu) which meant "YAHWEH has uplifted". This is the name of one of the major prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Jeremiah and (supposedly) the Book of Lamentations. He lived to see the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in the 6th century BC. In England, though the vernacular form Jeremy had been occasionally used since the 13th century, the form Jeremiah was not common until after the Protestant Reformation.

JOHANNA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, English, Late Roman

Pronounced: yo-HAH-nah (German), yo-HAHN-nah (Danish, Dutch), YO-hahn-nah (Finnish)

Latinate form of Ioanna (see JOANNA).

JONATHAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, French, Biblical

Other Scripts: יוֹנָתָן (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JAHN-ə-thən (English), YO-nah-tahn (German)

From the Hebrew name יְהוֹנָתָן (Yehonatan) (contracted to יוֹנָתָן (Yonatan)) meaning "YAHWEH has given". According to the Old Testament, Jonathan was the eldest son of Saul and a friend of David. He was killed in battle with the Philistines. As an English name, Jonathan did not become common until after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was the Anglo-Irish satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), who wrote 'Gulliver's Travels' and other works.

JOSEPH

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Biblical

Other Scripts: יוֹסֵף (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JO-səf (English), zho-ZEF (French), YO-zef (German)

From Ioseph, the Latin form of Greek Ιωσηφ (Ioseph), which was from the Hebrew name יוֹסֵף (Yosef) meaning "he will add". In the Old Testament, Joseph is the eleventh son of Jacob. Because he was the favourite of his father, his older brothers sent him to Egypt and told their father that he had died. In Egypt, Joseph became an advisor to the pharaoh, and was eventually reconciled with his brothers when they came to Egypt during a famine. This name also occurs in the New Testament, belonging to Saint Joseph the husband of Mary and Joseph of Arimathea.

In the Middle Ages, Joseph was a common Jewish name, being less frequent among Christians. In the late Middle Ages Saint Joseph became more highly revered, and the name became popular in Spain and Italy. In England it became common after the Protestant Reformation. This name was borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Portugal. Other notable bearers include Polish-British author Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) and the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin (1878-1953).

JOSHUA

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Other Scripts: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Ancient Hebrew)

Pronounced: JAH-shə-wə (English), JAW-shwə (English)

From the Hebrew name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Yehoshu'a) meaning "YAHWEH is salvation". Joshua was one of the twelve spies sent into Canaan by Moses, as told in the Old Testament. After Moses died Joshua succeeded him as leader of the Israelites. As an English name, Joshua has been in use since the Protestant Reformation.

The name Jesus comes from a Greek translation of the Aramaic short form יֵשׁוּעַ (Yeshu'a), which was the real name of Jesus.

JULIET

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: JOO-lee-et, JOOL-yət

Anglicized form of JULIETTE or GIULIETTA. This spelling was first used by Shakespeare for the lover of Romeo in his play 'Romeo and Juliet' (1596).

LEVI

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Hebrew, English, Dutch, Biblical, Biblical Latin

Other Scripts: לֵוִי (Hebrew)

Pronounced: LEE-vie (English), LE:-vee (Dutch)

Means "attached" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament, Levi is the third son of Jacob and Leah, and the ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of the Israelites (the tribe that eventually became the priests of the Israelites). In the New Testament this is another name for the apostle Matthew. As an English Christian name, Levi came into use after the Protestant Reformation.

LIAM

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Irish, English

Pronounced: LEE-əm (English)

Irish short form of WILLIAM

LILY

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: LIL-ee

From the name of the flower, a symbol of purity. The word is ultimately derived from Latin lilium.

LINDSEY

Gender: Masculine & Feminine

Usage: English, Scottish

Pronounced: LINDZ-ee

Variant of LINDSAY

MADELINE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: MAD-ə-lin (English), MAD-ə-lien (English), ma-də-LEEN (French), mad-LEEN (French)

English form of MAGDALENE. This is the name of the heroine in a series of children's books by Ludwig Bemelmans, first published 1939.

MARGARET

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English

Pronounced: MAHR-grit, MAHR-gə-rit

Derived from Latin Margarita, which was from Greek μαργαριτης (margarites) meaning "pearl", probably ultimately a borrowing from Sanskrit मञ्यरी (manyari). Saint Margaret, the patron of expectant mothers, was martyred at Antioch in the 4th century. Later legends told of her escape from a dragon, with which she was often depicted in medieval art. The saint was popular during the Middle Ages, and her name has been widely used in the Christian world.

Other saints by this name include a queen of Scotland and a princess of Hungary. It was also borne by Queen Margaret I of Denmark, who united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway in the 14th century. Famous literary bearers include American writer Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949), the author of 'Gone with the Wind', and Canadian writer Margaret Atwood (1939-).

MARIA

Gender: Feminine & Masculine

Usage: Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, Occitan, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Frisian, Greek, Polish, Romanian, English, Finnish, Corsican, Basque, Biblical Greek, Biblical Latin, Old Church Slavic

Other Scripts: Μαρια (Greek), Маріа (Church Slavic)

Pronounced: mah-REE-ah (Italian, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch), mə-REE-ə (Catalan, English), MAHR-yah (Polish), MAH-ree-ah (Finnish)

Latin form of Greek Μαρια, from Hebrew מִרְיָם (see MARY). Maria is the usual form of the name in many European languages, as well as a secondary form in other languages such as English (where the common spelling is Mary). In some countries, for example Germany, Poland and Italy, Maria is occasionally used as a masculine middle name.

This was the name of two ruling queens of Portugal. It was also borne by the Habsburg queen Maria Theresa (1717-1780), whose inheritance of the domains of her father, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, began the War of the Austrian Succession.

MATTHEW

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Pronounced: MATH-yoo (English)

English form of Ματθαιος (Matthaios), which was a Greek form of the Hebrew name מַתִּתְיָהוּ (Mattityahu) meaning "gift of YAHWEH". Saint Matthew, also called Levi, was one of the twelve apostles. He was a tax collector, and supposedly the author of the first Gospel in the New Testament. As an English name, Matthew has been in use since the Middle Ages.

MICHAEL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Czech, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek

Other Scripts: מִיכָאֵל (Ancient Hebrew), Μιχαηλ (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: MIE-kəl (English), MI-khah-el (German), MEE-kah-el (Swedish, Norwegian, Danish)

From the Hebrew name מִיכָאֵל (Mikha'el) meaning "who is like God?". This is a rhetorical question, implying no person is like God. Michael is one of the seven archangels in Hebrew tradition and the only one identified as an archangel in the Bible. In the Book of Revelation in the New Testament he is portrayed as the leader of heaven's armies, and thus is considered the patron saint of soldiers.

The popularity of the saint led to the name being used by nine Byzantine emperors, including Michael VIII Palaeologus who restored the empire in the 13th century. It has been common in Western Europe since the Middle Ages, and in England since the 12th century. It has been borne (in various spellings) by rulers of Russia (spelled Михаил), Romania (Mihai), Poland (Michał), and Portugal (Miguel). Other bearers of this name include the British chemist/physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867), musician Michael Jackson (1958-2009), and basketball player Michael Jordan (1963-).

NATHANAEL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Biblical, Biblical Greek

Other Scripts: נְתַנְאֵל (Ancient Hebrew), Ναθαναηλ (Ancient Greek)

Pronounced: nay-THAN-ee-əl (English), nay-THAN-yəl (English)

From the Hebrew name נְתַנְאֵל (Netan'el) meaning "God has given". In the New Testament this is the name of an apostle also known as Bartholomew.

NICHOLAS

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: NIK-ə-ləs (English), nee-ko-LAH (French)

From the Greek name Νικολαος (Nikolaos) which meant "victory of the people" from Greek νικη (nike) "victory" and λαος (laos) "people". Saint Nicholas was a 4th-century bishop from Anatolia who, according to legend, saved the daughters of a poor man from lives of prostitution. He is the patron saint of children, sailors and merchants, as well as Greece and Russia. He formed the basis for the figure known as Santa Claus (created in the 19th century from Dutch Sinterklaas), the bringer of Christmas presents.

Due to the renown of the saint, this name has been widely used in the Christian world. It has been common in England since the 12th century, though it became a bit less popular after the Protestant Reformation. The name has been borne by five popes and two czars of Russia.

PATRICK

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Irish, English, French, German

Pronounced: PAT-rik (English), pat-REEK (French), PAHT-rik (German)

From the Latin name Patricius, which meant "nobleman". This name was adopted in the 5th-century by Saint Patrick, whose birth name was Sucat. He was a Romanized Briton who was captured and enslaved in his youth by Irish raiders. After six years of servitude he escaped home, but he eventually became a bishop and went back to Ireland as a missionary. He is traditionally credited with Christianizing the island, and is regarded as Ireland's patron saint.

In England and elsewhere in Europe during the Middle Ages this name was used in honour of the saint. However, it was not generally given in Ireland before the 17th century because it was considered too sacred for everyday use. It has since become very common there.

PETER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Slovene, Slovak, Biblical

Pronounced: PEE-tər (English), PE-ter (German, Slovak), PAY-tər (Dutch)

Derived from the Greek Πετρος (Petros) meaning "stone". This is a translation used in most versions of the New Testament of the name Cephas, meaning "stone" in Aramaic, which was given to the apostle Simon by Jesus (compare Matthew 16:18 and John 1:42). Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles during Jesus' ministry and is often considered the first pope.

Due to the renown of the apostle, this name became common throughout the Christian world (in various spellings). In England the Normans introduced it in the Old French form Piers, which was gradually replaced by the spelling Peter starting in the 15th century.

Besides the apostle, other saints by this name include the 11th-century reformer Saint Peter Damian and the 13th-century preacher Saint Peter Martyr. It was also borne by rulers of Aragon, Portugal, and Russia, including the Russian tsar Peter the Great (1672-1725), who defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War. Famous fictional bearers include Peter Rabbit from Beatrix Potter's children's books, and Peter Pan, the boy who refused to grow up in J. M. Barrie's 1904 play.

REID

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: REED

From a surname which is a Scots variant of REED.

ROSE

Gender: Feminine

Usage: English, French

Pronounced: ROZ

Originally a Norman form of a Germanic name, which was composed of the elements hrod "fame" and heid "kind, sort, type". The Normans introduced it to England in the forms Roese and Rohese. From an early date it was associated with the word for the fragrant flower rose (derived from Latin rosa). When the name was revived in the 19th century, it was probably with the flower in mind.

RYAN

Gender: Masculine

Usage: Irish, English

Pronounced: RIE-ən

From an Irish surname which was derived from Ó Riain meaning "descendent of Rían". The given name Rían probably means "little king" (from Irish "king" combined with a diminutive suffix).

SAMUEL

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Jewish, Biblical

Other Scripts: שְׁמוּאֵל (Hebrew)

Pronounced: SAM-yoo-əl (English), SAM-yəl (English), SAH-moo-el (Finnish)

From the Hebrew name שְׁמוּאֵל (Shemu'el) which could mean either "name of God" or "God has heard". Samuel was the last of the ruling judges in the Old Testament. He anointed Saul to be the first king of Israel, and later anointed David.

As a Christian name, Samuel came into common use after the Protestant Reformation. Famous bearers include American inventor Samuel Morse (1791-1872), Irish writer Samuel Beckett (1906-1989), and American author Samuel Clemens (1835-1910), who wrote under the pen name Mark Twain.

SUSANNA

Gender: Feminine

Usage: Italian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian, Dutch, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Old Church Slavic

Other Scripts: Сусанна (Russian), שׁוֹשַׁנָּה (Ancient Hebrew), Сѹсанна (Church Slavic)

Pronounced: soo-ZAHN-nah (Italian), SOO-sahn-nah (Finnish), soo-ZAN-ə (English)

From Σουσαννα (Sousanna), the Greek form of the Hebrew name שׁוֹשַׁנָּה (Shoshannah). This was derived from the Hebrew word שׁוֹשָׁן (shoshan) meaning "lily" (in modern Hebrew this also means "rose"), perhaps ultimately from Egyptian sšn "lotus". In the Old Testament Apocrypha this is the name of a woman falsely accused of adultery. The prophet Daniel clears her name by tricking her accusers, who end up being condemned themselves. It also occurs in the New Testament belonging to a woman who ministered to Christ.

As an English name, it was occasionally used during the Middle Ages in honour of the Old Testament heroine. It did not become common until after the Protestant Reformation, at which time it was often spelled Susan.

THOMAS

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Greek, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek

Other Scripts: Θωμας (Greek)

Pronounced: TAHM-əs (English), TOM-əs (English), to-MAH (French), TO-mahs (German, Dutch), tho-MAHS (Greek)

Greek form of the Aramaic name תָּאוֹמָא (Ta'oma') which meant "twin". In the New Testament this is the name of the apostle who initially doubts the resurrected Jesus. According to tradition he was martyred in India. Due to his renown, the name came into general use in the Christian world.

In England the name was introduced by the Normans and became very popular due to Saint Thomas Becket, a 12th-century archbishop of Canterbury and martyr. Another notable saint by this name was the 13th-century Italian philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas, who is regarded as a Doctor of the Church. Other famous bearers include philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), American president Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), novelist Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), and inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931).

TRENTON

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: TREN-tən

From the name of a New Jersey city established in the 17th century by William Trent. It means "TRENT's town".

TYLER

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: TIE-lər

From an English surname meaning "tiler of roofs". The surname was borne by American president John Tyler (1790-1862).

WILLIAM

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English

Pronounced: WIL-ee-əm, WIL-yəm

From the Germanic name Willahelm, which was composed of the elements wil "will, desire" and helm "helmet, protection". Saint William of Gellone was an 8th-century cousin of Charlemagne who became a monk. The name was common among the Normans, and it became extremely popular in England after William the Conqueror was recognized as the first Norman king of England. It was later borne by three other English kings, as well as rulers of Scotland, Sicily (of Norman origin), the Netherlands and Prussia.

Other famous bearers include William Wallace, a 13th-century Scottish hero, and William Tell, a legendary 14th-century Swiss hero. In the literary world it was borne by dramatist William Shakespeare (1564-1616), poet William Blake (1757-1827), poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), dramatist William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), author William Faulkner (1897-1962), and author William S. Burroughs (1914-1997).

ZACHARIAH

Gender: Masculine

Usage: English, Biblical

Pronounced: zak-ə-RIE-ə (English)

Variant of ZECHARIAH. This spelling is used in the King James Version of the Old Testament to refer to one of the kings of Israel (called Zechariah in other versions).
Copyright © Mike Campbell 1996-2014.