English and British Kings and Queens

The first king of England is generally said to be Egbert, who united the realms of Wessex, Cornwall, Mercia, Kent, Sussex, Essex and East Anglia in the 9th century and gave them the name England. His descendants ruled England until Canute the Great, a Danish king, assumed control of the country. The Saxon line was briefly restored in Edward the Confessor before the William the Conqueror became the first Norman king of England in 1066. This was a turning point not only in English history but also in the English language, since the Normans spoke French, which had a lasting impact on the English tongue. The Normans also introduced many continental Germanic names to England resulting in many Old English names becoming unused.

Various families (all interrelated) have given England rulers since that time, including the houses of Anjou, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, and Windsor. After the English Civil War (1642-1648) the country was briefly governed by Oliver Cromwell and then his son Richard.

In 1707 the English and Scottish kingdoms were formally merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the last several centuries the powers of the British monarchy have been gradually reduced, and they are now little more than figureheads.

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NameYearsOther Names
Æthelric of Bernicia568-572(Aethelric)
Beorhtric of Wessex786-802(Brihtric)
Æthelweard of East Anglia8xx-854
Æðelred I865-871(Ethelred)
Alfred the Great871-899(Ælfrǣd, Ælfrēd)
Edward the Elder899-924
Edmund I the Magnificient939-946
Edgar the Peaceful959-975
Edward the Martyr975-978
Æðelred II the Unready978-1013; 1014-1016(Ethelred)
Sven Forkbeard1013-1014(Svend, Swegen, Sweyn)
Edmund II Ironside1016
Canute the Great1016-1035(Cnut, Knud)
Harold I Harefoot1035-1040
Harthacnut1040-1042(Canute, Hardeknud, Hardicanute, Knud, Knut)
Edward the Confessor1042-1066
Harold II1066
William I the Conqueror1066-1087
William II Rufus1087-1100
Henry I1100-1135
Henry II Plantagenet1154-1189
Richard I the Lionheart1189-1199
Henry III1216-1272
Edward I Longshanks1272-1307
Edward II1307-1327
Edward III1327-1377
Richard II1377-1399
Henry IV1399-1413
Henry V1413-1422
Henry VI1422-1461; 1470-1471
Edward IV1461-1470; 1471-1483
Edward V1483
Richard III1483-1485
Henry VII Tudor1485-1509
Henry VIII1509-1547
Edward VI1547-1553
Mary I Tudor1553-1558
Elizabeth I1558-1603
James I1603-1625
Charles I1625-1649
Oliver Cromwell1653-1658
Richard Cromwell1658-1659
Charles II1660-1685
James II1685-1688
Mary II1689-1694
William III of Orange1689-1702
George I1714-1727
George II1727-1760
George III1760-1820
George IV1820-1830
William IV1830-1837
Edward VII1901-1910
George V1910-1936
Edward VIII1936
George VI1936-1952
Elizabeth II1952-2022(Alexandra, Mary)
Charles III2022-(Philip, Arthur, George)