JEAN (1) m French
French form of Jehan
, the Old French form of Iohannes
). The French philosophers Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980) were two well-known bearers of this name. It was also borne by the German-French Dadaist artist Jean Arp (1886-1966).
JEAN (2) f English, Scottish
Medieval English variant of Jehanne
). It was common in England and Scotland during the Middle Ages, but eventually became rare in England. It was reintroduced to the English-speaking world from Scotland in the 19th century.
JEANNE f French, English
Modern French form of Jehanne
, an Old French feminine form of Iohannes
). Joan of Arc is known as Jeanne d'Arc in France.
JEB m English
Sometimes a diminutive of JACOB
. This name may have also resulted from a nickname of James Ewell Brown Stuart (1833-1864), a Confederate general in the American Civil War, which was formed from the initial letters of his three given names.
JEDIDAH f Biblical
Means "beloved" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of the wife of King Amon of Judah and the mother of Josiah
JEFFERSON m English
From an English surname meaning "son of JEFFREY
". It is usually given in honour of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the third president of the United States and the primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
JEFFREY m English
Medieval variant of GEOFFREY
. In America, Jeffrey
has been more common than Geoffrey
, though this is not true in Britain.
JEFIMIJA f Serbian
Serbian form of EUPHEMIA
. This name was adopted by a 14th-century Serbian poet (born Jelena Mrnjavčević).
JEHIEL m Biblical
Means "God lives" in Hebrew. This is the name of several people in the Old Testament, including one of King David
's lute players.
JEHOASH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹאָשׁ (Yeho'ash)
, an extended form of יוֹאָשׁ
). According to the Old Testament, this was the name of a king of Israel. He probably reigned in the 8th century BC.
JEHOHANAN m Biblical
From the Hebrew name Yehochanan
, an extended form of Yochanan
). It is borne by a few minor characters in the English Old Testament.
JEHOIACHIN m Biblical
Means "established by YAHWEH
" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah. Also known as Jeconiah
, he was imprisoned in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
after a brief reign in the early 6th century BC.
JEHOIAKIM m Biblical
Means "raised by YAHWEH
" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah. He lived in the 7th century BC, and was the son of Josiah
and the father of Jehoiachin
JEHORAM m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹרָם (Yehoram)
which meant "exalted by YAHWEH
". In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah and a king of Israel, both of whom ruled at about the same time in the 9th century BC.
JEHOSHAPHAT m Biblical
has judged" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament he is the fourth king of Judah, noted for having a generally peaceful and prosperous reign.
JEHOVAH m Theology
Form of YAHWEH
used in older translations of the Bible, produced by blending the letters of the tetragrammaton with the vowels from ADONAI
JEHU m Biblical
is he" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Israel. He ruled in the 9th century BC, coming to power by overthrowing Jehoram
. This was also the name of a prophet during the reign of the king Baasha.
JELLE m Frisian, Dutch
Originally a Frisian short form of Germanic names beginning with the element gild
"sacrifice, value". It can also be a Dutch diminutive of WILLEM
JEMIMA f Biblical, English
Means "dove" in Hebrew. This was the oldest of the three daughters of Job in the Old Testament. As an English name, Jemima
first became common during the Puritan era.
JENNA f English, Finnish
Variant of JENNY
. Use of the name was popularized in the 1980s by the character Jenna Wade on the television series 'Dallas'.
JENNIFER f English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Spanish
From a Cornish form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar
). This name has only been common outside of Cornwall since the beginning of the 20th century, after it was featured in George Bernard Shaw's play 'The Doctor's Dilemma' (1906).
JENŐ m Hungarian
From the name of an ancient Hungarian tribe. Since the 19th century it has been used as a Hungarian form of EUGENE
JEONG f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 靜 (jeong)
meaning "quiet, still, gentle" or 貞 (jeong)
meaning "virtuous, chaste, loyal", as well as other characters which are pronounced similarly. It usually occurs in combination with another character, though it is sometimes used as a stand-alone name.
JEONG-HO m Korean
From Sino-Korean 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" combined with 好 (ho)
meaning "good, excellent" or 浩 (ho)
meaning "great, numerous, vast". This name can be formed by other hanja character combinations as well.
JEONG-HUI f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" or 靜 (jeong)
meaning "quiet, still, gentle" combined with 姬 (hui)
meaning "beauty" or 熙 (hui)
meaning "bright, splendid, glorious". Other combinations of hanja characters can form this name as well.
JEONG-HUN m Korean
From Sino-Korean 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" and 勛 (hun)
meaning "meritorious deed, rank", as well as other hanja character combinations.
JEONG-SUK f Korean
From Sino-Korean 貞 (jeong)
meaning "virtuous, chaste, loyal" or 正 (jeong)
meaning "right, proper, correct" combined with 淑 (suk)
meaning "good, pure, virtuous, charming". Other hanja combinations are possible.
JEPHTHAH m Biblical
Means "he opens" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this name belongs to a ruling judge. He successfully defended Israel from the Ammonites, but was then obliged to sacrifice his daughter because of a vow he had made.
JEREMIAH m English, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִרְמְיָהוּ (Yirmiyahu)
which meant "YAHWEH
has uplifted". This is the name of one of the major prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Jeremiah and the Book of Lamentations (supposedly). He lived to see the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in the 6th century BC.... [more]
JEREMIEL m Biblical
Means "God uplifts" in Hebrew. Jeremiel is named as an archangel in the apocryphal books of Esdras and Enoch in the Old Testament.
JERIAH m Biblical
Means "taught by YAHWEH
" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament, Jeriah is a descendant of Hebron.
JERICHO m Biblical
From the name of a city in Israel which is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. The meaning of the city's name is uncertain, but it may be related to the Hebrew word יָרֵחַ (yareach)
meaning "moon", or otherwise to the Hebrew word רֵיחַ (reyach)
JERMAINE m English
Variant of GERMAIN
. The name was popularized in the 1970s by Jermaine Jackson (1954-), a member of the singing group The Jackson 5.
JEROBOAM m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יָרָבְעָם (Yarav'am)
meaning "the people contend". According to the Old Testament, this was the name of the leader of the revolt against King Rehoboam
of Israel. The kingdom was split into Judah in the south and Israel in the north, with Jeroboam becoming the first king of the latter.
JEROME m English
From the Greek name ‘Ιερωνυμος (Hieronymos)
meaning "sacred name", derived from ‘ιερος (hieros)
"sacred" and ονομα (onoma)
"name". Saint Jerome was responsible for the creation of the Vulgate, the Latin translation of the Bible, in the 5th century. He is regarded as a Doctor of the Church. The name was used in his honour in the Middle Ages, especially in Italy and France, and has been used in England since the 12th century.
JESCHA f Biblical
Form of ISCAH
found in the medieval Wycliffe Bible. This name was probably the basis for Shakespeare's created name Jessica
JESSAMINE f English (Rare)
From a variant spelling of the English word jasmine
), used also to refer to flowering plants in the cestrum family.
JESSE m English, Dutch, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִשַׁי (Yishay)
which possibly means "gift". In the Old Testament Jesse is the father of King David
. It began to be used as an English given name after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Jesse James (1847-1882), an American outlaw who held up banks and stagecoaches. He was eventually shot by a fellow gang member for a reward. Another famous bearer was the American athlete Jesse Owens (1913-1980), whose real name was James Cleveland (or J. C.) Owens.
JESSICA f English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese
This name was first used in this form by Shakespeare in his play 'The Merchant of Venice' (1596), where it belongs to the daughter of Shylock. Shakespeare probably based it on the biblical name ISCAH
, which would have been spelled Jescha
in his time. It was not commonly used as a given name until the middle of the 20th century. Notable bearers include actresses Jessica Tandy (1909-1994) and Jessica Lange (1949-).
JESUS m Theology, Biblical
English form of Ιησους (Iesous)
, which was the Greek form of the Aramaic name יֵשׁוּעַ (Yeshu'a)
is itself a contracted form of Yehoshu'a
). Yeshua ben Yoseph, better known as Jesus Christ, was the central figure of the New Testament and the source of the Christian religion. The four gospels state that he was the son of God and the Virgin Mary
who fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies of the Messiah. He preached for three years before being crucified in Jerusalem.
JETHRO m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִתְרוֹ (Yitro)
, which was derived from the Hebrew word יֶתֶר (yeter)
meaning "abundance". According to the Old Testament, Jethro was a Midianite priest who sheltered Moses
when he fled Egypt. He was the father of Zipporah
, who became Moses's wife. A famous bearer of the name was Jethro Tull (1674-1741), an English inventor and agriculturist.
JETT m English (Modern)
From the English word jet
, which denotes either a jet aircraft or an intense black colour (the words derive from different sources).
JEUNESSE f Various
Means "youth" in French. It is not used as a given name in France itself.
JEWEL f & m English
In part from the English word jewel
, a precious stone, derived from Old French jouel
, which was possibly related to jeu
"game". It is also in part from the surname Jewel
(a derivative of the Breton name JUDICAËL
), which was sometimes used in honour of the 16th-century bishop of Salisbury John Jewel. It has been in use as a given name since the 19th century.
JEZEBEL f Biblical
From the Hebrew אִיזֶבֶל ('Izevel)
which probably means "where is the prince?", a ritual question spoken in ceremonies honouring Baal
. Alternatively, it may mean "not exalted". In the Old Testament Jezebel is the evil wife of Ahab
, king of Israel. After she was thrown from a window to her death her body was eaten by dogs, fulfilling Elijah
JI m & f Korean (Rare)
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" or other hanja characters with the same pronunciation. Although it does appear rarely as a single-character name, it is more often used in combination with another character.
JIA m & f Chinese
From Chinese 佳 (jiā)
meaning "good, auspicious, beautiful", 家 (jiā)
meaning "home, family", or other characters which are pronounced similarly.
JIAHAO m Chinese
From Chinese 家 (jiā)
meaning "home, family" combined with 豪 (háo)
meaning "brave, heroic, chivalrous". This name can be formed from other character combinations as well.
JIAN m & f Chinese
From Chinese 建 (jiàn)
meaning "build, establish", 健 (jiàn)
meaning "strong, healthy", or other characters which are pronounced in a similar fashion.
JIANG m & f Chinese
From Chinese 江 (jiāng)
meaning "river, Yangtze", as well as other characters with a similar pronunciation.
JIANHONG m Chinese
From Chinese 健 (jiàn)
meaning "build, establish" combined with 宏 (hóng)
meaning "wide, spacious, great, vast". This name can also be formed from other character combinations.
JIE m & f Chinese
From Chinese 杰 (jié)
meaning "heroic, outstanding" or other characters which are pronounced similarly.
JI-EUN f Korean
From Sino-Korean 枝 (ji)
meaning "branch, limb", 知 (ji)
meaning "know, perceive, comprehend" or 志 (ji)
meaning "will, purpose, ambition" combined with 恩 (eun)
meaning "kindness, mercy, charity". This name can be formed by other hanja character combinations as well.
JI-HU m & f Korean
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" combined with 厚 (hu)
meaning "thick". Other combinations of hanja characters can form this name as well.
JI-HUN m Korean
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" or 志 (ji)
meaning "will, purpose, ambition" combined with 勛 (hun)
meaning "meritorious deed, rank". This name can be formed by other hanja character combinations as well.
JI-HYE f Korean
From a Sino-Korean compound meaning "wisdom", formed of the hanja characters 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" and 慧 (hye)
meaning "bright, intelligent". This name can also be formed from other character combinations.
JIMI m English
Diminutive of JAMES
. A famous bearer was the rock musician Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970).
JI-MIN f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 志 (ji)
meaning "will, purpose, ambition" or 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" combined with 旼 (min)
meaning "gentle, affable", 敏 (min)
meaning "quick, clever, sharp" or 珉 (min)
meaning "jade, stone resembling jade". Other hanja character combinations are possible.
JIMMU m Far Eastern Mythology
Means "divine warrior", from Japanese 神 (jin)
meaning "god" and 武 (mu)
meaning "military, martial". In Japanese legend this was the name of the founder of Japan and the first emperor, supposedly ruling in the 7th century BC.
JIN m & f Chinese
From Chinese 金 (jīn)
meaning "gold, metal, money", 锦 (jǐn)
meaning "tapestry, brocade, embroidered" or 津 (jīn)
meaning "ferry". Other Chinese characters can form this name as well.
JINAN m & f Arabic
Means "garden" or "paradise" in Arabic.
JING m & f Chinese
From Chinese 静 (jìng)
meaning "quiet, still, gentle", 精 (jīng)
meaning "essence, spirit", 晶 (jīng)
meaning "clear, crystal" or 京 (jīng)
meaning "capital city". Other characters can also form this name.
JINGYI m & f Chinese
From Chinese 静 (jìng)
meaning "quiet, still, gentle" combined with 怡 (yí)
meaning "joy, harmony". Other character combinations are possible as well.
JIROU m Japanese
From Japanese 二 (ji)
meaning "two" and 郎 (rou)
meaning "son". This was traditionally a name given to the second son. Other combinations of kanji characters can also be possible.
JI-U f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 芝 (ji)
meaning "sesame" or 志 (ji)
meaning "will, purpose, ambition" combined with 雨 (u)
meaning "rain" or 宇 (u)
meaning "house, eaves, universe". Other combinations of hanja characters can form this name as well.
JI-YEONG f & m Korean
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" or 知 (ji)
meaning "know, perceive, comprehend" combined with 英 (yeong)
meaning "flower, petal, brave, hero" or 榮 (yeong)
meaning "glory, honour, flourish, prosper". Many other hanja character combinations are possible.
JI-YU f Korean
From Sino-Korean 智 (ji)
meaning "wisdom, intellect" and 裕 (yu)
meaning "abundant, rich, plentiful". Other combinations of hanja characters can form this name as well.
JOAB m Biblical
is father" in Hebrew. According to the Old Testament, he was the commander of King David
's army. In separate incidents he killed both Abner
. When Solomon
came to power he was executed.
JOAN (1) f English
Medieval English form of Johanne
, an Old French form of Iohanna
). This was the usual English feminine form of John
in the Middle Ages, but it was surpassed in popularity by Jane
in the 17th century.... [more]
JOANNA f English, Polish, Biblical
English and Polish form of Latin Iohanna
, which was derived from Greek Ιωαννα (Ioanna)
, the feminine form of Ioannes
). This is the spelling used in the English New Testament, where it belongs to a follower of Jesus
who is regarded as a saint. In the Middle Ages in England it was used as a Latinized form of Joan
(the usual feminine form of John
) and it became common as a given name in the 19th century.
JOASH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יוֹאָשׁ (Yo'ash)
which possibly meant either "fire of YAHWEH
" or "YAHWEH
has given". In the Old Testament this name was borne by several characters including the father of Gideon
, a king of Judah, and a son of King Ahab
JOB m Biblical, Dutch
From the Hebrew name אִיּוֹב ('Iyyov)
which means "persecuted, hated". In the Book of Job in the Old Testament he is a righteous man who is tested by God, enduring many tragedies and hardships while struggling to remain faithful.
JOCELYN f & m English, French
From a Germanic masculine name, variously written as Gaudelenus
, along with many other spellings. It was derived from the Germanic element Gaut
, which was from the name of the Germanic tribe the Gauts, combined with a Latin diminutive suffix. The Normans brought this name to England in the form Goscelin
, and it was common until the 14th century. It was revived in the 20th century primarily as a feminine name, perhaps an adaptation of the surname Jocelyn
(a medieval derivative of the given name). In France this is a masculine name only.
JODY f & m English
Probably either a variant of JUDY
or a diminutive of JOSEPH
. It was popularized by the young hero in Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' novel 'The Yearling' (1938) and the subsequent film adaptation (1946).
JOE m English
Short form of JOSEPH
. Five famous sports figures who have had this name are boxers Joe Louis (1914-1981) and Joe Frazier (1944-), baseball player Joe DiMaggio (1914-1999), and football quarterbacks Joe Namath (1943-) and Joe Montana (1956-).
JOEL m English, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Finnish, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יוֹאֵל (Yo'el)
is God". Joel is one of the twelve minor prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Joel, which describes a plague of locusts. In England, it was first used as a Christian name after the Protestant Reformation.
JOHANAN m Biblical
Form of Yochanan
) used in the English Old Testament. It was the name of a military leader in the time of the prophet Jeremiah
JOHANN m German
German form of Iohannes
). Famous bearers include German composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), German novelist and poet Johann Goethe (1749-1832), and Austrian composers Johann Strauss the Elder (1804-1849) and his son Johann Strauss the Younger (1825-1899).
JOHN m English, Biblical
English form of Iohannes
, the Latin form of the Greek name Ιωαννης (Ioannes)
, itself derived from the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan)
is gracious". The Hebrew form occurs in the Old Testament (spelled Johanan
in the English version), but this name owes its popularity to two New Testament characters, both highly revered saints. The first is John the Baptist, a Jewish ascetic who is considered the forerunner of Jesus
. He baptized Jesus and was later executed by Herod
Antipas. The second is the apostle John, who is traditionally regarded as the author of the fourth gospel and Revelation. With the apostles Peter
(his brother), he was part of the inner circle of Jesus.... [more]