Frozten's Personal Name List

ADAM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian, Hebrew, Arabic, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: Адам (Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian), אָדָם (Hebrew), آدم (Arabic), ადამ (Georgian), Αδαμ (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: A-dəm (English), A-DAHN (French), A-dam (German, Polish, Arabic), A-dahm (Dutch), u-DAM (Russian), ah-DAHM (Ukrainian)
Rating: 59% based on 113 votes
This is the Hebrew word for "man". It could be ultimately derived from Hebrew אדם ('adam) meaning "to be red", referring to the ruddy colour of human skin, or from Akkadian adamu meaning "to make".

According to Genesis in the Old Testament Adam was created from the earth by God (there is a word play on Hebrew אֲדָמָה ('adamah) "earth"). He and Eve were supposedly the first humans, living happily in the Garden of Eden until they ate the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge. As a result they were expelled from Eden to the lands to the east, where they gave birth the second generation, including Cain, Abel and Seth.

As an English Christian name, Adam has been common since the Middle Ages, and it received a boost after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723-1790).

ADELINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, German, Bulgarian, Ancient Germanic (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Аделина (Bulgarian)
Pronounced: a-de-LEE-na (Italian), a-dhe-LEE-na (Spanish)
Rating: 69% based on 41 votes
Latinate diminutive of ADELA.

ADELINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English
Pronounced: A-DU-LEEN (French), AD-ə-lien (English)
Rating: 73% based on 52 votes
Diminutive of ADÈLE.

AGNES
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: ‘Αγνη (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: AG-nis (English), AK-nəs (German), AHKH-nəs (Dutch), AHNG-nes (Swedish)
Personal note: AHNG-nes
Rating: 58% based on 53 votes
Latinized form of the Greek name ‘Αγνη (Hagne), derived from Greek ‘αγνος (hagnos) meaning "chaste". Saint Agnes was a virgin martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian. The name became associated with Latin agnus "lamb", resulting in the saint's frequent depiction with a lamb by her side. Due to her renown, the name became common in Christian Europe, being especially popular in England in the Middle Ages.

ALEXANDER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Hungarian, Slovak, Biblical, Ancient Greek (Latinized), Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Αλεξανδρος (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: a-lig-ZAN-dər (English), a-le-KSAN-du (German), ah-lək-SAHN-dər (Dutch), AW-lek-sawn-der (Hungarian)
Rating: 73% based on 188 votes
Latinized form of the Greek name Αλεξανδρος (Alexandros), which meant "defending men" from Greek αλεξω (alexo) "to defend, help" and ανηρ (aner) "man" (genitive ανδρος). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.

The name has been used by kings of Scotland, Poland and Yugoslavia, emperors of Russia, and eight popes. Other notable bearers include English poet Alexander Pope (1688-1744), American statesman Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), Scottish-Canadian explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820), Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837), and Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor of the telephone.

ALEXANDRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Greek, Portuguese, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Ukrainian, Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Αλεξανδρα (Greek), Александра (Russian, Ukrainian)
Pronounced: al-əg-ZAN-drə (English), a-le-KSAN-dra (German), ah-lək-SAHN-drah (Dutch), A-LUG-ZAHN-DRA (French), a-le-KSAN-dhra (Greek), ə-li-SHUN-drə (European Portuguese), a-le-SHUN-dru (Brazilian Portuguese), a-lek-SAN-dra (Romanian, Spanish, Italian), A-lek-san-dra (Slovak), A-LE-KSAN-DRA (Classical Greek)
Rating: 68% based on 54 votes
Feminine form of ALEXANDER. In Greek mythology this was a Mycenaean epithet of the goddess Hera, and an alternate name of Cassandra. It was borne by several early Christian saints, and also by the wife of Nicholas II, the last czar of Russia. She was from Germany and had the birth name Alix, but was renamed Александра (Aleksandra) upon joining the Russian Church.

ALFRED
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Polish, Dutch
Pronounced: AL-fred (English), AL-FRED (French), AL-fret (German, Polish), AHL-frət (Dutch)
Rating: 49% based on 42 votes
Derived from the Old English name Ælfræd, composed of the elements ælf "elf" and ræd "counsel". Alfred the Great was a 9th-century king of Wessex who fought unceasingly against the Danes living in northeast England. He was also a scholar, and he translated many Latin books into Old English. His fame helped to ensure the usage of this name even after the Norman conquest, when most Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. It became rare by the end of the Middle Ages, but was revived in the 18th century.

Famous bearers include the British poet Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892), the Swedish inventor and Nobel Prize founder Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), and the American firm director Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980).

ALICE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Italian
Pronounced: AL-is (English), A-LEES (French), a-LEE-che (Italian)
Rating: 76% based on 185 votes
From the Old French name Aalis, a short form of Adelais, itself a short form of the Germanic name Adalheidis (see ADELAIDE). This name became popular in France and England in the 12th century. It was borne by the heroine of Lewis Carroll's 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' (1865) and 'Through the Looking Glass' (1871).

ALVIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AL-vin
Rating: 35% based on 144 votes
From a medieval form of any of the Old English names ÆLFWINE, ÆÐELWINE or EALDWINE. It was revived in the 19th century, in part from a surname which was derived from the Old English names.

AMELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Dutch, German, Ancient Germanic
Pronounced: ə-MEE-lee-ə (English), ə-MEEL-yə (English), a-ME-lya (Italian, Polish), a-ME-lee-a (German)
Rating: 66% based on 167 votes
Variant of AMALIA, though it is sometimes confused with EMILIA, which has a different origin. The name became popular in England after the German House of Hanover came to the British throne in the 18th century - it was borne by daughters of George II and George III. Another famous bearer was Amelia Earhart (1897-1937), the first woman to make a solo flight over the Atlantic Ocean.

AMELIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German
Pronounced: A-me-lee, a-me-LEE
Rating: 66% based on 88 votes
German variant of AMELIA.

ARTHUR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Welsh Mythology, Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: AHR-thər (English), AR-TUYR (French), AR-tuwr (German), AHR-tuyr (Dutch)
Rating: 69% based on 167 votes
The meaning of this name is unknown. It could be derived from the Celtic elements artos "bear" combined with viros "man" or rigos "king". Alternatively it could be related to an obscure Roman family name Artorius. Arthur is the name of the central character in Arthurian legend, a 6th-century king of the Britons who resisted Saxon invaders. He may or may not have been a real person. He first appears in Welsh poems and chronicles (some possibly as early as the 7th century) but his character was not developed until the chronicles of the 12th-century Geoffrey of Monmouth.

The name came into general use in England in the Middle Ages due to the prevalence of Arthurian romances, and it enjoyed a surge of popularity in the 19th century. Famous bearers include German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), mystery author and Sherlock Holmes creator Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), and science-fiction author Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008).

ASTRID
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, French
Pronounced: AH-strid (Swedish), AH-stree (Norwegian), AS-trit (German), AS-TREED (French)
Personal note: honoring
Rating: 64% based on 120 votes
Modern form of ÁSTRÍÐR. This name was borne by the Swedish writer Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002), the author of 'Pippi Longstocking'.

AUDREY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: AW-dree
Rating: 61% based on 148 votes
Medieval diminutive of ÆÐELÞRYÐ. This was the name of a 7th-century saint, a princess of East Anglia who founded a monastery at Ely. It was also borne by a character in Shakespeare's comedy 'As You Like It' (1599). At the end of the Middle Ages the name became rare due to association with the word tawdry (which was derived from St. Audrey, the name of a fair where cheap lace was sold), but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was British actress Audrey Hepburn (1929-1993).

AUGUST
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Catalan, English
Pronounced: OW-guwst (German), OW-goost (Polish), AW-gəst (English)
Personal note: honoring
Rating: 70% based on 152 votes
German, Polish, Scandinavian and Catalan form of AUGUSTUS.

AUGUSTUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman, Dutch
Pronounced: ow-GOOS-toos (Classical Latin), aw-GUS-təs (English), ow-KHUYS-tus (Dutch)
Rating: 55% based on 146 votes
Means "great" or "venerable", derived from Latin augere "to increase". Augustus was the title given to Octavian, the first Roman emperor. He was the adopted son of Julius Caesar who rose to power through a combination of military skill and political prowess. This was also the name of three kings of Poland.

AURELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Ancient Roman, Romanian, Italian, Spanish, Polish
Pronounced: ow-RE-lya (Italian, Polish)
Rating: 64% based on 136 votes
Feminine form of AURELIUS.

AURORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, English, German, Romanian, Finnish, Roman Mythology
Pronounced: ow-RO-ra (Spanish, Classical Latin), ə-RAWR-ə (English), OW-ro-rah (Finnish)
Rating: 66% based on 148 votes
Means "dawn" in Latin. Aurora was the Roman goddess of the morning. It has occasionally been used as a given name since the Renaissance.

AXEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, German
Pronounced: A-ksəl (German)
Rating: 45% based on 142 votes
Medieval Danish form of ABSALOM.

BLAKE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: BLAYK
Rating: 47% based on 94 votes
From a surname which was derived from Old English blæc "black" or blac "pale". A famous bearer of the surname was the poet and artist William Blake (1757-1827).

CAIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman
Rating: 49% based on 136 votes
Roman variant of GAIUS.

CALLIOPE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Καλλιοπη (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: kə-LIE-ə-pee (English)
Rating: 54% based on 105 votes
Latinized form of KALLIOPE.

CALVIN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: KAL-vin
Rating: 43% based on 7 votes
Derived from the French surname Cauvin, which was derived from chauve "bald". The surname was borne by Jean Cauvin (1509-1564), a theologian from France who was one of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation. His surname was Latinized as Calvinus (based on Latin calvus "bald") and he is known as John Calvin in English. It has been used as a given name in his honour since the 19th century.

CASPER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Pronounced: KAHS-pər (Dutch)
Rating: 56% based on 42 votes
Dutch and Scandinavian form of JASPER. This is the name of a friendly ghost in a series of comic books.

CASPIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: KAS-pee-ən (English)
Rating: 60% based on 121 votes
Used by author C. S. Lewis for a character in his 'Chronicles of Narnia' series, first appearing in 1950. Prince Caspian first appears in the fourth book, where he is the rightful king of Narnia driven into exile by his evil uncle Miraz. Lewis probably based the name on the Caspian Sea, which was named for the city of Qazvin, which was itself named for the ancient Cas tribe.

CHARLIE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: CHAHR-lee
Rating: 53% based on 136 votes
Diminutive or feminine form of CHARLES. A famous bearer is Charlie Brown, the main character in the comic strip 'Peanuts' by Charles Schulz.

CHASE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: CHAYS
Rating: 37% based on 96 votes
From a surname meaning "chase, hunt" in Middle English, originally a nickname for a huntsman.

CLARA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Romanian, English, Swedish, Danish, Late Roman
Pronounced: KLA-ra (Italian, German, Spanish), KLA-ru (Portuguese), KLER-ə (American English), KLAR-ə (American English), KLAH-rə (British English)
Rating: 71% based on 130 votes
Feminine form of the Late Latin name Clarus which meant "clear, bright, famous". The name Clarus was borne by a few early saints. The feminine form was popularized by the 13th-century Saint Clare of Assisi (called Chiara in Italian), a friend and follower of Saint Francis, who left her wealthy family to found the order of nuns known as the Poor Clares. As an English name it has been in use since the Middle Ages, originally in the form Clare, though the Latinate spelling Clara became more popular in the 19th century.

CONSTANTINE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: History
Pronounced: KAWNS-tən-teen (English)
Rating: 55% based on 42 votes
From the Latin name Constantinus, a derivative of CONSTANS. Constantine the Great (272-337) was the first Roman emperor to adopt Christianity. He moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (modern Istanbul).

CORNELIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman, English, Dutch, German, Biblical
Pronounced: kər-NEE-lee-əs (English), kawr-NAY-lee-us (Dutch), kawr-NE-lyuws (German)
Rating: 43% based on 38 votes
Roman family name which possibly derives from the Latin element cornu "horn". In Acts in the New Testament Cornelius is a centurion who is directed by an angel to seek Peter. After speaking with Peter he converts to Christianity, and he is traditionally deemed the first gentile convert. The name was also borne by a few early saints, including a 3rd-century pope. In England it came into use in the 16th century, partly due to Dutch influence.

DANIEL
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Hebrew, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Croatian, Armenian, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: דָּנִיֵּאל (Hebrew), Даниел (Bulgarian, Macedonian), Դանիէլ (Armenian), დანიელ (Georgian), Δανιηλ (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: DAN-yəl (English, Danish), dah-nee-EL (Hebrew), DA-NYEL (French), DA-nee-el (German), DA-nyel (Polish), da-NYEL (Spanish)
Rating: 64% based on 45 votes
From the Hebrew name דָּנִיֵּאל (Daniyyel) meaning "God is my judge". Daniel was a Hebrew prophet whose story is told in the Book of Daniel in the Old Testament. He lived during the Jewish captivity in Babylon, where he served in the court of the king, rising to prominence by interpreting the king's dreams. The book also presents Daniel's four visions of the end of the world.

Due to the popularity of the biblical character, the name came into use in England during the Middle Ages. Though it became rare by the 15th century, it was revived after the Protestant Reformation. Famous bearers of this name include English author Daniel Defoe (1660-1731), Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), and American frontiersman Daniel Boone (1734-1820).

DAPHNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology, English, Dutch
Other Scripts: Δαφνη (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: DAF-nee (English), DAHF-nə (Dutch)
Rating: 53% based on 95 votes
Means "laurel" in Greek. In Greek mythology she was a nymph turned into a laurel tree by her father in order that she might escape the pursuit of Apollo. It has been used as a given name in the English-speaking world since the end of the 19th century.

DAVID
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Hebrew, French, Scottish, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Czech, Slovene, Russian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: דָּוִד (Hebrew), Давид (Russian, Serbian, Macedonian)
Pronounced: DAY-vid (English), dah-VEED (Hebrew), DA-VEED (French), da-BEEDH (Spanish), DA-vit (German), DAH-vid (Swedish, Norwegian), DAH-vit (Dutch), du-VYEET (Russian)
Rating: 62% based on 42 votes
From the Hebrew name דָּוִד (Dawid), which was probably derived from Hebrew דוד (dwd) meaning "beloved". David was the second and greatest of the kings of Israel, ruling in the 10th century BC. Several stories about him are told in the Old Testament, including his defeat of Goliath, a giant Philistine. According to the New Testament, Jesus was descended from him.

This name has been used in Britain since the Middle Ages. It has been especially popular in Wales, where it is used in honour of the 5th-century patron saint of Wales (also called Dewi), as well as in Scotland, where it was borne by two kings. Famous bearers include empiricist philosopher David Hume (1711-1776), explorer David Livingstone (1813-1873), musician David Bowie (1947-2016), and soccer player David Beckham (1975-). This is also the name of the hero of Charles Dickens' semi-autobiographical novel 'David Copperfield' (1850).

DECLAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish
Rating: 55% based on 100 votes
Anglicized form of Irish Deaglán, which is of unknown meaning. Saint Declan was a 5th-century missionary to Ireland.

DESMOND
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Irish
Pronounced: DEZ-mənd
Rating: 49% based on 37 votes
From an Irish surname which was derived from Deasmhumhain meaning "South Munster", originally indicating a person who came from that region in Ireland.

DOLLY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: DAHL-ee
Personal note: honoring, MN only
Rating: 35% based on 128 votes
Diminutive of DOROTHY. Doll and Dolly were used from the 16th century, and the common English word doll (for the plaything) is derived from them. In modern times this name is also sometimes used as a diminutive of DOLORES.

DOMINIC
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: DAWM-i-nik
Rating: 67% based on 150 votes
From the Late Latin name Dominicus meaning "of the Lord". This name was traditionally given to a child born on Sunday. Several saints have borne this name, including the 13th-century founder of the Dominican order of friars. It was in this saint's honour that the name was first used in England, starting around the 13th century. It is primarily used by Catholics.

DRACO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Δρακων (Ancient Greek)
Rating: 47% based on 138 votes
From the Greek name Δρακων (Drakon) which meant "dragon, serpent". This was the name of a 7th-century BC Athenian legislator. This is also the name of a constellation in the northern sky.

DRAKE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: DRAYK
Rating: 42% based on 137 votes
From an English surname derived from the Old Norse byname Draki or the Old English byname Draca both meaning "dragon", both via Latin from Greek δρακων (drakon) meaning "dragon, serpent". This name coincides with the unrelated English word drake meaning "male duck".

EDWARD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Polish
Pronounced: ED-wərd (English), ED-vart (Polish)
Rating: 58% based on 142 votes
Means "rich guard", derived from the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and weard "guard". This was the name of several Anglo-Saxon kings, the last being Saint Edward the Confessor shortly before the Norman conquest in the 11th century. He was known as a just ruler, and because of his popularity his name remained in use after the conquest when most other Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. The 13th-century Plantagenet king Henry III named his son and successor after the saint, and seven subsequent kings of England were also named Edward.

This is one of the few Old English names to be used throughout Europe (in various spellings). A famous bearer was the British composer Edward Elgar (1857-1934). It was also used by author Charlotte Brontë for the character Edward Rochester, the main love interest of the title character in her novel 'Jane Eyre' (1947).

ELANA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Jewish
Rating: 52% based on 19 votes
Variant of Ilana.

ELEANOR
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EL-ə-nawr
Rating: 74% based on 111 votes
From the Old French form of the Occitan name Aliénor. Among the name's earliest bearers was the influential Eleanor of Aquitaine (12th century), who was the queen of Louis VII, the king of France, and later Henry II, the king of England. She was named Aenor after her mother, and was called by the Occitan phrase alia Aenor "the other AENOR" in order to distinguish her from her mother. However, there appear to be examples of bearers prior to Eleanor of Aquitaine. It is not clear whether they were in fact Aenors who were retroactively recorded as having the name Eleanor, or whether there is an alternative explanation for the name's origin.

The popularity of the name Eleanor in England during the Middle Ages was due to the fame of Eleanor of Aquitaine, as well as two queens of the following century: Eleanor of Provence, the wife of Henry III, and Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward I. More recently, it was borne by first lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), the wife of American president Franklin Roosevelt.

ELI (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: עֵלִי (Hebrew), Ηλι (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: EE-lie (English)
Rating: 58% based on 91 votes
Means "ascension" in Hebrew. In the Books of Samuel in the Old Testament he is a high priest of the Israelites. He took the young Samuel into his service and gave him guidance when God spoke to him. Because of the misdeeds of his sons, Eli and his descendants were cursed to die before reaching old age.

Eli has been used as an English Christian given name since the Protestant Reformation. A notable bearer was the American inventor of the cotton gin Eli Whitney (1765-1825).

ELIÁN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Various
Rating: 43% based on 125 votes
In the case of Elian Gonzalez it is a combination of ELIZABETH and JUAN (1), the names of his parents.

ELIANA (2)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Hebrew
Other Scripts: אֶלִיעַנָה (Hebrew)
Rating: 51% based on 43 votes
Means "my God has answered" in Hebrew.

ELIJAH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical
Other Scripts: אֱלִיָּהוּ (Hebrew)
Pronounced: i-LIE-jə (English), i-LIE-zhə (English)
Rating: 60% based on 96 votes
From the Hebrew name אֱלִיָּהוּ ('Eliyyahu) meaning "my God is YAHWEH". Elijah was a Hebrew prophet and miracle worker, as told in the two Books of Kings in the Old Testament. He was active in the 9th century BC during the reign of King Ahab of Israel and his Phoenician-born queen Jezebel. Elijah confronted the king and queen over their idolatry of the Canaanite god Ba'al and other wicked deeds. At the end of his life he was carried to heaven in a chariot of fire, and was succeeded by Elisha. In the New Testament, Elijah and Moses appear next to Jesus when he is transfigured.

Because Elijah was a popular figure in medieval tales, and because his name was borne by a few early saints (who are usually known by the Latin form Elias), the name came into general use during the Middle Ages. In medieval England it was usually spelled Elis. It died out there by the 16th century, but it was revived by the Puritans in the form Elijah after the Protestant Reformation.

ELINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Finnish, Swedish
Pronounced: E-lee-nah (Finnish), e-LEE-nah (Swedish)
Rating: 47% based on 81 votes
Finnish and Swedish form of HELEN.

ELLEN (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EL-ən
Rating: 56% based on 139 votes
Medieval English form of HELEN. This was the usual spelling of the name until the 17th century, when Helen became more common.

ELLIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EL-ee
Personal note: nickname
Rating: 48% based on 73 votes
Diminutive of ELEANOR, ELLEN (1), and other names beginning with El.

ELLIOT
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: EL-ee-ət
Rating: 62% based on 112 votes
From a surname which was a variant of ELLIOTT.

ÉLODIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: E-LAW-DEE
Rating: 64% based on 78 votes
French form of ALODIA.

ELORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare), French (Modern, Rare), Popular Culture (Rare)
Pronounced: e-LOR-ah, e-LAWR-ah (English, Popular Culture)
Rating: 59% based on 43 votes
Of uncertain origin and meaning, this name is most likely a contraction of Elnora.

Otherwise, Elora is a community in Ontario, Canada named for a ship belonging to the founder's brother. The ship's name had been inspired by the Ellora Caves near Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Elora Danan is one of the protagonists in the 1988 movie Willow.

ELVIRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, Dutch, Russian
Other Scripts: Эльвира (Russian)
Pronounced: el-BEE-ra (Spanish), el-VEE-ra (Italian)
Rating: 40% based on 79 votes
Spanish form of a Visigothic name, possibly composed of the Germanic elements ala "all" and wer "true". This is the name of a character in Mozart's opera 'Don Giovanni' (1787).

EMILIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian, Spanish, Romanian, Finnish, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English
Pronounced: e-MEE-lya (Italian, Spanish), E-mee-lee-ah (Finnish), e-MYEE-lya (Polish), e-MEE-lee-ah (Swedish)
Rating: 68% based on 114 votes
Feminine form of Aemilius (see EMIL).

EMMELINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Archaic)
Pronounced: EM-ə-leen, EM-ə-lien
Rating: 65% based on 138 votes
From an Old French form of the Germanic name Amelina, originally a diminutive of Germanic names beginning with the element amal meaning "work". The Normans introduced this name to England.

EVANGELINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: ə-VAN-jə-leen
Rating: 68% based on 42 votes
Means "good news" from Greek ευ (eu) "good" and αγγελμα (angelma) "news, message". It was (first?) used by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his epic poem 'Evangeline' (1847). It also appears in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' (1852) as the full name of the character Eva.

EVANNA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Welsh, Irish, Scottish, English
Pronounced: eh-VAN-ə (Welsh), ee-VAN-ah (Irish, Scottish), ee-VAN-ah, eh-VAN-ə (English)
Rating: 51% based on 38 votes
Feminine form of EVAN. Alternatively, it could be derived from an Irish word meaning "young warrior" or a Scottish word meaning "right handed; strong."

EZEKIAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Εζεκιας (Ancient Greek)
Rating: 40% based on 32 votes
Form of HEZEKIAH used in the Greek Old Testament.

FELIX
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Romanian, Ancient Roman, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Pronounced: FE-liks (German, Swedish), FAY-liks (Dutch), FEE-liks (English)
Rating: 63% based on 134 votes
From a Roman cognomen meaning "lucky, successful" in Latin. It was acquired as an agnomen, or nickname, by the 1st-century BC Roman general Sulla. It also appears in the New Testament belonging to the governor of Judea who imprisoned Saint Paul.

Due to its favourable meaning, this name was popular among early Christians, being borne by many early saints and four popes. It has been used in England since the Middle Ages, though it has been more popular in continental Europe. A notable bearer was the German composer Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847).

GRACE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: GRAYS
Rating: 64% based on 39 votes
From the English word grace, which ultimately derives from Latin gratia. This was one of the virtue names created in the 17th century by the Puritans. The actress Grace Kelly (1929-1982) was a famous bearer.

HENRY
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: HEN-ree
Rating: 74% based on 79 votes
From the Germanic name Heimirich which meant "home ruler", composed of the elements heim "home" and ric "power, ruler". It was later commonly spelled Heinrich, with the spelling altered due to the influence of other Germanic names like Haganrich, in which the first element is hagan "enclosure".

Heinrich was popular among continental royalty, being the name of seven German kings, starting with the 10th-century Henry I the Fowler, and four French kings. In France it was rendered Henri from the Latin form Henricus.

The Normans introduced the French form to England, and it was subsequently used by eight kings, ending with the infamous Henry VIII in the 16th century. During the Middle Ages it was generally rendered as Harry or Herry in English pronunciation. Notable bearers include arctic naval explorer Henry Hudson (1570-1611), British novelist Henry James (1843-1916), and American automobile manufacturer Henry Ford (1863-1947).

HERMIONE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: ‘Ερμιονη (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: HER-MEE-O-NE (Classical Greek), hər-MIE-ə-nee (English)
Rating: 64% based on 66 votes
Derived from the name of the Greek messenger god HERMES. In Greek myth Hermione was the daughter of Menelaus and Helen. This is also the name of the wife of Leontes in Shakespeare's play 'The Winter's Tale' (1610). It is now closely associated with the character Hermione Granger from the Harry Potter series of books, first released in 1997.

IGNATIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Late Roman
Pronounced: ig-NAY-shəs (English)
Rating: 46% based on 35 votes
From the Roman family name Egnatius, meaning unknown, of Etruscan origin. The spelling was later altered to resemble Latin ignis "fire". This was the name of several saints, including the third bishop of Antioch who was thrown to wild beasts by emperor Trajan, and by Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), founder of the Jesuits, whose real birth name was in fact Íñigo.

ISAAC
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Jewish, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: יִצְחָק (Hebrew)
Pronounced: IE-zək (English)
Rating: 63% based on 127 votes
From the Hebrew name יִצְחָק (Yitzchaq) meaning "he will laugh, he will rejoice", derived from צָחַק (tzachaq) meaning "to laugh". The Old Testament explains this meaning, by recounting that Abraham laughed when God told him that his aged wife Sarah would become pregnant with Isaac (see Genesis 17:17). When Isaac was a boy, God tested Abraham's faith by ordering him to sacrifice his son, though an angel prevented the act at the last moment. Isaac went on to become the father of Esau and Jacob with his wife Rebecca.

As an English Christian name, Isaac was occasionally used during the Middle Ages, though it was more common among Jews. It became more widespread after the Protestant Reformation. Famous bearers include the physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and the science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1920-1992).

ISABELLE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, German, Dutch
Pronounced: EE-ZA-BEL (French), IZ-ə-bel (English), ee-za-BE-lə (German), ee-sah-BEL-lə (Dutch)
Rating: 68% based on 39 votes
French form of ISABEL.

ISADORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Rating: 61% based on 129 votes
Variant of ISIDORA. A famous bearer was the American dancer Isadora Duncan (1877-1927).

ISIDOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Russian, Macedonian
Other Scripts: Исидор (Russian, Macedonian)
Pronounced: EE-see-dawr (German)
Personal note: honoring
Rating: 47% based on 121 votes
German, Russian and Macedonian form of ISIDORE.

ISOBEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Scottish
Rating: 63% based on 97 votes
Scottish form of ISABEL.

ISOLDE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare), German, Arthurian Romance
Pronounced: i-ZOL-də (English), i-SOL-də (English), ee-ZAWL-də (German)
Rating: 68% based on 61 votes
The origins of this name are uncertain, though some Celtic roots have been suggested. It is possible that the name is ultimately Germanic, perhaps from a hypothetic name like Ishild, composed of the elements is "ice, iron" and hild "battle".

In medieval Arthurian legend Isolde was an Irish princess betrothed to King Mark of Cornwall. After accidentally drinking a love potion, she became the lover of his knight Tristan, which led to their tragic deaths. The story was popular during the Middle Ages and the name became relatively common in England at that time. It was rare by the 19th century, though some interest was generated by Richard Wagner's opera 'Tristan und Isolde' (1865).

JACK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JAK
Rating: 63% based on 131 votes
Derived from Jackin (earlier Jankin), a medieval diminutive of JOHN. It is often regarded as an independent name. During the Middle Ages it was very common, and it became a slang word meaning "man". It was frequently used in fairy tales and nursery rhymes, such as 'Jack and the Beanstalk', 'Little Jack Horner', and 'Jack Sprat'. American writers Jack London (1876-1916) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) were two famous bearers of this name. It is also borne by American actor Jack Nicholson (1937-).

JACKSON
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: JAK-sən
Rating: 45% based on 120 votes
From an English surname meaning "son of JACK". A famous bearer of the surname was American president Andrew Jackson (1767-1845).

JAMES
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Pronounced: JAYMZ (English)
Rating: 72% based on 134 votes
English form of the Late Latin name Iacomus which was derived from Ιακωβος (Iakobos), the New Testament Greek form of the Hebrew name Ya'aqov (see JACOB). This was the name of two apostles in the New Testament. The first was Saint James the Greater, the apostle John's brother, who was beheaded under Herod Agrippa in the Book of Acts. The second was James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus. Another James (known as James the Just) is also mentioned in the Bible as being the brother of Jesus.

Since the 13th century this name has been used in England, though it became more common in Scotland where it was borne by several kings. In the 17th century the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne, becoming the first ruler of all Britain, and the name grew much more popular. Famous bearers include the English explorer Captain James Cook (1728-1779), the Scottish inventor James Watt (1736-1819), and the Irish novelist and poet James Joyce (1882-1941). This name has also been borne by six American presidents. A notable fictional bearer is the British spy James Bond, created by author Ian Fleming.

JOHANNA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, English, Late Roman
Pronounced: yo-HA-na (German), yo-HAHN-nah (Danish, Dutch), YO-hahn-nah (Finnish)
Rating: 67% based on 36 votes
Latinate form of Ioanna (see JOANNA).

JORAH
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, Biblical Hebrew, Literature, Near Eastern Mythology
Other Scripts: יוֹרָה, יורה
Pronounced: JAWR-ə (English), JO-RAH (Biblical Hebrew)
Rating: 70% based on 1 vote
From יוֺרֶה (Yorah), a Hebrew name which allegedly meant "autumn showers" (referring to a seasonal rain "which falls in Palestine from the last of October until the first of December") or "sprinkling" as the active participle of יָרָה (yarah) "to rain". It coincides with the name of a Canaanite moon god ("the provider of nightly dew"; possibly related to Hebrew יָרֵחַ (yareach) "moon" (compare Jericho)). This was used by George R. R. Martin for a character in his fantasy series 'A Song of Ice and Fire' (as well as the television adaptation 'Game of Thrones').
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From the Hebrew Yorah meaning "He has reproached". In the Bible Jorah was a Head of Famil, one of the few that returned from the Babylonian exile. Jorah Mormont is a character from the "Game of Thrones" novels and television series created by George RR Martin.

JOSEPHINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch
Pronounced: JO-sə-feen (English), yo-ze-FEE-nə (German)
Rating: 69% based on 80 votes
English, German and Dutch form of JOSÉPHINE.

JULIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Polish, German
Pronounced: JOO-lee-ən (English), JOOL-yən (English), YOO-lyan (Polish, German)
Rating: 66% based on 137 votes
From the Roman name Iulianus, which was derived from JULIUS. This was the name of the last pagan Roman emperor, Julian the Apostate (4th century). It was also borne by several early saints, including the legendary Saint Julian the Hospitaller. This name has been used in England since the Middle Ages, at which time it was also a feminine name (from Juliana, eventually becoming Gillian).

JULIUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman, English, German
Pronounced: YOO-lee-oos (Classical Latin), JOO-lee-əs (English), YOO-lyuws (German)
Rating: 61% based on 35 votes
From a Roman family name which was possibly derived from Greek ιουλος (ioulos) meaning "downy-bearded". Alternatively, it could be related to the name of the Roman god JUPITER. This was a prominent patrician family of Rome, who claimed descent from the mythological Julus, son of Aeneas. Its most notable member was Gaius Julius Caesar, who gained renown as a military leader for his clever conquest of Gaul. After a civil war he became the dictator of the Roman Republic, but was eventually stabbed to death in the senate.

Although this name was borne by several early saints, including a pope, it was rare during the Middle Ages. It was revived in Italy and France during the Renaissance, and was subsequently imported to England.

JUNIPER
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: JOON-ə-pər
Rating: 62% based on 51 votes
From the English word for the type of tree, derived ultimately from Latin iuniperus.

KASPER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian
Pronounced: KAHS-pər (Dutch), KAHS-per (Swedish)
Rating: 43% based on 34 votes
Dutch and Scandinavian form of JASPER.

KEIRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Rating: 52% based on 89 votes
Variant of KIRA (2). This spelling was popularized by British actress Keira Knightley (1985-).

KENDRA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: KEN-drə
Rating: 42% based on 57 votes
Feminine form of KEN (1) or KENDRICK.

KENNA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Scottish
Rating: 43% based on 55 votes
Feminine form of KENNETH.

KENZIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: KEN-zee
Rating: 38% based on 57 votes
Short form of MACKENZIE.

KIERAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish
Pronounced: KEER-awn, KEE-ar-awn
Rating: 57% based on 122 votes
Anglicized form of CIARÁN.

KLARA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, German, Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovene, Croatian
Other Scripts: Клара (Russian, Ukrainian)
Pronounced: KLA-ra (German, Polish), KLA-rə (Russian)
Rating: 50% based on 123 votes
Form of CLARA.

LEAH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Hebrew, Biblical, Biblical Hebrew
Other Scripts: לֵאָה (Hebrew)
Pronounced: LEE-ə (English)
Rating: 57% based on 126 votes
From the Hebrew name לֵאָה (Le'ah) which was probably derived from the Hebrew word לְאָה (le'ah) meaning "weary". Alternatively it might derive from a Chaldean name meaning "mistress" or "ruler" in Akkadian. In the Old Testament Leah is the first wife of Jacob and the mother of seven of his children. Jacob's other wife was Leah's sister Rachel. Although this name was used by Jews in the Middle Ages, it was not typical as an English Christian name until after the Protestant Reformation, being common among the Puritans.

LEANDER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Other Scripts: Λεανδρος (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: lee-AN-dər (English)
Rating: 59% based on 34 votes
Latinized form of the Greek name Λεανδρος (Leandros), derived from λεων (leon) meaning "lion" and ανηρ (aner) meaning "man" (genitive ανδρος). In Greek legend Leander was the lover of Hero. Every night he swam across the Hellespont to meet her, but on one occasion he was drowned when a storm arose. When Hero saw his dead body she threw herself into the waters and perished.

LEO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, English, Croatian, Late Roman
Pronounced: LE-o (German, Danish, Finnish), LAY-o (Dutch), LEE-o (English)
Rating: 68% based on 130 votes
Derived from Latin leo meaning "lion", a cognate of LEON. It was popular among early Christians and was the name of 13 popes, including Saint Leo the Great who asserted the dominance of the Roman bishops (the popes) over all others in the 5th century. It was also borne by six Byzantine emperors and five Armenian kings. Another famous bearer was Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), a Russian novelist whose works include 'War and Peace' and 'Anna Karenina'. Leo is also the name of a constellation and the fifth sign of the zodiac.

LEONIDAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Λεωνιδας (Greek)
Rating: 55% based on 90 votes
Derived from Greek λεων (leon) meaning "lion" combined with the patronymic suffix ιδης (ides). Leonidas was a Spartan king of the 5th century BC who sacrificed his life and his army defending the pass of Thermopylae from the Persians. This was also the name of a 3rd-century saint and martyr, the father of Origen, from Alexandria.

LEONORA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Italian
Rating: 60% based on 120 votes
Italian short form of ELEANOR.

LÉONTINE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: LE-AWN-TEEN
Rating: 54% based on 35 votes
French form of LEONTINA.

LEOPOLD
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Dutch, English, Slovene, Polish
Pronounced: LE-o-pawlt (German), LAY-o-pawlt (Dutch), LEE-ə-pold (English), le-AW-pawlt (Polish)
Rating: 55% based on 118 votes
Derived from the Germanic elements leud "people" and bald "bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo "lion". This name was common among German royalty, first with the Babenbergs and then the Habsburgs. Saint Leopold was a 12th-century Babenberg margrave of Austria, who is now considered the patron of that country. It was also borne by two Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors, as well as three kings of Belgium. Since the 19th century this name has been occasionally used in England, originally in honour of Queen Victoria's uncle, a king of Belgium, after whom she named one of her sons. It was later used by James Joyce for the main character, Leopold Bloom, in his novel 'Ulysses' (1920).

LILY
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: LIL-ee
Rating: 69% based on 67 votes
From the name of the flower, a symbol of purity. The word is ultimately derived from Latin lilium.

LOUISA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, German, Dutch
Pronounced: loo-EEZ-ə (English), loo-EES-ə (English), loo-EE-za (German)
Rating: 65% based on 37 votes
Latinate feminine form of LOUIS. A famous bearer was the American novelist Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888), the author of 'Little Women'.

LOUISE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, English, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, German
Pronounced: LWEEZ (French), loo-EEZ (English), loo-EE-se (Danish), loo-EE-zə (German)
Rating: 61% based on 40 votes
French feminine form of LOUIS.

LUCAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Dutch, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Biblical Latin
Pronounced: LOO-kəs (English), LUY-kahs (Dutch), LUY-KA (French), LOO-kəsh (Portuguese), LOO-kas (Spanish, Classical Latin)
Rating: 62% based on 125 votes
Latin form of Loukas (see LUKE).

MABEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: MAY-bəl
Rating: 60% based on 54 votes
Medieval feminine form of AMABILIS. This spelling and Amabel were common during the Middle Ages, though they became rare after the 15th century. It was revived in the 19th century after the publication of C. M. Yonge's novel 'The Heir of Redclyffe' (1854), which featured a character named Mabel (as well as one named Amabel).

MACKENZIE
Gender: Feminine & Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: mə-KEN-zee
Rating: 39% based on 53 votes
From the Gaelic surname Mac Coinnich, which means "son of COINNEACH". A famous bearer of the surname was William Lyon MacKenzie (1795-1861), a Canadian journalist and political rebel. As a feminine given name, it was popularized by the American actress Mackenzie Phillips (1959-).

MARGOT
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: MAR-GO
Rating: 59% based on 50 votes
French short form of MARGARET.

MARIE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French, Czech, German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Pronounced: MA-REE (French), MA-ri-ye (Czech), ma-REE (German), mə-REE (English)
Rating: 51% based on 9 votes
French and Czech form of MARIA. A notable bearer of this name was Marie Antoinette, a queen of France who was executed by guillotine during the French Revolution. Another was Marie Curie (1867-1934), a physicist and chemist who studied radioactivity with her husband Pierre.

MATILDA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Swedish, Finnish
Pronounced: mə-TIL-də (English), MAH-teel-dah (Finnish)
Rating: 69% based on 138 votes
From the Germanic name Mahthildis meaning "strength in battle", from the elements maht "might, strength" and hild "battle". Saint Matilda was the wife of the 10th-century German king Henry I the Fowler. The name was common in many branches of European royalty in the Middle Ages. It was brought to England by the Normans, being borne by the wife of William the Conqueror himself. Another notable royal by this name was a 12th-century daughter of Henry I of England, known as the Empress Matilda because of her first marriage to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She later invaded England, laying the foundations for the reign of her son Henry II.

The name was popular until the 15th century in England, usually in the vernacular form Maud. Both forms were revived by the 19th century. This name appears in the popular Australian folk song 'Waltzing Matilda', written in 1895.

MAX
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch
Pronounced: MAKS (German, English)
Rating: 52% based on 123 votes
Short form of MAXIMILIAN (or sometimes of MAXWELL in English).

MAXIMILIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Pronounced: ma-ksee-MEE-lyan (German), mak-si-MIL-yən (English)
Rating: 56% based on 118 votes
From the Roman name Maximilianus, which was derived from MAXIMUS. It was borne by a 3rd-century saint and martyr. In the 15th century the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III gave this name to his son and eventual heir. In this case it was a blend of the names of the Roman generals Fabius Maximus and Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (see EMILIANO), who Frederick admired. It was subsequently borne by a second Holy Roman Emperor, two kings of Bavaria, and a short-lived Habsburg emperor of Mexico.

MAXIMUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman
Rating: 44% based on 117 votes
Roman family name which was derived from Latin maximus "greatest". Saint Maximus was a monk and theologian from Constantinople in the 7th century.

MELINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Greek
Other Scripts: Μελινα (Greek)
Rating: 44% based on 98 votes
Elaboration of Mel, either from names such as MELISSA or from Greek μελι (meli) meaning "honey". A famous bearer was Greek-American actress Melina Mercouri (1920-1994), who was born Maria Amalia Mercouris.

MILA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Czech, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian
Other Scripts: Мила (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian), Міла (Ukrainian)
Rating: 54% based on 71 votes
Originally a diminutive of Slavic names containing the element milu "gracious, dear".

MILO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Ancient Germanic
Pronounced: MIE-lo (English)
Rating: 60% based on 119 votes
Old Germanic form of MILES, as well as the Latinized form. This form of the name was used in official documents during the Middle Ages, and it has been used independently since the 19th century.

MIO
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Japanese
Other Scripts: 美桜, 美緒, etc. (Japanese Kanji)
Pronounced: MEE-O
Rating: 36% based on 107 votes
From Japanese (mi) meaning "beautiful" combined with (o) meaning "cherry blossom" or (o) meaning "thread". Other kanji or kanji combinations can also form this name.

MIRIEL
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Literature
Pronounced: mee'ree-el
Rating: 46% based on 57 votes
Míriel is the name of two characters in Tolkien's works. It means 'jewel-garlanded maiden'.

Míriel Serindë, a Noldorin Elf, was the wife of Finwë and father of Fëanor. The birth of her mighty son took so much of her spirit that she passed away.

Tar-Míriel was the rightful heir to the throne of Númenor, but was usurped by her cousin Pharazôn. Ar-Pharazôn led a fleet against Valinor, resulting in the destruction of Númenor. Legend said that Tar-Míriel sought to reach the peak of the Meneltarma before the end, but the waters took her as she climbed the slopes of the Holy Mountain.

NIAMH
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Irish, Irish Mythology
Pronounced: NYEE-əv (Irish), NYEEV (Irish)
Rating: 54% based on 130 votes
Means "bright" in Irish. She was the daughter of the sea god in Irish legends. She fell in love with the poet Oisín, son of Fionn.

NICHOLAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: NIK-ə-ləs, NIK-ləs
Rating: 65% based on 83 votes
From the Greek name Νικολαος (Nikolaos) which meant "victory of the people" from Greek νικη (nike) "victory" and λαος (laos) "people". Saint Nicholas was a 4th-century bishop from Anatolia who, according to legend, saved the daughters of a poor man from lives of prostitution. He is the patron saint of children, sailors and merchants, as well as Greece and Russia. He formed the basis for the figure known as Santa Claus (created in the 19th century from Dutch Sinterklaas), the bringer of Christmas presents.

Due to the renown of the saint, this name has been widely used in the Christian world. It has been common in England since the 12th century, though it became a bit less popular after the Protestant Reformation. The name has been borne by five popes and two czars of Russia.

NICOLAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: French
Pronounced: NEE-KAW-LA
Rating: 58% based on 34 votes
French form of NICHOLAS.

NOAH (1)
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Biblical
Other Scripts: נֹחַ, נוֹחַ (Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: NO-ə (English)
Rating: 62% based on 95 votes
Derived from the Hebrew name נֹחַ (Noach) meaning "rest, comfort". According to the Old Testament, Noah was the builder of the Ark that allowed him, his family, and animals of each species to survive the great Flood. After the Flood he received the sign of the rainbow as a covenant from God. He was the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth.

As an English Christian name, Noah has been used since the Protestant Reformation, being common among the Puritans. A famous bearer was the American lexicographer Noah Webster (1758-1843).

NOELLE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: no-EL
Rating: 53% based on 122 votes
English form of NOËLLE.

NOOR (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Arabic, Urdu
Other Scripts: نور (Arabic, Urdu)
Pronounced: NOOR (Arabic)
Rating: 44% based on 99 votes
Variant transcription of NUR.

OLIVER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak
Other Scripts: Оливер (Serbian, Macedonian)
Pronounced: AWL-ə-vər (English), O-lee-vu (German), O-lee-ver (Finnish)
Rating: 69% based on 129 votes
From Olivier, a Norman French form of a Germanic name such as ALFHER or an Old Norse name such as Áleifr (see OLAF). The spelling was altered by association with Latin oliva "olive tree". In the Middle Ages the name became well-known in Western Europe because of the French epic 'La Chanson de Roland', in which Olivier was a friend and advisor of the hero Roland.

In England Oliver was a common medieval name, however it became rare after the 17th century because of the military commander Oliver Cromwell, who ruled the country following the civil war. The name was revived in the 19th century, perhaps in part due to the title character in Charles Dickens' novel 'Oliver Twist' (1838), which was about a poor orphan living on the streets of London.

OPHELIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Literature
Pronounced: o-FEEL-yə (English)
Rating: 69% based on 123 votes
Derived from Greek οφελος (ophelos) meaning "help". This name was probably created by the 15th-century poet Jacopo Sannazaro for a character in his poem 'Arcadia'. It was borrowed by Shakespeare for his play 'Hamlet' (1600), in which it belongs to Hamlet's lover who eventually goes insane and drowns herself. In spite of this, the name has been used since the 19th century.

PATRICK
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish, English, French, German
Pronounced: PAT-rik (English), PA-TREEK (French), PA-trik (German)
Rating: 55% based on 39 votes
From the Latin name Patricius, which meant "nobleman". This name was adopted in the 5th-century by Saint Patrick, whose birth name was Sucat. He was a Romanized Briton who was captured and enslaved in his youth by Irish raiders. After six years of servitude he escaped home, but he eventually became a bishop and went back to Ireland as a missionary. He is traditionally credited with Christianizing the island, and is regarded as Ireland's patron saint.

In England and elsewhere in Europe during the Middle Ages this name was used in honour of the saint. However, it was not generally given in Ireland before the 17th century because it was considered too sacred for everyday use. It has since become very common there.

PENELOPE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Greek Mythology, English
Other Scripts: Πηνελοπη (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: pi-NEL-ə-pee (English)
Rating: 62% based on 93 votes
Possibly derived from Greek πηνελοψ (penelops), a type of duck. Alternatively it could be from πηνη (pene) "threads, weft" and ωψ (ops) "face, eye". In Homer's epic the 'Odyssey' this is the name of the wife of Odysseus, forced to fend off suitors while her husband is away fighting at Troy. It has occasionally been used as an English given name since the 16th century.

PER
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Breton
Pronounced: PER (Swedish, Norwegian, Danish)
Personal note: honoring
Rating: 37% based on 115 votes
Scandinavian and Breton form of PETER.

PEREGRINE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English (Rare)
Pronounced: PER-ə-grin, PER-ə-green
Personal note: MN, honoring
Rating: 56% based on 123 votes
From the Late Latin name Peregrinus, which meant "traveller". This was the name of several early saints.

PHILIPPA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (British), German
Pronounced: FI-li-pə (English)
Rating: 56% based on 87 votes
Latinate feminine form of PHILIP.

PHINEAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical
Other Scripts: פִּינְחָס (Ancient Hebrew)
Pronounced: FIN-ee-əs (English)
Rating: 46% based on 79 votes
Variant of PHINEHAS used in some versions of the Bible.

PHOEBE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Greek Mythology (Latinized), Biblical, Biblical Latin
Other Scripts: Φοιβη (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: FEE-bee (English)
Rating: 54% based on 38 votes
Latinized form of the Greek name Φοιβη (Phoibe), which meant "bright, pure" from Greek φοιβος (phoibos). In Greek mythology Phoibe was a Titan associated with the moon. This was also an epithet of her granddaughter, the moon goddess Artemis. The name appears in Paul's epistle to the Romans in the New Testament, where it belongs to a female minister in the church at Cenchreae. In England, it began to be used as a given name after the Protestant Reformation. A moon of Saturn bears this name (in honour of the Titan).

RHYS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Welsh
Pronounced: HREES (Welsh), REES (English)
Rating: 62% based on 129 votes
Means "enthusiasm" in Welsh. Several Welsh rulers have borne this name.

RONJA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: Swedish
Pronounced: RON-yah
Rating: 42% based on 60 votes
Invented by Swedish children's author Astrid Lindgren, who based it on the middle portion of Juronjaure, the name of a lake in Sweden. Lindgren used it in her book 'Ronia the Robber's Daughter' (Ronia is the English translation).

ROWAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Irish, English (Modern)
Pronounced: RO-ən (English)
Rating: 70% based on 70 votes
From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Ruadháin meaning "descendant of RUADHÁN". This name can also be given in reference to the rowan tree.

RUFUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Ancient Roman, English, Biblical
Pronounced: ROO-fəs (English)
Rating: 43% based on 87 votes
Roman cognomen which meant "red-haired" in Latin. Several early saints had this name, including one mentioned in one of Paul's epistles in the New Testament. As a nickname it was used by William II Rufus, a king of England, because of his red hair. It came into general use in the English-speaking world after the Protestant Reformation.

SEBASTIAN
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Finnish, Romanian
Pronounced: ze-BAS-tyan (German), sə-BAS-chən (English), se-BAS-tyan (Polish), SE-bahs-tee-ahn (Finnish)
Rating: 71% based on 71 votes
From the Latin name Sebastianus which meant "from Sebaste". Sebaste was the name a town in Asia Minor, its name deriving from Greek σεβαστος (sebastos) "venerable" (a translation of Latin Augustus, the title of the Roman emperors). According to Christian tradition, Saint Sebastian was a 3rd-century Roman soldier martyred during the persecutions of the emperor Diocletian. After he was discovered to be a Christian, he was tied to a stake and shot with arrows. This however did not kill him. Saint Irene of Rome healed him and he returned to personally admonish Diocletian, whereupon the emperor had him beaten to death.

Due to the saint's popularity, the name came into general use in medieval Europe, especially in Spain and France. It was also borne by a 16th-century king of Portugal who died in a crusade against Morocco.

SERAPHINA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Rare), German (Rare), Late Roman
Pronounced: ze-ra-FEE-na (German)
Rating: 64% based on 102 votes
Feminine form of the Late Latin name Seraphinus, derived from the biblical word seraphim which was Hebrew in origin and meant "fiery ones". The seraphim were an order of angels, described by Isaiah in the Bible as having six wings each. This was the name of a 13th-century Italian saint who made clothes for the poor. As an English name, it has never been common.

SILAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, Greek, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Other Scripts: Σιλας (Greek)
Pronounced: SIE-ləs (English)
Rating: 58% based on 122 votes
Probably a short form of SILVANUS. This is the name of a companion of Saint Paul in the New Testament. Paul refers to him as Silvanus in his epistles, though it is possible that Silas was in fact a Greek form of the Hebrew name SAUL (via Aramaic).

As an English name it was not used until after the Protestant Reformation. It was utilized by George Eliot for the title character in her novel 'Silas Marner' (1861).

SOPHIA
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Greek, German, Ancient Greek
Other Scripts: Σοφια (Greek)
Pronounced: so-FEE-ə (English), sə-FIE-ə (British English), zo-FEE-a (German)
Rating: 67% based on 96 votes
Means "wisdom" in Greek. This was the name of an early, probably mythical, saint who died of grief after her three daughters were martyred during the reign of the emperor Hadrian. Legends about her probably arose as a result of a medieval misunderstanding of the phrase Hagia Sophia "Holy Wisdom", which is the name of a large basilica in Constantinople.

This name was common among continental European royalty during the Middle Ages, and it was popularized in Britain by the German House of Hanover when they inherited the British throne in the 18th century. It was the name of characters in the novels 'Tom Jones' (1749) by Henry Fielding and 'The Vicar of Wakefield' (1766) by Oliver Goldsmith. A famous bearer is the Italian actress Sophia Loren (1934-).

STELLA (1)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English, Italian, Dutch, German
Pronounced: STEL-ə (English)
Rating: 66% based on 138 votes
Means "star" in Latin. This name was created by the 16th-century poet Sir Philip Sidney for the subject of his collection of sonnets 'Astrophel and Stella'. It was a nickname of a lover of Jonathan Swift, real name Esther Johnson (1681-1728), though it was not commonly used as a given name until the 19th century. It appears in Tennessee Williams' play 'A Streetcar Named Desire' (1947), belonging to the sister of Blanche DuBois and the wife of Stanley Kowalski.

THEODOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Czech, Romanian
Pronounced: TE-o-do (German)
Personal note: honoring
Rating: 57% based on 129 votes
German form of THEODORE, as well as a Scandinavian, Czech and Romanian variant of TEODOR. A famous bearer was American children's book creator Theodor Seuss Geisel (1904-1991), better known as Dr. Seuss.

THEODORE
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: THEE-ə-dawr
Rating: 71% based on 39 votes
From the Greek name Θεοδωρος (Theodoros), which meant "gift of god" from Greek θεος (theos) "god" and δωρον (doron) "gift". The name Dorothea is derived from the same roots in reverse order. This was the name of several saints, including Theodore of Amasea, a 4th-century Greek soldier; Theodore of Tarsus, a 7th-century archbishop of Canterbury; and Theodore the Studite, a 9th-century Byzantine monk. It was also borne by two popes.

This was a common name in classical Greece, and, due to both the saints who carried it and the favourable meaning, it came into general use in the Christian world, being especially popular among Eastern Christians. It was however rare in Britain before the 19th century. Famous bearers include three tsars of Russia (in the Russian form Fyodor) and American president Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919).

VICTOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English, French, Portuguese, Romanian, Dutch, Swedish, Late Roman
Pronounced: VIK-tər (English), VEEK-TAWR (French)
Rating: 50% based on 8 votes
Roman name meaning "victor, conqueror" in Latin. It was common among early Christians, and was borne by several early saints and three popes. It was rare as an English name during the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century. A famous bearer was the French writer Victor Hugo (1802-1885), who authored 'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' and 'Les Misérables'.

VIKTOR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, German, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian
Other Scripts: Виктор (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Macedonian), Віктор (Ukrainian)
Pronounced: VIK-to (German), VEEK-tor (Hungarian), VYEEK-tər (Russian)
Rating: 48% based on 39 votes
Form of VICTOR.

VILHELM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish
Pronounced: VEEL-helm (Finnish)
Personal note: honoring
Rating: 42% based on 118 votes
Scandinavian and Finnish form of WILLIAM.

VIVIENNE
Gender: Feminine
Usage: French
Pronounced: VEE-VYEN
Rating: 65% based on 56 votes
French form of VIVIANA.

WILLIAM
Gender: Masculine
Usage: English
Pronounced: WIL-yəm
Rating: 75% based on 139 votes
From the Germanic name Willahelm, which was composed of the elements wil "will, desire" and helm "helmet, protection". Saint William of Gellone was an 8th-century cousin of Charlemagne who became a monk. The name was common among the Normans, and it became extremely popular in England after William the Conqueror was recognized as the first Norman king of England in the 11th century. It was later borne by three other English kings, as well as rulers of Scotland, Sicily (of Norman origin), the Netherlands and Prussia.

Other famous bearers include William Wallace, a 13th-century Scottish hero, and William Tell, a legendary 14th-century Swiss hero. In the literary world it was borne by dramatist William Shakespeare (1564-1616), poet William Blake (1757-1827), poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), dramatist William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), author William Faulkner (1897-1962), and author William S. Burroughs (1914-1997).

WILLOW
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English (Modern)
Pronounced: WIL-o
Rating: 69% based on 89 votes
From the name of the tree, which is ultimately derived from Old English welig.

ZACHARIAS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Biblical, Biblical Greek, Greek
Other Scripts: Ζαχαριας (Greek)
Pronounced: zak-ə-RIE-əs (English), za-kha-REE-as (Late Greek)
Rating: 56% based on 42 votes
Greek form of ZECHARIAH. This form of the name is used in most English versions of the New Testament to refer to the father of John the Baptist. It was also borne by an 8th-century pope (called Zachary in English).

ZELDA (2)
Gender: Feminine
Usage: English
Pronounced: ZEL-də
Rating: 50% based on 106 votes
Short form of GRISELDA.

ZEPHYR
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology (Anglicized)
Other Scripts: Ζεφυρος (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: ZEF-ər (English)
Personal note: nn Zeph
Rating: 49% based on 116 votes
From the Greek Ζεφυρος (Zephyros) meaning "the west wind". Zephyros was the Greek god of the west wind.

ZEUS
Gender: Masculine
Usage: Greek Mythology
Other Scripts: Ζευς (Ancient Greek)
Pronounced: SDEWS (Classical Greek), ZOOS (English)
Personal note: GP, only for animal
Rating: 36% based on 109 votes
The name of a Greek god, related to the old Indo-European god *Dyeus whose name probably meant "shine" or "sky". In Greek mythology he was the highest of the gods. After he and his siblings defeated the Titans, Zeus ruled over the earth and humankind from atop Mount Olympus. He had control over the weather and his weapon was a thunderbolt.
Copyright © Mike Campbell 1996-2017.