ABILENE f English
From a place name mentioned briefly in the New Testament. It is probably from Hebrew אָבֵל ('avel)
meaning "meadow, grassy area". It has occasionally been used as a given name in modern times.
ADERYN f Welsh
Means "bird" in Welsh. This is a modern Welsh name.
ADHARA f Astronomy
Derived from Arabic عذارى ('adhara)
meaning "maidens". This is the name of the second brightest star (after Sirius) in the constellation Canis Major.
AELIUS m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was possibly derived from the Greek word ‘ηλιος (helios)
meaning "sun". This was the family name of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
AERON (1) m & f Welsh
Either derived from Welsh aeron
meaning "berry" or else from the name of a river in Wales.
ÆSC m Anglo-Saxon
Means "ash tree" in Old English. This was the nickname of a 5th-century king of Kent, whose birth name was Oeric.
ÆÐELSTAN m Anglo-Saxon
Derived from the Old English elements æðel
"noble" and stan
"stone". This was the name of an early king of England. The name was rarely used after the Norman Conquest.
AGRIPPA m & f Ancient Roman, Biblical
Roman cognomen of unknown meaning, possibly from Greek αγριος (agrios)
"wild" and ‘ιππος (hippos)
"horse" or possibly of Etruscan origin. It was also used as a praenomen, or given name, by the Furia and Menenia families. In the New Testament this name was borne by Herod Agrippa (a grandson of Herod the Great), the king of Israel who put the apostle James to death. It was also borne by the 1st-century BC Roman general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
AI (1) f Japanese
From Japanese 愛 (ai)
meaning "love, affection", 藍 (ai)
meaning "indigo", or other kanji with the same pronunciation.
AINA (3) f Japanese
From Japanese 愛 (ai)
meaning "love, affection" and 菜 (na)
meaning "vegetables, greens", as well as other character combinations.
AINSLEY f & m Scottish, English (Modern)
From a surname that was from a place name: either Annesley in Nottinghamshire or Ansley in Warwickshire. The place names themselves derive from Old English anne
"alone, solitary" or ansetl
"hermitage" and leah
AIRI f Japanese
From Japanese 愛 (ai)
meaning "love, affection" combined with 莉 (ri)
meaning "white jasmine" or 梨 (ri)
meaning "pear". Other combinations of kanji characters are possible.
AKI (2) f Japanese
From Japanese 晶 (aki)
meaning "clear, crystal", 明 (aki)
meaning "bright" or 秋 (aki)
meaning "autumn". It can also come from 亜 (a)
meaning "second, Asia" combined with 希 (ki)
meaning "hope". Other kanji or combinations of kanji can form this name too.
AKIKO f Japanese
From Japanese 晶 (aki)
meaning "clear, crystal", 明 (aki)
meaning "bright" or 秋 (aki)
meaning "autumn" combined with 子 (ko)
meaning "child". Other combinations of kanji characters are possible.
AKIRA m & f Japanese
From Japanese 昭 (akira)
meaning "bright", 明 (akira)
meaning "bright" or 亮 (akira)
meaning "clear". Other kanji with the same pronunciation can also form this name. A famous bearer was the Japanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998), given name written 明
ÁKOS m Hungarian
Possibly of Turkic origin meaning "white falcon". This was the name of a medieval Hungarian clan.
ALBENA f Bulgarian
Created by Bulgarian writer Yordan Yovkov for the heroine in his drama 'Albena' (1930). He may have based it on ablen
, the name of a type of peony (a flowering plant).
ALCYONE f Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Latinized form of Greek Αλκυονη (Alkyone)
, derived from the word αλκυων (alkyon)
meaning "kingfisher". In Greek myth this name belonged to a daughter of Aeolus and the wife of Ceyx. After her husband was killed in a shipwreck she threw herself into the water, but the gods saved her and turned them both into kingfishers. This is also the name of the brightest of the Pleiades, the seven stars in the constellation Taurus.
ALLON m Biblical
Means "oak" in Hebrew. This name is mentioned briefly in the Old Testament.
ALMA (1) f English, Spanish, Italian, Dutch
This name became popular after the Battle of Alma (1854), which took place near the River Alma in Crimea and ended in a victory for Britain and France. However, the name was in rare use before the battle; it was probably inspired by Latin almus
"nourishing". It also coincides with the Spanish word meaning "the soul".
ALMAS f & m Arabic
Means "diamond" in Arabic, ultimately from Persian.
ALMAST f Armenian
Means "diamond" in Armenian, ultimately from Persian.
ALTON m English
From an Old English surname that was derived from a place name meaning "town at the source of the river".
ALUDRA f Astronomy
Derived from Arabic العذرا (al-'adhra)
meaning "the maiden". This is the name of a star in the constellation Canis Major.
ALWYN m Welsh
From the name of the River Alwen in Wales.
ALYSSA f English
Variant of ALICIA
. The spelling has probably been influenced by that of the alyssum flower, the name of which is derived from Greek α (a)
, a negative prefix, combined with λυσσα (lyssa)
"madness, rabies", since it was believed to cure madness.
AMARANTHA f Various
From the name of the amaranth flower, which is derived from Greek αμαραντος (amarantos)
meaning "unfading". Αμαραντος (Amarantos)
was also an Ancient Greek given name.
AMARYLLIS f Literature
Derived from Greek αμαρυσσω (amarysso)
"to sparkle". This was the name of a heroine in Virgil
's epic poem 'Eclogues'. The amaryllis flower is named for her.
AMBER f English, Dutch
From the English word amber
that denotes either the gemstone, which is formed from fossil resin, or the orange-yellow colour. The word ultimately derives from Arabic عنبر ('anbar)
. It began to be used as a given name in the late 19th century, but it only became popular after the release of Kathleen Winsor's novel 'Forever Amber' (1944).
AMETHYST f English (Rare)
From the name of the purple semi-precious stone, which is derived from the Greek negative prefix α (a)
and μεθυστος (methystos)
meaning "intoxicated, drunk", as it was believed to be a remedy against drunkenness.
ANARA f Kazakh, Kyrgyz
Means "pomegranate" in Kazakh and Kyrgyz, ultimately from Persian.
ANDROMEDA f Greek Mythology
Means "to be mindful of a man" from the Greek element ανηρ (aner)
"man" (genitive ανδρος
) combined with μεδομαι (medomai)
"to be mindful of". In Greek mythology Andromeda was an Ethiopian princess rescued from sacrifice by the hero Perseus
. A constellation in the northern sky is named for her. This is also the name of a nearby galaxy, given because it resides (from our point of view) within the constellation.
ANE (2) m Frisian
Short form of names beginning with the Germanic element arn
ANFISA f Russian
Russian form of the Greek name Ανθουσα (Anthousa)
, which was derived from Greek ανθος (anthos)
"flower". This was the name of a 9th-century Byzantine saint.
ANNAGÜL f Turkmen
Derived from Turkmen anna
"Friday" and gül
AOI f & m Japanese
From Japanese 葵 (aoi)
meaning "hollyhock, althea" or an adjectival form of 碧 (ao)
meaning "green, blue". Other kanji with the same reading can form this name as well.
APHRODITE f Greek Mythology
Meaning unknown, possibly of Phoenician origin. Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of love and beauty, identified with the Roman goddess Venus
. She was the wife of Hephaestus
and the mother of Eros
, and she was often associated with the myrtle tree and doves. The Greeks connected her name with αφρος (aphros)
"foam", resulting in the story that she was born from the foam of the sea. Many of her characteristics are based on the goddess known as Ashtoreth
to the Phoenicians and Ishtar
to the Mesopotamian Semitic peoples, and on the Sumerian goddess Inanna
APRIL f English
From the name of the month, probably originally derived from Latin aperire
"to open", referring to the opening of flowers. It has only been commonly used as a given name since the 1940s.
ARACHNE f Greek Mythology
Means "spider" in Greek. In Greek myth Arachne was a mortal woman who defeated Athena
in a weaving contest. After this Arachne hanged herself, but Athena brought her back to life in the form of a spider.
ARANTZAZU f Basque
From the name of a place near the Spanish town of Oñati where there is a sanctuary dedicated to the Virgin Mary
. Its name is derived from Basque arantza
ARELI m Biblical
Means "lion of God, hero" in Hebrew. This was the name of a son of Gad
in the Old Testament.
ARIES m Roman Mythology
Means "ram" in Latin. This is the name of a constellation and the first sign of the zodiac. Some Roman legends state that the ram in the constellation was the one who supplied the Golden Fleece sought by Jason
ARISTA f Astronomy
Means "ear of corn" in Latin. This is the name of a star, also known as Spica, in the constellation Virgo.
ARNOLD m English, German, Dutch, Ancient Germanic
From a Germanic name meaning "eagle power", derived from the elements arn
"eagle" and wald
"power". The Normans brought it to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Earnweald
. It died out as an English name after the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century.... [more]
ARTEMISIA f Ancient Greek
Feminine form of ARTEMISIOS
. This was the name of the 4th-century BC builder of the Mausoleum, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. She built it in memory of her husband, the Carian prince Mausolus.
ARTHIT m Thai
Means "sun" in Thai, derived from the name of the Hindu god ADITYA
ARUNDHATI f Hinduism, Indian, Hindi
The name of a star (also called Alcor), which was named after a type of climbing plant, possibly meaning "not restrained" in Sanskrit. In Hindu belief it is the name of the sage Vasishtha's wife, who is identified with the star.
ASH m & f English
Short form of ASHLEY
. It can also come directly from the English word denoting either the tree or the residue of fire.
ASHLEY f & m English
From an English surname that was originally derived from place names meaning "ash tree clearing", from a combination of Old English æsc
. Until the 1960s it was more commonly given to boys in the United States, but it is now most often used on girls.
ASHTON m & f English
From a surname that was originally derived from a place name that meant "ash tree town" in Old English.
ASK m Norse Mythology
Derived from Old Norse askr
"ash tree". In Norse mythology Ask and his wife Embla
were the first humans created by the gods.
ASPEN f English (Modern)
From the English word for the tree, derived from Old English æspe
. It is also the name of a ski resort in Colorado.
ASSE m Frisian
Originally a short form of Germanic names beginning with the element asc
meaning "ash tree" or ans
AVALON f English (Rare)
From the name of the island paradise to which King Arthur
was brought after his death. The name of this island is perhaps related to Welsh afal
meaning "apple", a fruit that was often linked with paradise.
AVELINE f English (Rare)
From the Norman French form of the Germanic name Avelina
, a diminutive of AVILA
. The Normans introduced this name to Britain. After the Middle Ages it became rare as an English name, though it persisted in America until the 19th century.
AVIS f English
Probably a Latinized form of the Germanic name Aveza
, which was derived from the element avi
, of unknown meaning, possibly "desired". The Normans introduced this name to England and it became moderately common during the Middle Ages, at which time it was associated with Latin avis
AVTANDIL m Georgian, Literature
Created by the Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli for his 12th-century epic 'The Knight in the Panther's Skin'. Rustaveli based it on Persian آفتاب (aftab)
"sunshine" and دل (dil)
"heart". In the poem Avtandil is a knight who is sent by Tinatin
to search for the mysterious knight of the title.
AYAKA f Japanese
From Japanese 彩 (aya)
meaning "colour" combined with 花 (ka)
or 華 (ka)
both meaning "flower". Other kanji combinations are possible.
AYAME f Japanese
From Japanese 菖蒲 (ayame)
meaning "iris". Other kanji or combinations of kanji can also form this name.
AYELET f Hebrew
Means "doe, female deer, gazelle". It is taken from the Hebrew phrase אַיֶלֶת הַשַׁחַר ('ayelet hashachar)
, literally "gazelle of dawn", which is a name of the morning star.
AYSU f Turkish
Derived from Turkish ay
meaning "moon" and su
AZURE f English (Rare)
From the English word that means "sky blue". It is ultimately (via Old French, Latin and Arabic) from Persian لاجورد (lajvard)
meaning "azure, lapis lazuli".
BAHARGÜL f Turkmen
Derived from Turkmen bahar
meaning "spring" and gül
meaning "flower, rose" (both roots ultimately of Persian origin).
BAHRAM m Persian, Persian Mythology
Modern Persian form of Avestan Verethragna
meaning "victory over resistance". This was the name of a Zoroastrian god (one of the Amesha Spenta) associated with victory and war. This name was borne by several Sassanid emperors. It is also the Persian name for the planet Mars.
BAI m & f Chinese
From Chinese 白 (bái)
meaning "white, pure", 百 (bǎi)
meaning "one hundred, many" or 柏 (bǎi)
meaning "cypress tree, cedar" (which is usually only masculine). Other Chinese characters can form this name as well. This name was borne in the 8th century by the Tang dynasty poet Li Bai, whose given was 白
BAO f & m Chinese
From Chinese 宝 (bǎo)
meaning "treasure, jewel, precious, rare", 褒 (bāo)
meaning "praise, honour" or 苞 (bāo)
meaning "bud" (which is usually only feminine). Other Chinese characters are possible as well.
BARCLAY m Scottish, English (Rare)
From a Scottish surname that was likely derived from the English place name Berkeley
, meaning "birch wood" in Old English.
BAŞAK f Turkish
Means "ear of wheat" in Turkish. This is also the Turkish name for the constellation Virgo.
BASIL (1) m English
From the Greek name Βασιλειος (Basileios)
, which was derived from βασιλευς (basileus)
meaning "king". Saint Basil the Great was a 4th-century bishop of Caesarea and one of the fathers of the early Christian church. Due to him, the name (in various spellings) has come into general use in the Christian world, being especially popular among Eastern Christians. It was also borne by two Byzantine emperors.
BAST f Egyptian Mythology
Possibly means "fire, heat" or "ointment jar" in Egyptian. In Egyptian mythology Bast was a goddess of cats, fertility and the sun who was considered a protector of Lower Egypt. She was often depicted with the head of a lioness or a house cat. As her role in the Egyptian pantheon diminished, she was called Bastet
BASTET f Egyptian Mythology
Variant of BAST
. This form of the name, a diminutive, was given to her after the similar goddess Sekhmet (protector of Upper Egypt) became more important.
BAYARD m Literature
Derived from Old French baiart
meaning "bay coloured". In medieval French poetry Bayard was a bay horse owned by Renaud de Montauban and his brothers. The horse could magically adjust its size to carry multiple riders.
BELLATRIX f Astronomy
Means "female warrior" in Latin. This is the name of the star that marks the left shoulder of the constellation Orion.
BENTLEY m English
From a surname that was from a place name, itself derived from Old English beonet
"bent grass" and leah
"woodland, clearing". Various towns in England bear this name.
BENTON m English
From a surname that was derived from a place name, composed of Old English beonet
"bent grass" and tun
BEOWULF m Anglo-Saxon Mythology
Possibly means "bee wolf" (in effect equal to "bear") from Old English beo
"bee" and wulf
"wolf". Alternatively, the first element may be beadu
"battle". This is the name of the main character in the anonymous 8th-century epic poem 'Beowulf'. Set in Denmark, the poem tells how he slays the monster Grendel and its mother at the request of King Hroðgar
. After this Beowulf becomes the king of the Geats. The conclusion of the poem tells how Beawulf, in his old age, slays a dragon but is himself mortally wounded in the act.
BERRY (2) f English (Rare)
From the English word referring to the small fruit. It is ultimately derived from Old English berie
. This name has only been in use since the 20th century.
BERTRAM m English, German, Ancient Germanic
Means "bright raven", derived from the Germanic element beraht
"bright" combined with hramn
"raven". The Normans introduced this name to England. Shakespeare used it in his play 'All's Well That Ends Well' (1603).
BESSARION m Late Greek
Meaning uncertain, possibly from Greek βησσα (bessa)
"wooded valley". This was the name of a 5th-century Egyptian hermit who was a disciple of Saint Anthony the Great. It was later adopted by the scholar Basilios Bessarion (1403-1472), a Greek born in Byzantine Anatolia who became a Roman Catholic bishop.
BETELGEUSE m Astronomy
The name of the star that marks the right shoulder of the constellation Orion. It is derived from Arabic يد الجوزا (yad al-Jawza)
meaning "the hand of Jawza". جوزا (Jawza)
meaning "central one" was the old Arabic name for the constellation Orion (also for Gemini).
BLAIR m & f Scottish, English
From a Scottish surname that is derived from Gaelic blár
meaning "plain, field, battlefield".
BLÁTHNAT f Irish, Irish Mythology
Means "little flower" from the Irish word blath
"flower" combined with a diminutive suffix. In Irish legend she was a maiden abducted and married by Cú Roí. She was rescued by Cúchulainn
, who killed her husband, but she was in turn murdered by one of Cú Roí's loyal servants.
BLEDDYN m Welsh
From Welsh blaidd
"wolf" combined with a diminutive suffix. This was the name of an 11th-century king of Gwynedd and Powys.
BLODEUWEDD f Welsh, Welsh Mythology
Means "face of flowers" in Welsh. In a story in the Mabinogion, she is created out of flowers by Gwydion
to be the wife of his nephew Lleu
Llaw Gyffes. She is eventually changed into an owl for her infidelity.
BLODWEN f Welsh
Means "white flowers" from Welsh blodau
"flowers" combined with gwen
"white, fair, blessed".
BLOSSOM f English
From the English word blossom
, ultimately from Old English blóstm
. It came into use as a rare given name in the 19th century.
BOGLÁRKA f Hungarian
Means "buttercup" in Hungarian, derived from the archaic word boglár
BOPHA f Khmer
Means "flower" in Khmer, ultimately from Pali.
BOR m Slovene
Short form of names containing bor
, such as BORISLAV
. It is also a South Slavic word meaning "pine tree".
BORIS m Bulgarian, Russian, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak, Georgian, German
From the Turkic name Bogoris
, perhaps meaning "short" or "wolf" or "snow leopard". It was borne by the 9th-century King Boris I of Bulgaria who converted his country to Christianity, as well as two later Bulgarian emperors. The name was popularized in the Slavic world due to the 11th-century Saint Boris, who was a Russian prince martyred with his brother Gleb. His mother may have been Bulgarian. Another famous bearer was the 16th-century Russian emperor Boris Godunov, later the subject of a play of that name by Aleksandr Pushkin.
BRAN (2) m Welsh, Welsh Mythology
Means "raven" in Welsh. In Welsh legend Bran the Blessed (called also Bendigeid Vran) was the son of the god Llyr
. Later Welsh legends describe him as a king of Britain who was killed attacking Ireland.
BRANWEN f Welsh, Welsh Mythology
Means "beautiful raven" from Welsh bran
"raven" and gwen
"fair, white, blessed". In the Mabinogion, a collection of tales from Welsh myth, she is the sister of the British king Bran
and the wife of the Irish king Matholwch.
BRENNUS m Ancient Celtic (Latinized)
Latinized form of a Celtic name (or title) that possibly meant either "king, prince" or "raven". Brennus was a Gallic leader of the 4th century BC who attacked and sacked Rome.
BRIALLEN f Welsh
Derived from Welsh briallu
meaning "primrose". This is a modern Welsh name.
BRISCOE m English (Rare)
From a surname that was derived from a place name meaning "birch wood" in Old Norse.
BROOK m & f English
From an English surname that denoted one who lived near a brook.
BROOKE f English
Variant of BROOK
. The name came into use in the 1950s, probably influenced by American socialite Brooke Astor (1902-2007). It was further popularized by actress Brooke Shields (1965-).
BRYONY f English (Rare)
From the name of a type of Eurasian vine, formerly used as medicine. It ultimately derives from Greek βρυω (bryo)
BUCK m English
From an English nickname meaning simply "buck, male deer", ultimately from Old English bucc
CALLA f English
From the name of a type of lily, of Latin origin. Use of the name may also be inspired by Greek καλλος (kallos)
CAMELLIA f English (Rare)
From the name of the flowering shrub, which was named for the botanist and missionary Georg Josef Kamel.
CAPUCINE f French
Means "nasturtium" in French. This was the stage name of the French actress and model Capucine (1928-1990).
CARINA (1) f English, Portuguese, Spanish, German, Late Roman
Late Latin name derived from cara
meaning "dear, beloved". This was the name of a 4th-century saint and martyr. It is also the name of a constellation in the southern sky, though in this case it means "keel" in Latin, referring to a part of Jason
's ship the Argo.
CARMEL f English, Jewish
From the title of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of Carmel
(Karmel) (meaning "garden" in Hebrew) is a mountain in Israel mentioned in the Old Testament. It was the site of several early Christian monasteries. As an English given name, it has mainly been used by Catholics.
CARPUS m Biblical, Biblical Latin
Latin form of the Greek name Καρπος (Karpos)
, which meant "fruit, profits". The name is mentioned briefly in the New Testament in the second epistle of Timothy.
CASTOR m Greek Mythology (Latinized)
From the Greek name Καστωρ (Kastor)
, possibly related to κεκασμαι (kekasmai)
meaning "to excel, to shine" (pluperfect κεκαστο
). Alternatively it could be derived from the Greek word καστωρ (kastor)
meaning "beaver", though the legends about Castor do not mention beavers, which were foreign animals to the Greeks. In Greek myth Castor was a son of Zeus
and the twin brother of Pollux
. The constellation Gemini, which represents the two brothers, contains a star by this name.
CEDAR f & m English (Rare)
From the English word for the coniferous tree, derived (via Old French and Latin) from Greek κεδρος (kedros)
CELESTINE f & m English
English form of CAELESTINUS
. It is more commonly used as a feminine name, from the French feminine form Célestine
CELINDA f English (Rare)
Probably a blend of CELIA
. This is also the Spanish name for a variety of shrub with white flowers, known as sweet mock-orange in English (species Philadelphus coronarius).
CEPHAS m Biblical, Biblical Latin
Means "rock" in Aramaic. The apostle Simon
was called Cephas by Jesus
because he was to be the rock upon which the Christian church was to be built. In most versions of the New Testament Cephas
is translated into Greek Πετρος (Petros)
(in English Peter
CHAN m & f Khmer
Means "moon" in Khmer, ultimately from Sanskrit.
CHANDRA m & f Hinduism, Bengali, Indian, Assamese, Hindi, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Nepali
Means "moon" in Sanskrit, derived from चन्द (chand)
meaning "to shine". This is a transcription of the masculine form चण्ड
(a name of the moon in Hindu texts, which is often personified as a deity) as well as the feminine form चण्डा
CHERRY f English
Simply means "cherry" from the name of the fruit. It can also be a diminutive of CHARITY
. It has been in use since the late 19th century.
CHESLEY m English
From a surname that was originally from a place name meaning "camp meadow" in Old English.
CHIKA (2) f Japanese
From Japanese 千 (chi)
meaning "thousand", 智 (chi)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" or 散 (chi)
meaning "scatter" combined with 佳 (ka)
meaning "good, beautiful" or 花 (ka)
meaning "flower". Other kanji combinations are also possible.
CHOUKO f Japanese
From Japanese 蝶 (chou)
meaning "butterfly" and 子 (ko)
meaning "child". Other kanji combinations can be possible.
CHRYSANTA f English (Rare)
Shortened form of the word chrysanthemum
, the name of a flowering plant, which means "golden flower" in Greek.
CICERO m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen derived from Latin cicer
meaning "chickpea". Marcus Tullius Cicero (known simply as Cicero) was a statesman, orator and author of the 1st century BC.
CLAY m English
From an English surname that originally referred to a person who lived near or worked with clay. This name can also be a short form of CLAYTON
CLEMATIS f English (Rare)
From the English word for a type of flowering vine, ultimately derived from Greek κλημα (klema)
CLODAGH f Irish
From the name of a river in Tipperary, Ireland.
CLOVER f English (Rare)
From the English word for the wild flower, ultimately deriving from Old English clafre
CODRIN m Romanian
From Romanian codru
meaning "forest", a word of uncertain origin.
COLMÁN m Irish
Diminutive of Colm
). This was the name of a large number of Irish saints.
COLOMBINA f Italian
Italian feminine diminutive of COLUMBA
. In traditional Italian pantomimes this is the name of a stock character, the female counterpart of Arlecchino (also called Harlequin). This is also the Italian word for the columbine flower.
COLUM m Irish
Irish form of COLUMBA
. This is also an Old Irish word meaning "dove", derived from Latin columba
COLUMBA m & f Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "dove". The dove is a symbol of the Holy Spirit in Christianity. This was the name of several early saints both masculine and feminine, most notably the 6th-century Irish monk Saint Columba (or Colum) who established a monastery on the island of Iona off the coast of Scotland. He is credited with the conversion of Scotland to Christianity.