Teacozy's Personal Name List

ADAM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian, Catalan, Hebrew, Arabic, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: Адам(Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian) אָדָם(Hebrew) آدم(Arabic) ადამ(Georgian) Αδαμ(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: A-dəm(English) A-DAHN(French) A-dam(German, Polish, Arabic) A-dahm(Dutch) u-DAM(Russian) ah-DAHM(Ukrainian)
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 65% based on 8 votes
This is the Hebrew word for "man". It could be ultimately derived from Hebrew אדם ('adam) meaning "to be red", referring to the ruddy colour of human skin, or from Akkadian adamu meaning "to make".

According to Genesis in the Old Testament Adam was created from the earth by God (there is a word play on Hebrew אֲדָמָה ('adamah) "earth"). He and Eve were supposedly the first humans, living happily in the Garden of Eden until they ate the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. As a result they were expelled from Eden to the lands to the east, where they gave birth the second generation, including Cain, Abel and Seth.

As an English Christian name, Adam has been common since the Middle Ages, and it received a boost after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723-1790).

AEMILIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Roman
Personal note: The Comedy of Errors
Rating: 61% based on 9 votes
Feminine form of Aemilius (see EMIL).
AENEAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Roman Mythology
Pronounced: ie-NEH-as(Classical Latin) i-NEE-əs(English)
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 26% based on 7 votes
Latin form of the Greek name Αινειας (Aineias), derived from Greek αινη (aine) meaning "praise". In Greek legend he was a son of Aphrodite and was one of the chief heroes who defended Troy from the Greeks. The Roman poet Virgil continued his story in the 'Aeneid', in which Aeneas travels to Italy and founds the Roman state.
AJAX
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Αιας(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: AY-jaks(English)
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 30% based on 9 votes
From the Greek name Αιας (Aias), perhaps deriving from Greek αιαστης (aiastes) "mourner" or αια (aia) "earth, land". In Greek mythology this was the name of two of the heroes who fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War, the son of Telamon and the son of Oileus. When the armour of the slain hero Achilles was not given to Ajax Telamonian, he became mad with jealousy and killed himself.
ALEXAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek, Theatre
Other Scripts: Ἀλεξᾶς
Personal note: Antony and Cleopatra
Rating: 27% based on 6 votes
Greek name, possibly originally a short form of Alexandros or another name beginning with the element αλεξω (alexo) "to defend, help". This was used by William Shakespeare for a character in his play 'Antony and Cleopatra' (1606).
ALIENA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Theatre, Literature
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 52% based on 6 votes
Means "stranger" in Latin. This was the false identity of Celia in Shakespeare's play 'As You Like It' (1599) when she goes into hiding in the forest of Arden, presumably a pun on the word alias. It was also used by author Ken Follett for a character in his historical novel 'The Pillars of the Earth' (1989).
ANGELICA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, Romanian, Literature
Pronounced: an-JEHL-i-kə(English) an-JEH-lee-ka(Italian)
Personal note: Romeo and Juliet
Rating: 54% based on 7 votes
Derived from Latin angelicus meaning "angelic", ultimately related to Greek αγγελος (angelos) "messenger". The poets Boiardo and Ariosto used this name in their 'Orlando' poems (1495 and 1532), where it belongs to Orlando's love interest. It has been used as a given name since the 18th century.
ANGUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish, Irish, English
Pronounced: ANG-gəs
Personal note: Macbeth
Rating: 54% based on 5 votes
Anglicized form of AONGHUS.
ANNE (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, German, Dutch, Basque
Pronounced: AN(French, English) A-neh(Swedish) A-nə(Danish, German) AHN-neh(Finnish) AH-nə(Dutch)
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 82% based on 6 votes
French form of ANNA. In the 13th-century it was imported to England, where it was also commonly spelled Ann. The name was borne by a 17th-century English queen and also by the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn (the mother of Queen Elizabeth I), who was eventually beheaded in the Tower of London. This is also the name of the heroine in 'Anne of Green Gables' (1908) by Canadian author L. M. Montgomery.
ANTENOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ἀντήνωρ
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 34% based on 5 votes
The first element of this name is either derived from Greek ἀντ (ant) "instead of" or from Greek αντι (anti) "against". The second element is derived from Greek ανηρ (aner) "man." In Greek mythology, Antenor was a councilor of King Priam during the Trojan War.
ANTONIO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Spanish, Italian, Croatian
Pronounced: an-TO-nyo(Spanish, Italian)
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 48% based on 5 votes
Spanish and Italian form of Antonius (see ANTHONY). A famous bearer was the Italian Renaissance painter Antonio Pisanello (c. 1395-1455). It is also the name of the main character in 'The Merchant of Venice' (1596) by William Shakespeare.
ANTONY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AN-tə-nee
Personal note: Julius Caeser/Antony and Cleopatra
Rating: 52% based on 6 votes
Variant of ANTHONY. This was formerly the usual English spelling of the name, but during the 17th century the h began to be added.
ARIEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew, English, French, Spanish, Biblical, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: אֲרִיאֵל(Hebrew) Αριηλ(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: a-ree-EHL(Hebrew) EHR-ee-əl(English) AR-ee-əl(English) A-RYEHL(French) a-RYEHL(Spanish)
Personal note: The Tempest
Rating: 66% based on 7 votes
Means "lion of God" in Hebrew, from אֲרִי ('ari) meaning "lion" and אֵל ('el) meaning "God". In the Old Testament it is used as another name for the city of Jerusalem. Shakespeare used it as the name of a spirit in his play 'The Tempest' (1611), and one of the moons of Uranus bears this name in his honour. As an English name, it became more common for females in the 1980s, especially after it was used for the title character in the Walt Disney film 'The Little Mermaid' (1989).
AUDREY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AWD-ree
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 58% based on 8 votes
Medieval diminutive of ÆÐELÞRYÐ. This was the name of a 7th-century saint, a princess of East Anglia who founded a monastery at Ely. It was also borne by a character in Shakespeare's comedy 'As You Like It' (1599). At the end of the Middle Ages the name became rare due to association with the word tawdry (which was derived from St. Audrey, the name of a fair where cheap lace was sold), but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was British actress Audrey Hepburn (1929-1993).
BAGOT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Medieval English
Personal note: Richard II
Rating: 20% based on 5 votes
BEATRICE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, English, Swedish
Pronounced: beh-a-TREE-cheh(Italian) BEE-ə-tris(English) BEET-ris(English) BEH-ah-trees(Swedish) beh-ah-TREES(Swedish)
Personal note: Much ado about nothing
Rating: 71% based on 10 votes
Italian form of BEATRIX. Beatrice Portinari (1266-1290) was the woman who was loved by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. She serves as Dante's guide through paradise in his epic poem the 'Divine Comedy' (1321). This is also the name of a character in Shakespeare's comedy 'Much Ado About Nothing' (1599), in which Beatrice and Benedick are fooled into confessing their love for one another.
BENEDICK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Theatre
Pronounced: BEN-ə-dik
Personal note: Much ado about nothing
Rating: 42% based on 6 votes
Variant of Benedict used by Shakespeare in his comedy 'Much Ado About Nothing' (1599).
BIANCA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Romanian
Pronounced: BYANG-ka(Italian) BYAN-ka(Romanian)
Personal note: Taming of the shrew/Othello
Rating: 84% based on 9 votes
Italian cognate of BLANCHE. Shakespeare used characters named Bianca in 'Taming of the Shrew' (1593) and 'Othello' (1603).
BLANCHE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English
Pronounced: BLAHNSH(French) BLANCH(English)
Personal note: King John
Rating: 67% based on 6 votes
From a medieval French nickname meaning "white, fair". This name and its cognates in other languages are ultimately derived from the Germanic word blanc. An early bearer was the 12th-century Blanca of Navarre, the wife of Sancho III of Castile. Her granddaughter of the same name married Louis VIII of France, with the result that the name became more common in France.
CADWAL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Medieval Welsh, Breton (Rare)
Personal note: Cymbeline
Rating: 26% based on 5 votes
From Old Welsh cad "battle" and gwal "leader". This occurs in Shakespeare's play 'Cymbeline' (1609) as the name of Arviragus while in hiding in Wales.
In some cases it may be a short form of the closely related name Cadwaladr.
CAESAR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman
Pronounced: KIE-sar(Classical Latin) SEE-zər(English)
Personal note: Julius Caeser
Rating: 56% based on 5 votes
From a Roman cognomen that possibly meant "hairy", from Latin caesaries "hair". Julius Caesar and his adopted son Julius Caesar Octavianus (commonly known as Augustus) were both rulers of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC. Caesar was used as a title by the emperors that came after them.
CALPHURNIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: South African (Rare)
Personal note: Julius Caeser
Rating: 25% based on 4 votes
Variant of Calpurnia.
CAMILLO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: ka-MEEL-lo
Personal note: The Winter’s Tale
Rating: 36% based on 5 votes
Italian form of CAMILLUS.
CASSANDRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, German, Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Κασσανδρα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: kə-SAN-drə(English) kə-SAHN-drə(English) kas-SAN-dra(Italian) ka-SAN-dra(German)
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 73% based on 8 votes
From the Greek name Κασσανδρα (Kassandra), derived from possibly κεκασμαι (kekasmai) "to excel, to shine" and ανηρ (aner) "man" (genitive ανδρος). In Greek myth Cassandra was a Trojan princess, the daughter of Priam and Hecuba. She was given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, but when she spurned his advances he cursed her so nobody would believe her prophecies.

In the Middle Ages this name was common in England due to the popularity of medieval tales about the Trojan War. It subsequently became rare, but was revived in the 20th century.

CELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Spanish
Pronounced: SEEL-yə(English) SEE-lee-ə(English) THEHL-ya(European Spanish) SEHL-ya(Latin American Spanish)
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 74% based on 8 votes
Feminine form of the Roman family name CAELIUS. Shakespeare used it in his play 'As You Like It' (1599), which introduced the name to the English-speaking public at large. It is sometimes used as a short form of CECILIA.
CERES
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Roman Mythology
Pronounced: KEH-rehs(Classical Latin) SIR-eez(English)
Personal note: The Tempest
Rating: 32% based on 6 votes
Derived from the Indo-European root *ker meaning "to grow". In Roman mythology Ceres was the goddess of agriculture, equivalent to the Greek goddess Demeter.
CLEOPATRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Κλεοπατρα(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: klee-o-PAT-rə(English)
Personal note: Antony and Cleopatra
Rating: 60% based on 6 votes
From the Greek name Κλεοπατρα (Kleopatra) meaning "glory of the father", derived from κλεος (kleos) "glory" combined with πατηρ (pater) "father" (genitive πατρος), This was the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Shakespeare's tragedy 'Antony and Cleopatra' (1606) is based on her.
CORIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French (Rare)
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 40% based on 5 votes
French form of QUIRINUS.
CRESSIDA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: KREHS-i-də(English)
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 57% based on 7 votes
Medieval form of CHRYSEIS. Various medieval tales describe her as a woman of Troy, daughter of Calchus, who leaves her Trojan lover Troilus for the Greek hero Diomedes. Shakespeare's play 'Troilus and Cressida' (1602) was based on these tales.
DEMETRIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Δημητριος(Ancient Greek)
Personal note: A midsummer night’s dream
Rating: 57% based on 6 votes
Latinized form of the Greek name Δημητριος (Demetrios), which was derived from the name of the Greek goddess DEMETER (1). Kings of Macedon and the Seleucid kingdom have had this name. This was also the name of several early saints including a Saint Demetrius who was martyred in the 4th century.
DESDEMONA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: dehz-də-MO-nə(English)
Personal note: Othello
Rating: 66% based on 7 votes
Derived from Greek δυσδαιμων (dysdaimon) meaning "ill-fated". This was the name of the murdered wife of Othello in Shakespeare's play 'Othello' (1603).
DIANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Catalan, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Russian, Bulgarian, Lithuanian, Polish, Czech, Roman Mythology
Other Scripts: Диана(Russian, Bulgarian)
Pronounced: die-AN-ə(English) DYA-na(Spanish, Italian, German, Polish) dee-A-nə(Catalan) dee-AH-nah(Dutch) dee-A-na(Classical Latin)
Personal note: All’s well that ends well
Rating: 87% based on 6 votes
Probably derived from an old Indo-European root meaning "heavenly, divine", related to dyeus (see ZEUS). Diana was a Roman goddess of the moon, hunting, forests, and childbirth, often identified with the Greek goddess Artemis.

As a given name, Diana has been regularly used since the Renaissance. It became more common in the English-speaking world following Sir Walter Scott's novel 'Rob Roy' (1817), which featured a character named Diana Vernon. It also appeared in George Meredith's novel 'Diana of the Crossways' (1885). A notable bearer was Diana Spencer (1961-1997), the Princess of Wales.

DUNCAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish, English
Pronounced: DUNG-kən
Personal note: Macbeth
Rating: 58% based on 5 votes
Anglicized form of the Gaelic name Donnchadh, derived from Gaelic donn "brown" and cath "battle". This was the name of two kings of Scotland, including the one who was featured in Shakespeare's play 'Macbeth' (1606).
EDGAR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French
Pronounced: EHD-gər(English) EHD-GAR(French)
Personal note: King Lear
Rating: 62% based on 5 votes
Derived from the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and gar "spear". This was the name of a 10th-century English king, Edgar the Peaceful. The name did not survive long after the Norman Conquest, but it was revived in the 18th century, in part due to a character by this name in Sir Walter Scott's novel 'The Bride of Lammermoor' (1819), which tells of the tragic love between Edgar Ravenswood and Lucy Ashton. Famous bearers include author and poet Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), French impressionist painter Edgar Degas (1834-1917), and author Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950).
EDMUND
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Polish
Pronounced: EHD-mənd(English) EHT-muwnt(German) EHD-moont(Polish)
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 62% based on 6 votes
From the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and mund "protection". This was the name of two Anglo-Saxon kings of England. It was also borne by two saints, including a 9th-century king of East Anglia who, according to tradition, was shot to death with arrows after refusing to divide his Christian kingdom with an invading pagan Danish leader. This Old English name remained in use after the Norman Conquest (even being used by King Henry III for one of his sons), though it became less common after the 15th century.

Famous bearers of the name include the English poet Edmund Spenser (1552-1599), the German-Czech philosopher Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) and New Zealand mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary (1919-2008), the first person to climb Mount Everest.

EDWARD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Polish
Pronounced: EHD-wərd(English) EHD-vart(Polish)
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 54% based on 5 votes
Means "rich guard", derived from the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and weard "guard". This was the name of several Anglo-Saxon kings, the last being Saint Edward the Confessor shortly before the Norman Conquest in the 11th century. He was known as a just ruler, and because of his popularity his name remained in use after the conquest when most other Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. The 13th-century Plantagenet king Henry III named his son and successor after the saint, and seven subsequent kings of England were also named Edward.

This is one of the few Old English names to be used throughout Europe (in various spellings). A famous bearer was the British composer Edward Elgar (1857-1934). It was also used by author Charlotte Brontë for the character Edward Rochester, the main love interest of the title character in her novel 'Jane Eyre' (1847).

ELEANOR
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EHL-ə-nawr
Personal note: King John
Rating: 90% based on 5 votes
From the Old French form of the Occitan name Aliénor. Among the name's earliest bearers was the influential Eleanor of Aquitaine (12th century), who was the queen of Louis VII, the king of France, and later Henry II, the king of England. She was named Aenor after her mother, and was called by the Occitan phrase alia Aenor "the other AENOR" in order to distinguish her from her mother. However, there appear to be examples of bearers prior to Eleanor of Aquitaine. It is not clear whether they were in fact Aenors who were retroactively recorded as having the name Eleanor, or whether there is an alternative explanation for the name's origin.

The popularity of the name Eleanor in England during the Middle Ages was due to the fame of Eleanor of Aquitaine, as well as two queens of the following century: Eleanor of Provence, the wife of Henry III, and Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward I. More recently, it was borne by first lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), the wife of American president Franklin Roosevelt.

EMILIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Romanian, Finnish, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Bulgarian
Other Scripts: Емилия(Bulgarian)
Pronounced: eh-MEE-lya(Italian, Spanish) EH-mee-lee-ah(Finnish) eh-MYEE-lya(Polish) eh-MEE-lee-ah(Swedish) i-MEE-lee-ə(English)
Personal note: Two noble kinsmen
Rating: 80% based on 6 votes
Feminine form of Aemilius (see EMIL).
EROS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ερως(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: EH-RAWS(Classical Greek) EHR-aws(English)
Personal note: Antony and Cleopatra
Rating: 34% based on 5 votes
Means "love" in Greek. In Greek mythology he was a young god, the son of Aphrodite, who was armed with arrows that caused the victim to fall in love.
ESCALUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Theatre
Personal note: Romeo and Juliet
Rating: 23% based on 4 votes
Possibly a variant of Aeschylus. This was used by Shakespeare in his play 'Romeo and Juliet' (1596), where it belongs to Prince Escalus. He later used it for a character in his play 'Measure for Measure' (written 1603 or 1604; first published 1623).
FERDINAND
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, French, Dutch, English, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Ancient Germanic
Pronounced: FEHR-dee-nant(German) FEHR-DEE-NAHN(French) FEHR-dee-nahnt(Dutch) FUR-də-nand(English)
Personal note: The Tempest
Rating: 34% based on 5 votes
From Ferdinando, the old Spanish form of a Germanic name composed of the elements fardi "journey" and nand "daring, brave". The Visigoths brought the name to the Iberian Peninsula, where it entered into the royal families of Spain and Portugal. From there it became common among the Habsburg royal family of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria, starting with the Spanish-born Ferdinand I in the 16th century. A notable bearer was Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), called Fernão de Magalhães in Portuguese, who was the leader of the first expedition to sail around the earth.
FRANCISCA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Portuguese, Late Roman
Pronounced: fran-THEES-ka(European Spanish) fran-SEES-ka(Latin American Spanish) frun-SEESH-ku(Portuguese) frun-SEES-ku(Portuguese)
Personal note: Measure for measure
Rating: 68% based on 4 votes
Spanish and Portuguese feminine form of Franciscus (see FRANCIS).
GERTRUDE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: GUR-trood(English) khər-TRUY-də(Dutch)
Personal note: Hamlet
Rating: 40% based on 5 votes
Means "spear of strength", derived from the Germanic elements ger "spear" and thrud "strength". Saint Gertrude the Great was a 13th-century nun and mystic writer. It was probably introduced to England by settlers from the Low Countries in the 15th century. Shakespeare used the name in his play 'Hamlet' (1600) for the mother of the title character. A famous bearer was the American writer Gertrude Stein (1874-1946).
HAMLET
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Literature, Armenian
Other Scripts: Համլետ(Armenian)
Pronounced: HAM-lət(English)
Personal note: Hamlet
Rating: 18% based on 5 votes
Anglicized form of the Danish name Amleth. Shakespeare used this name for the Prince of Denmark in his play 'Hamlet' (1600), which he based upon earlier Danish tales.
HARRY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: HAR-ee, HEHR-ee
Personal note: Henry IV
Rating: 78% based on 5 votes
Medieval English form of HENRY. In modern times it is used as a diminutive of both Henry and HAROLD. A famous bearer was American president Harry S. Truman (1884-1972). It is also the name of the boy wizard in J. K. Rowling's 'Harry Potter' series of books, first released in 1997.
HECTOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Greek Mythology (Latinized), Arthurian Romance
Other Scripts: ‘Εκτωρ(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: HEHK-tər(English) EHK-TAWR(French)
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 52% based on 5 votes
Latinized form of Greek ‘Εκτωρ (Hektor), which was derived from ‘εκτωρ (hektor) "holding fast", ultimately from εχω (echo) meaning "to hold, to possess". In Greek legend Hector was one of the Trojan champions who fought against the Greeks. After he killed Achilles' friend Patroclus in battle, he was himself brutally slain by Achilles, who proceeded to tie his dead body to a chariot and drag it about. This name also appears in Arthurian legends belonging to King Arthur's foster father.

Hector has occasionally been used as a given name since the Middle Ages, probably because of the noble character of the classical hero. It was historically common in Scotland, where it was used as an Anglicized form of Eachann.

HELEN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Greek Mythology (Anglicized)
Other Scripts: ‘Ελενη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: HEHL-ən(English)
Personal note: Troilus and Cressida
Rating: 63% based on 6 votes
English form of the Greek ‘Ελενη (Helene), probably from Greek ‘ελενη (helene) "torch" or "corposant", or possibly related to σεληνη (selene) "moon". In Greek mythology Helen was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, whose kidnapping by Paris was the cause of the Trojan War. The name was also borne by the 4th-century Saint Helena, mother of the Roman emperor Constantine, who supposedly found the True Cross during a trip to Jerusalem.

The name was originally used among early Christians in honour of the saint, as opposed to the classical character. In England it was commonly spelled Ellen during the Middle Ages, and the spelling Helen was not regularly used until after the Renaissance. A famous bearer was Helen Keller (1880-1968), an American author and lecturer who was both blind and deaf.

HENRY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: HEHN-ree
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 72% based on 5 votes
From the Germanic name Heimirich meaning "home ruler", composed of the elements heim "home" and ric "power, ruler". It was later commonly spelled Heinrich, with the spelling altered due to the influence of other Germanic names like Haganrich, in which the first element is hagan "enclosure".

Heinrich was popular among continental royalty, being the name of seven German kings, starting with the 10th-century Henry I the Fowler, and four French kings. In France it was rendered Henri from the Latin form Henricus.

The Normans introduced the French form to England, and it was subsequently used by eight kings, ending with the infamous Henry VIII in the 16th century. During the Middle Ages it was generally rendered as Harry or Herry in English pronunciation. Notable bearers include arctic naval explorer Henry Hudson (1570-1611), British novelist Henry James (1843-1916), and American automobile manufacturer Henry Ford (1863-1947).

HERMIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: HEHR-mee-ə(English)
Personal note: A midsummer night’s dream
Rating: 63% based on 6 votes
Feminine form of HERMES. Shakespeare used this name in his comedy 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' (1595).
HERMIONE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: ‘Ερμιονη(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: HEHR-MEE-O-NEH(Classical Greek) hər-MIE-ə-nee(English)
Personal note: The winter’s tale
Rating: 85% based on 6 votes
Derived from the name of the Greek messenger god HERMES. In Greek myth Hermione was the daughter of Menelaus and Helen. This is also the name of the wife of Leontes in Shakespeare's play 'The Winter's Tale' (1610). It is now closely associated with the character Hermione Granger from the Harry Potter series of books, first released in 1997.
HORATIO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: hə-RAY-shee-o, hə-RAY-sho
Personal note: Hamlet
Rating: 54% based on 7 votes
Variant of HORATIUS. It was borne by the British admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), famous for his defeat of Napoleon's forces in the Battle of Trafalgar, in which he was himself killed. Since his time the name has been occasionally used in his honour.
HUGH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: HYOO
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 49% based on 7 votes
From the Germanic element hug, meaning "heart, mind, spirit". It was common among Frankish and French nobility, being borne by Hugh Capet, a 10th-century king of France who founded the Capetian dynasty. The Normans brought the name to England and it became common there, even more so after the time of the 12th-century bishop Saint Hugh of Lincoln, who was known for his charity. This was also the name of kings of Cyprus and the crusader kingdom of Jerusalem. The name is used in Ireland and Scotland as the Anglicized form of Aodh and Ùisdean.
IMOGEN
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (British)
Pronounced: IM-ə-jehn
Personal note: Cymbeline
Rating: 68% based on 8 votes
The name of a princess in the play 'Cymbeline' (1609) by Shakespeare. He based her on a legendary character named Innogen, but the name was printed incorrectly and never corrected. The name Innogen is probably derived from Gaelic inghean meaning "maiden".
ISABELLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Romanian
Pronounced: ee-za-BEHL-la(Italian) ee-za-BEH-la(German) iz-ə-BEHL-ə(English)
Personal note: Measure for measure
Rating: 76% based on 7 votes
Latinate form of ISABEL. This name was borne by many medieval royals, including queen consorts of England, France, Portugal, the Holy Roman Empire and Hungary, as well as the powerful ruling queen Isabella of Castile (properly called Isabel).
JULIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Russian, Ukrainian, Ancient Roman, Biblical
Other Scripts: Юлия(Russian) Юлія(Ukrainian)
Pronounced: JOO-lee-ə(English) YOO-lya(German, Danish, Polish) YOO-lee-ah(Swedish, Finnish) KHOO-lya(Spanish) YOO-lyi-yə(Russian) YOO-lee-a(Classical Latin)
Personal note: Two gentlemen of Verona
Rating: 72% based on 5 votes
Feminine form of the Roman family name JULIUS. Among the notable women from this family were Julia Augusta (also known as Livia Drusilla), the wife of Emperor Augustus, and Julia the Elder, the daughter of Augustus and the wife of Tiberius. A person by this name has a brief mention in the New Testament. It was also borne by a few early saints and martyrs, including the patron saint of Corsica. Additionally, Shakespeare used it in his comedy 'The Two Gentlemen of Verona' (1594).

It has been common as a given name in the English-speaking world only since the 18th century. A famous modern bearer is American actress Julia Roberts (1967-).

JULIET
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: joo-lee-EHT, JOOL-yət
Personal note: Romeo and Juliet
Rating: 71% based on 7 votes
Anglicized form of JULIETTE or GIULIETTA. This spelling was first used by Shakespeare for the lover of Romeo in his play 'Romeo and Juliet' (1596).
JULIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman, English, German, Finnish, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Dutch
Pronounced: YOO-lee-oos(Classical Latin) JOO-lee-əs(English) YOO-lyuws(German) YOO-lyoos(Finnish, Danish) YOO-lee-uys(Swedish)
Personal note: Julius Caeser
Rating: 30% based on 4 votes
From a Roman family name that was possibly derived from Greek ιουλος (ioulos) meaning "downy-bearded". Alternatively, it could be related to the name of the Roman god JUPITER. This was a prominent patrician family of Rome, who claimed descent from the mythological Julus, son of Aeneas. Its most notable member was Gaius Julius Caesar, who gained renown as a military leader for his clever conquest of Gaul. After a civil war he became the dictator of the Roman Republic, but was eventually stabbed to death in the senate.

Although this name was borne by several early saints, including a pope, it was rare during the Middle Ages. It was revived in Italy and France during the Renaissance, and was subsequently imported to England.

KATHARINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German
Pronounced: KATH-ə-rin(English) KATH-rin(English) ka-ta-REE-nə(German)
Personal note: (Used in several plays)
Rating: 92% based on 5 votes
English variant of KATHERINE and German variant of KATHARINA. A famous bearer was American actress Katharine Hepburn (1907-2003).
LORENZO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian, Spanish
Pronounced: lo-REHN-tso(Italian) lo-REHN-tho(European Spanish) lo-REHN-so(Latin American Spanish)
Personal note: Merchant of Venice
Rating: 58% based on 5 votes
Italian and Spanish form of Laurentius (see LAURENCE (1)). Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), known as the Magnificent, was a ruler of Florence during the Renaissance. He was also a great patron of the arts who employed Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Botticelli and other famous artists.
LUCIANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Ancient Roman
Pronounced: loo-CHA-na(Italian) loo-THYA-na(European Spanish) loo-SYA-na(Latin American Spanish)
Personal note: Comedy of errors
Rating: 63% based on 4 votes
Feminine form of LUCIANUS.
LYSANDER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Λυσανδρος(Ancient Greek)
Personal note: Midsummer night’s dream
Rating: 68% based on 6 votes
Latinized form of the Greek name Λυσανδρος (Lysandros), derived from Greek λυσις (lysis) meaning "a release" and ανηρ (aner) meaning "man" (genitive ανδρος). This was the name of a notable 5th-century BC Spartan general and naval commander.
MALCOLM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Scottish, English
Pronounced: MAL-kəm(English)
Personal note: Macbeth
Rating: 58% based on 4 votes
From Scottish Máel Coluim, which means "disciple of Saint COLUMBA". This was the name of four kings of Scotland starting in the 10th century, including Malcolm III, who became king after killing Macbeth, the usurper who had murdered his father. The character Malcolm in Shakespeare's tragedy 'Macbeth' (1606) is based on him. Another famous bearer was Malcolm X (1925-1965), an American civil rights leader.
MARINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, English, Greek, Finnish, Estonian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Czech, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian, Latvian, Georgian, Ancient Roman
Other Scripts: Μαρινα(Greek) Марина(Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian) მარინა(Georgian)
Pronounced: ma-REE-na(Italian, Spanish, German) mə-REEN-ə(English) mu-RYEE-nə(Russian) MA-ri-na(Czech)
Personal note: Pericles, Prince of Tyre
Rating: 55% based on 4 votes
Feminine form of MARINUS.
MARK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Russian, Dutch, Danish, Biblical
Other Scripts: Марк(Russian)
Pronounced: MAHRK(English, Dutch) MARK(Russian)
Personal note: Antony and Cleopatra/Julius Caeser
Rating: 48% based on 4 votes
Form of Latin MARCUS used in several languages. Saint Mark was the author of the second gospel in the New Testament. Though the author's identity is not certain, some traditions hold him to be the same person as the John Mark who appears in the Book of Acts. He is the patron saint of Venice, where he is supposedly buried. Though in use during the Middle Ages, Mark was not common in the English-speaking world until the 19th century, when it began to be used alongside the classical form Marcus.

In the Celtic legend of Tristan and Isolde this was the name of a king of Cornwall. It was also borne by the American author Mark Twain (1835-1910), real name Samuel Clemens, the author of 'Tom Sawyer' and 'Huckleberry Finn'. He took his pen name from a call used by riverboat workers on the Mississippi River to indicate a depth of two fathoms. This is also the usual English spelling of the name of the 1st-century BC Roman triumvir Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony).

MIRANDA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Dutch
Pronounced: mə-RAN-də(English)
Personal note: Tempest
Rating: 58% based on 5 votes
Derived from Latin mirandus meaning "admirable, wonderful". The name was created by Shakespeare for the heroine in his play 'The Tempest' (1611), about a father and daughter stranded on an island. It did not become a common English given name until the 20th century. This is also the name of one of the moons of Uranus, named after the Shakespearean character.
NERISSA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Personal note: Merchant of Venice
Rating: 36% based on 5 votes
Created by Shakespeare for a character in his play 'The Merchant of Venice' (1596). He possibly took it from Greek Νηρεις (Nereis) meaning "nymph, sea sprite", ultimately derived from the name of the Greek sea god NEREUS, who supposedly fathered them.
OBERON
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: O-bər-ahn(English)
Personal note: A midsummer night’s dream
Rating: 50% based on 4 votes
Variant of AUBERON. Oberon was the king of the fairies in Shakespeare's comedy 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' (1595). A moon of Uranus bears this name in his honour.
OLIVIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, Spanish, German, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Pronounced: o-LIV-ee-ə(English) o-LEE-vya(Italian, German) o-LEE-bya(Spanish) O-lee-vee-ah(Finnish)
Personal note: Twelfth Night
Rating: 62% based on 5 votes
This name was first used in this spelling by William Shakespeare for a character in his comedy 'Twelfth Night' (1602). Shakespeare may have based it on OLIVER or OLIVA, or perhaps directly on the Latin word oliva meaning "olive". In the play Olivia is a noblewoman who is wooed by Duke Orsino but instead falls in love with his messenger Cesario.

The name has been used in the English-speaking world since the 18th century, though it did not become overly popular until the last half of the 20th century. Its rise in popularity in America was precipitated by a character on the 1970s television series 'The Waltons'.

OPHELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Literature
Pronounced: o-FEEL-ee-ə(English) o-FEEL-yə(English)
Personal note: Hamlet
Rating: 84% based on 8 votes
Derived from Greek οφελος (ophelos) meaning "help". This name was probably created by the 15th-century poet Jacopo Sannazaro for a character in his poem 'Arcadia'. It was borrowed by Shakespeare for his play 'Hamlet' (1600), in which it belongs to Hamlet's lover who eventually goes insane and drowns herself. In spite of this, the name has been used since the 19th century.
ORLANDO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: or-LAN-do
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 48% based on 5 votes
Italian form of ROLAND. A city in Florida bears this name, as does a character in Shakespeare's play 'As You like It' (1599).
ORSINO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Personal note: Twelfth Night
Rating: 43% based on 4 votes
Italian form of the Roman name Ursinus, itself derived from Ursus (see URS). This is the name of a character in Shakespeare's play 'Twelfth Night' (1602).
OTHELLO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: o-THEHL-o(English)
Personal note: Othello
Rating: 33% based on 4 votes
Perhaps an Italian diminutive of OTHO. Shakespeare used this name in his tragedy 'Othello' (1603), where it belongs to a Moor who is manipulated by Iago into killing his wife Desdemona.
PAULINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Swedish, Lithuanian, English, Ancient Roman
Pronounced: pow-LEE-na(Spanish, Polish) paw-LEE-nə(English)
Personal note: The winter’s tale
Rating: 44% based on 5 votes
Feminine form of Paulinus (see PAULINO).
PERDITA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Personal note: The winter’s tale
Rating: 60% based on 5 votes
Derived from Latin perditus meaning "lost". Shakespeare created this name for the daughter of Hermione in his play 'The Winter's Tale' (1610).
PERICLES
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Περικλης(Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: PEHR-ə-kleez(English)
Personal note: Pericles, Prince of Tyre
Rating: 28% based on 4 votes
From the Greek name Περικλης (Perikles), which was derived from the Greek elements περι (peri) "around, exceedingly" and κλεος (kleos) "glory". This was the name of a 5th-century BC Athenian statesman and general.
PETRUCHIO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Theatre
Pronounced: pə-TROO-kee-o
Personal note: Taming of the shrew
Rating: 15% based on 4 votes
Anglicized form of Petruccio used by Shakespeare for the hero of his play The Taming of the Shrew (1593). He also used it for an unseen character in his later work Romeo and Juliet (1596).
PHEBE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: FEE-bee(English)
Personal note: As you like it
Rating: 37% based on 3 votes
Variant of PHOEBE used in some translations of the New Testament.
PORTIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: PAWR-shə
Personal note: Merchant of Venice
Rating: 60% based on 5 votes
Variant of Porcia, the feminine form of the Roman family name PORCIUS, used by William Shakespeare for the heroine of his play 'The Merchant of Venice' (1596). In the play Portia is a woman who disguises herself as a man in order to defend Antonio in court. It is also the name of a moon of Uranus, after the Shakespearean character.
ROMEO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Italian
Pronounced: ro-MEH-o
Rating: 70% based on 5 votes
Italian form of the Late Latin name Romaeus meaning "a pilgrim to Rome". Romeo is best known as the lover of Juliet in Shakespeare's tragedy 'Romeo and Juliet' (1596).
ROSALIND
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: RAHZ-ə-lind
Rating: 68% based on 5 votes
Derived from the Germanic elements hros meaning "horse" and lind meaning "soft, tender, flexible". The Normans introduced this name to England, though it was not common. During the Middle Ages its spelling was influenced by the Latin phrase rosa linda "beautiful rose". The name was popularized by Edmund Spencer, who used it in his poetry, and by William Shakespeare, who used it for the heroine in his comedy 'As You Like It' (1599).
ROSALINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: RO-zə-leen, RAHZ-ə-lin
Rating: 88% based on 4 votes
Medieval variant of ROSALIND. This is the name of characters in Shakespeare's 'Love's Labour's Lost' (1594) and 'Romeo and Juliet' (1596).
SEBASTIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Finnish, Romanian, Czech
Pronounced: zeh-BAS-tyan(German) sə-BAS-chən(English) seh-BAS-dyan(Danish) seh-BAS-tyan(Polish) SEH-bahs-tee-ahn(Finnish) seh-bas-tee-AN(Romanian) SEH-bas-ti-yan(Czech)
Rating: 86% based on 5 votes
From the Latin name Sebastianus, which meant "from Sebaste". Sebaste was the name a town in Asia Minor, its name deriving from Greek σεβαστος (sebastos) "venerable" (a translation of Latin Augustus, the title of the Roman emperors). According to Christian tradition, Saint Sebastian was a 3rd-century Roman soldier martyred during the persecutions of the emperor Diocletian. After he was discovered to be a Christian, he was tied to a stake and shot with arrows. This however did not kill him. Saint Irene of Rome healed him and he returned to personally admonish Diocletian, whereupon the emperor had him beaten to death.

Due to the saint's popularity, the name came into general use in medieval Europe, especially in Spain and France. It was also borne by a 16th-century king of Portugal who died in a crusade against Morocco.

SILVIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, English, German, Late Roman, Roman Mythology
Pronounced: SEEL-vya(Italian) SEEL-bya(Spanish) SIL-vee-ə(English) ZIL-vya(German)
Rating: 88% based on 4 votes
Feminine form of SILVIUS. Rhea Silvia was the mother of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome. This was also the name of a 6th-century saint, the mother of the pope Gregory the Great. It has been a common name in Italy since the Middle Ages. It was introduced to England by Shakespeare, who used it for a character in his play 'The Two Gentlemen of Verona' (1594). It is now more commonly spelled Sylvia in the English-speaking world.
THAISA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Theatre, Portuguese (Brazilian)
Pronounced: tie-EE-sə (Theatre)
Rating: 35% based on 4 votes
Latinate form of Thais. This was used by Shakespeare in his play 'Pericles, Prince of Tyre' (1608), where it belongs to the wife of the title character.
TROILUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized), Ancient Greek (Latinized), Literature, Theatre
Other Scripts: Τρωΐλος
Rating: 23% based on 4 votes
Latinized form of Greek Τρωΐλος (Trôilos) which is said to be related to Τρώιος (Trôios) meaning "Trojan". In Greek myth Troilus was a Trojan prince, the son of Priam and Hecuba, whose fate was linked with that of Troy. Eventually he was ambushed and murdered by Achilles.

In medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend, Troilus is the youngest of Priam's five legitimate sons by Hecuba. Despite his youth he is one of the main Trojan War leaders. He dies in battle at Achilles' hands. In a popular addition to the story, originating in the 12th century, Troilus falls in love with Cressida, whose father has defected to the Greeks. Chaucer and Shakespeare are among the authors who wrote works telling the story of Troilus and Cressida. Within the medieval tradition, Troilus was regarded as a paragon of the faithful courtly lover and also of the virtuous pagan knight. Once the custom of courtly love had faded, his fate was regarded less sympathetically.

ULYSSES
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Roman Mythology, English
Pronounced: yoo-LIS-eez(American English) YOOL-i-seez(British English)
Rating: 46% based on 5 votes
Latin form of ODYSSEUS. It was borne by Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), the commander of the Union forces during the American Civil War, who went on to become an American president. Irish author James Joyce used it as the title of his book 'Ulysses' (1920), which loosely parallels Homer's epic the 'Odyssey'.
VALENTINE (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: VAL-in-tien
Rating: 68% based on 5 votes
From the Roman cognomen Valentinus, which was itself from the name Valens meaning "strong, vigourous, healthy" in Latin. Saint Valentine was a 3rd-century martyr. His feast day was the same as the Roman fertility festival of Lupercalia, which resulted in the association between Valentine's day and love. As an English name, it has been used occasionally since the 12th century.
VIOLA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Hungarian, Czech
Pronounced: vie-O-lə(English) vi-O-lə(English) VIE-ə-lə(English) VYAW-la(Italian) vi-OO-la(Swedish) VYO-la(German) VEE-o-law(Hungarian)
Rating: 79% based on 7 votes
Means "violet" in Latin. This was the name of the heroine in Shakespeare's play 'Twelfth Night' (1602).
VIRGILIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Late Roman, Theatre, Italian
Pronounced: vər-JIL-ee-ə, vər-JIL-yə (Theatre)
Rating: 37% based on 3 votes
Feminine form of Vergilius (see Virgil). This is the name of Coriolanus' wife in Shakespeare's play of the same name.
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