AARTI f Indian, Hindi, Marathi
From the name of a Hindu ritual in which offerings of lamps or candles are made to various gods, derived from Sanskrit आरात्रिक (aratrika)
ADALET f Turkish
Means "justice" in Turkish, ultimately from Arabic.
ADILET m & f Kyrgyz
Means "justice" in Kyrgyz, ultimately from Arabic.
AELIUS m Ancient Roman
Roman family name which was possibly derived from the Greek word ‘ηλιος (helios)
meaning "sun". This was the family name of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
AETIUS m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen which was probably derived from Greek αετος (aetos)
"eagle". A famous bearer was the 5th-century Roman general Flavius Aetius, who defeated Attila
the Hun at the Battle of Chalons.
AGAPIOS m Greek, Ancient Greek
Masculine form of AGAPE
. This was the name of a saint from Caesarea who was martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian.
AJAY m Indian, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil
Means "unconquered", from Sanskrit अ (a)
meaning "not" and जय (jaya)
meaning "victory, conquest".
ALBA (1) f Italian, Spanish, Catalan
This name is derived from two distinct names, ALBA (2)
and ALBA (3)
, with distinct origins, Latin and Germanic. Over time these names have become confused with one another. To further complicate the matter, alba
means "dawn" in Italian, Spanish and Catalan. This may be the main inspiration behind its use in Italy and Spain.
ALETHEA f English
Derived from Greek αληθεια (aletheia)
meaning "truth". This name was coined in the 17th century.
ALEXIS m & f German, French, English, Greek, Ancient Greek
From the Greek name Αλεξις (Alexis)
, which meant "helper" or "defender", derived from Greek αλεξω (alexo)
"to defend, to help". This was the name of a 3rd-century BC Greek comic poet, and also of several saints. It is used somewhat interchangeably with the related name Αλεξιος
, borne by five Byzantine emperors. In the English-speaking world it is more commonly used as a feminine name.
ALMA (1) f English, Spanish, Italian, Dutch
This name became popular after the Battle of Alma (1854), which took place near the River Alma in Crimea and ended in a victory for Britain and France. However, the name was in rare use before the battle; it was probably inspired by Latin almus
"nourishing". It also coincides with the Spanish word meaning "the soul".
ALMAS f & m Arabic
Means "diamond" in Arabic, ultimately from Persian.
ALMAST f Armenian
Means "diamond" in Armenian, ultimately from Persian.
AMARANTHA f Various
From the name of the amaranth flower, which is derived from Greek αμαραντος (amarantos)
meaning "unfading". Αμαραντος (Amarantos)
was also an Ancient Greek given name.
AMBER f English, Dutch
From the English word amber
that denotes either the gemstone, which is formed from fossil resin, or the orange-yellow colour. The word ultimately derives from Arabic عنبر ('anbar)
. It began to be used as a given name in the late 19th century, but it only became popular after the release of Kathleen Winsor's novel 'Forever Amber' (1944).
AMIT (1) m Indian, Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Odia, Punjabi, Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Nepali
Means "immeasurable, infinite" in Sanskrit.
AMRIT m Indian, Hindi
Means "immortal" from Sanskrit अ (a)
meaning "not" and मृत (mrta)
meaning "dead". In Hindu texts it refers to a drink which gives immortality.
ANARA f Kazakh, Kyrgyz
Means "pomegranate" in Kazakh and Kyrgyz, ultimately from Persian.
ANDREAS m German, Greek, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Welsh, Ancient Greek, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Ancient Greek and Latin form of ANDREW
. It is also the form used in modern Greek, German and Welsh.
ANGELICA f English, Italian, Romanian, Literature
Derived from Latin angelicus
meaning "angelic", ultimately related to Greek αγγελος (angelos)
"messenger". The poets Boiardo and Ariosto used this name in their 'Orlando' poems (1495 and 1532), where it belongs to Orlando's love interest. It has been used as a given name since the 18th century.
ANNUNZIATA f Italian
Means "announced" in Italian, referring to the event in the New Testament in which the angel Gabriel tells the Virgin Mary
of the imminent birth of Jesus
ANUJ m Indian, Hindi, Marathi
Means "born later, younger" in Sanskrit. This name is sometimes given to the younger sibling of an older child.
AOIDE f Greek Mythology
Means "song" in Greek. In Greek mythology she was one of the original three muses, the muse of song.
APRIL f English
From the name of the month, probably originally derived from Latin aperire
"to open", referring to the opening of flowers. It has only been commonly used as a given name since the 1940s.
ARACELI f Spanish
Means "altar of the sky" from Latin ara
"altar" and coeli
"sky". This is an epithet of the Virgin Mary
in her role as the patron saint of Lucena, Spain.
ARETHA f English
Possibly derived from Greek αρετη (arete)
meaning "virtue". This name was popularized in the 1960s by American singer Aretha Franklin (1942-).
ARYA m & f Persian, Indian, Hindi, Malayalam
From an old Indo-Iranian root meaning "Aryan, noble". In India, this is a transcription of both the masculine form आर्य
and the feminine form आर्या
. In Iran it is only a masculine name.
ASUNCIÓN f Spanish
Means "assumption" in Spanish. This name is given in reference to the assumption of the Virgin Mary
ATLAS m Greek Mythology
Possibly means "enduring" from Greek τλαω (tlao)
meaning "to endure". In Greek mythology he was a Titan punished by Zeus
by being forced to support the heavens on his shoulders.
AURA f English
From the English word aura
(derived from Greek via Latin meaning "breeze") for a distinctive atmosphere or illumination.
AYAME f Japanese
From Japanese 菖蒲 (ayame)
meaning "iris". Other kanji or combinations of kanji can also form this name.
BÉLA m Hungarian
The meaning of this name is not known for certain. It could be derived from Hungarian bél
meaning "guts, bowel" or Slavic бѣлъ (belu)
meaning "white". This was the name of four Hungarian kings.
BĚLA f Czech
Derived from the old Slavic word белъ (belu)
BELIAL m Biblical, Biblical Latin, Judeo-Christian Legend
Means "worthless" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this term is used to refer to various wicked people. In the New Testament, Paul uses it as a name for Satan. In later Christian tradition Belial became an evil angel associated with lawlessness and lust.
BIANCA f Italian, Romanian
Italian cognate of BLANCHE
. Shakespeare used characters named Bianca in 'Taming of the Shrew' (1593) and 'Othello' (1603).
BLANCHE f French, English
From a medieval French nickname meaning "white, fair". This name and its cognates in other languages are ultimately derived from the Germanic word blanc
. An early bearer was the 12th-century Blanca of Navarre, the wife of Sancho III of Castile. Her granddaughter of the same name married Louis VIII of France, with the result that the name became more common in France.
BOLAT m Kazakh
From a Turkic word meaning "steel", ultimately from Persian.
BONAVENTURA m Italian
Means "good fortune" in Italian. Saint Bonaventura was a 13th-century Franciscan monk who is considered a Doctor of the Church.
BRAHMA m Hinduism
Means "growth, expansion, creation" in Sanskrit. The Hindu god Brahma is the creator and director of the universe, the balance between the opposing forces of Vishnu
. He is often depicted with four heads and four arms.
CAMELLIA f English (Rare)
From the name of the flowering shrub, which was named for the botanist and missionary Georg Josef Kamel.
CARA f English
From an Italian word meaning "beloved". It has been used as a given name since the 19th century, though it did not become popular until after the 1950s.
CARINA (1) f English, Portuguese, Spanish, German, Late Roman
Late Latin name derived from cara
meaning "dear, beloved". This was the name of a 4th-century saint and martyr. It is also the name of a constellation in the southern sky, though in this case it means "keel" in Latin, referring to a part of Jason
's ship the Argo.
CARITA f Swedish
Derived from Latin caritas
meaning "dearness, esteem, love".
CHANDRA m & f Hinduism, Bengali, Indian, Assamese, Hindi, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Nepali
Means "moon" in Sanskrit, derived from चन्द (chand)
meaning "to shine". This is a transcription of the masculine form चण्ड
(a name of the moon in Hindu texts which is often personified as a deity) as well as the feminine form चण्डा
CHARES m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek χαρις (charis)
meaning "grace, kindness". This was the name of a 4th-century BC Athenian general. It was also borne by the sculptor who crafted the Colossus of Rhodes.
CHARITY f English
From the English word charity
, ultimately derived from Late Latin caritas
meaning "generous love", from Latin carus
"dear, beloved". Caritas
was in use as a Roman Christian name. The English name Charity
came into use among the Puritans after the Protestant Reformation.
CHLORIS f Greek Mythology
Derived from Greek χλωρος (chloros)
meaning "pale green". Chloris, in Greek mythology, was a minor goddess of vegetation.
COLUMBA m & f Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "dove". The dove is a symbol of the Holy Spirit in Christianity. This was the name of several early saints both masculine and feminine, most notably the 6th-century Irish monk Saint Columba (or Colum) who established a monastery on the island of Iona off the coast of Scotland. He is credited with the conversion of Scotland to Christianity.
CONCEPCIÓN f Spanish
Means "conception" in Spanish. This name is given in reference to the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary
. A city in Chile bears this name.
CORAL f English, Spanish
From the English and Spanish word coral
for the underwater skeletal deposits which can form reefs. It is ultimately derived (via Old French and Latin) from Greek κοραλλιον (korallion)
CRUZ f & m Spanish, Portuguese
Means "cross" in Spanish or Portuguese, referring to the cross of the crucifixion.
CUSTODIO m Spanish
Means "guardian" in Spanish, from Latin custodia
CVETKA f Slovene
Derived from Slovene cvet
meaning "blossom, flower".
DAMON m Greek Mythology, English
Derived from Greek δαμαζω (damazo)
meaning "to tame". According to Greek legend, Damon and Pythias were friends who lived on Syracuse in the 4th century BC. When Pythias was sentenced to death, he was allowed to temporarily go free on the condition that Damon take his place in prison. Pythias returned just before Damon was to be executed in his place, and the king was so impressed with their loyalty to one another that he pardoned Pythias. As an English given name, it has only been regularly used since the 20th century.
DERYA f & m Turkish
Means "sea, ocean" in Turkish, ultimately from Persian.
DIKE f Greek Mythology
Means "justice" in Greek. In Greek mythology Dike was the goddess of justice, one of the ‘Ωραι
DIPAKA m Hinduism
Means "inflaming, exciting" in Sanskrit. This is another name of Kama
, the Hindu god of love.
DOLORES f Spanish, English
Means "sorrows", taken from the Spanish title of the Virgin Mary María de los Dolores
, meaning "Mary of Sorrows". It has been used in the English-speaking world since the 19th century, becoming especially popular in America during the 1920s and 30s.
DORIAN m English, French
The name was first used by Oscar Wilde in his novel 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' (1891), which tells the story of a man whose portrait ages while he stays young. Wilde may have taken it from the name of the ancient Greek tribe the Dorians, or from the surname DORAN
DORIS f English, German, Croatian, Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
From the ancient Greek name Δωρις (Doris)
which meant "Dorian woman". The Dorians were a Greek tribe who occupied the Peloponnese starting in the 12th century BC. In Greek mythology Doris was a sea nymph, one of the many children of Oceanus and Tethys. It began to be used as an English name in the 19th century. A famous bearer is the American actress Doris Day (1924-).
DUBHÁN m Irish
Irish name derived from dubh
"dark, black" combined with a diminutive suffix.
DUKE m English
From the noble title duke
, which was originally derived from Latin dux
DULCIE f English
From Latin dulcis
meaning "sweet". It was used in the Middle Ages in the spellings Dowse
, and was recoined in the 19th century.
DZHOKHAR m Chechen
Possibly from Persian گوهر (gohar)
"jewel, essence" or جوهر (johar)
"essence, ink" (which comes from the same root, but via a loan to Arabic and retransmission to Persian).
ELMAS f Turkish
Means "diamond" in Turkish, ultimately from Persian.
ELPIS f Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Means "hope" in Greek. In Greek mythology Elpis was the personification of hope. She was the last spirit to remain in the jar after Pandora unleashed the evils that were in it.
EMERALD f English (Modern)
From the word for the green precious stone, which is the birthstone of May. The emerald supposedly imparts love to the bearer. The word is ultimately from Greek σμαραγδος (smaragdos)
ENGEL m German (Rare), Ancient Germanic
Originally this was a short form of Germanic names beginning with the element Angil
, the name of a Germanic tribe (known in English as the Angles). Since the Middle Ages it has been firmly associated with the German word engel
EPIPHANES m Ancient Greek
Means "appearing, manifesting" in Greek. This was an epithet of two 2nd-century BC Hellenistic rulers: the Seleucid king Antiochus IV and the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy V.
EPIPHANY f English (Rare)
From the name of the Christian festival (January 6) which commemorates the visit of the Magi to the infant Jesus
. It is also an English word meaning "sudden appearance" or "sudden perception", ultimately deriving from Greek επιφανεια (epiphaneia)
ESMÉ m & f English, Dutch
Means "esteemed" or "loved" in Old French. It was first recorded in Scotland, being borne by the first Duke of Lennox in the 16th century.
ESMERALDA f Spanish, Portuguese, English, Literature
Means "emerald" in Spanish and Portuguese. Victor Hugo used this name in his novel 'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' (1831), in which Esmeralda is the Gypsy girl who is loved by Quasimodo. It has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world since that time.
ESTELLE f English, French
From an Old French name which was derived from Latin stella
, meaning "star". It was rare in the English-speaking world in the Middle Ages, but it was revived in the 19th century, perhaps due to the character Estella Havisham in Charles Dickens' novel 'Great Expectations' (1860).
EVANGELINE f English
Means "good news" from Greek ευ (eu)
"good" and αγγελμα (angelma)
"news, message". It was (first?) used by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his epic poem 'Evangeline' (1847). It also appears in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' (1852) as the full name of the character Eva.
FELICITAS f German, Late Roman, Roman Mythology
Latin name which meant "good luck, fortune". In Roman mythology the goddess Felicitas was the personification of good luck. It was borne by a 3rd-century saint, a slave martyred with her master Perpetua in Carthage.
FELICITY f English
From the English word felicity
meaning "happiness", which ultimately derives from Latin felicitas
"good luck". This was one of the virtue names adopted by the Puritans around the 17th century. It can sometimes be used as an English form of the Latin name FELICITAS
. This name was revived in the late 1990s after the appearance of the television series 'Felicity'.
FIORE f & m Italian
Means "flower" in Italian. It can also be considered an Italian form of the Latin names FLORA
FIORELLA f Italian
From Italian fiore
"flower" combined with a diminutive suffix.
FIRUZ m Persian, Tajik
From Persian پیروز (piruz)
or فیروز (firuz)
meaning "victorious". This name was borne by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, a 14th-century Sultan of Delhi who did much to build the city's infrastructure.
FLEUR f French, Dutch, English (Rare)
Means "flower" in French. This was the name of a character in John Galsworthy's novels 'The Forsyte Saga' (1922).
FLORA f English, German, Italian, Roman Mythology
Derived from Latin flos
meaning "flower". Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers and spring, the wife of Zephyr the west wind. It has been used as a given name since the Renaissance, starting in France. In Scotland it was sometimes used as an Anglicized form of Fionnghuala
FLOWER f English (Rare)
Simply from the English word flower
for the blossoming plant. It is derived (via Old French) from Latin flos
FOX m English (Rare)
Either from the English word fox
or the surname Fox
, which originally given as a nickname. The surname was borne by George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the Quakers.
GAIA f Greek Mythology, Italian
From the Greek word γαια (gaia)
, a parallel form of γη (ge)
meaning "earth". In Greek mythology Gaia was the mother goddess who presided over the earth. She was the mate of Uranus
and the mother of the Titans and the Cyclopes.
GENGHIS m History
From the title Genghis
, meaning "universal ruler", which was adopted by the Mongol Empire founder Temujin
in the late 12th century. Remembered both for his military brilliance and his brutality towards civilians, he went on to conquer huge areas of Asia and Eastern Europe.
GENTIAN m Albanian
From the name of the flowering plant called the gentian, the roots of which are used to create a tonic. It is derived from the name of the Illyrian king GENTIUS
, who supposedly discovered its medicinal properties.
GEREON m German, Late Roman
Possibly derived from Greek γερων (geron)
meaning "old man, elder". This was the name of a saint martyred in Cologne in the 4th century.
GLORIA f English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German
Means "glory" in Latin. The name (first?) appeared in E. D. E. N. Southworth's novel 'Gloria' (1891) and subsequently in George Bernard Shaw's play 'You Never Can Tell' (1898). It was popularized in the early 20th century by American actress Gloria Swanson (1899-1983). Another famous bearer is feminist Gloria Steinem (1934-).
GOHAR f Armenian
Means "jewel" in Armenian, ultimately of Persian origin.
GORAN m Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian
Means "mountain man", derived from South Slavic gora
"mountain". It was popularized by the Croatian poet Ivan Goran Kovačić (1913-1943), who got his middle name because of the mountain town where he was born.
GORDAN m Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian
Derived from South Slavic gord
meaning "dignified". This name and the feminine form Gordana were popularized by the publication of Croatian author Marija Jurić Zagorka's novel 'Gordana' (1935).
GRACE f English
From the English word grace
, which ultimately derives from Latin gratia
. This was one of the virtue names created in the 17th century by the Puritans. The actress Grace Kelly (1929-1982) was a famous bearer.
GRIFFIN m English
Latinized form of GRUFFUDD
. This name can also be inspired by the English word griffin
, a creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle, ultimately from Greek γρυψ (gryps)
GÜL f Turkish
Means "rose" in Turkish, ultimately from Persian.
GUL m & f Urdu, Pashto
Means "flower, rose" in Urdu and Pashto, ultimately from Persian.
GURGEN m Armenian, Georgian
Derived from Middle Persian gurg
"wolf" combined with a diminutive suffix. This name was borne by several Georgian kings and princes.
HARI m Hinduism, Indian, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali
Means "brown, yellow, tawny" in Sanskrit, and by extension "monkey, horse, lion". This is another name of the Hindu god Vishnu
, and sometimes of Krishna
. It is also borne by the son of the Garuda, the bird-like mount of Vishnu.
HARSHA m Indian, Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit
Means "happiness" in Sanskrit. This was the name of a 7th-century emperor of northern India. He was also noted as an author.