Aelius m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was possibly derived from the Greek word ἥλιος (helios)
. This was the family name of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
Albert m English, French, Catalan, German, Polish, Russian, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Finnish, Romanian, Hungarian, Ancient Germanic
From the Germanic name Adalbert
meaning "noble and bright"
, composed of the elements adal
"noble" and beraht
"bright". This name was common among medieval German royalty. The Normans introduced it to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Æðelberht
. Though it became rare in England by the 17th century, it was repopularized in the 19th century by the German-born Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria.... [more]
Alexander m English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Hungarian, Slovak, Biblical, Ancient Greek (Latinized), Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros)
, which meant "defending men"
from Greek ἀλέξω (alexo)
meaning "to defend, help" and ἀνήρ (aner)
meaning "man" (genitive ἀνδρός
). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris
, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, king of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.... [more]
Alexis m & f French, English, Greek, Spanish, Ancient Greek
From the Greek name Ἄλεξις (Alexis)
, derived from Greek ἀλέξω (alexo)
meaning "to defend, to help". This was the name of a 3rd-century BC Greek comic poet, and also of several saints. It is used somewhat interchangeably with the related name Ἀλέξιος
, borne by five Byzantine emperors. In the English-speaking world it is more commonly used as a feminine name.
Alexius m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἀλέξιος (Alexios)
, a derivative of Ἄλεξις
). This was the name of five Byzantine emperors. It was also borne by a 5th-century Syrian saint who is especially venerated in the Eastern Church.
Anastasius m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἀναστάσιος (Anastasios)
, which meant "resurrection"
from Greek ἀνάστασις (anastasis)
(composed of the elements ἀνά (ana)
meaning "up" and στάσις (stasis)
meaning "standing"). This was the name of numerous early saints and martyrs, including a 7th-century monk and writer from Alexandria who is especially venerated in the Eastern Church.
Antiochus m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
From the Greek name Ἀντίοχος (Antiochos)
, derived from Greek ἀντί (anti)
meaning "against, compared to, like" and ὀχή (oche)
meaning "support". This was the name of several rulers of the Seleucid Empire. It was also borne by a 2nd-century Christian martyr, the patron saint of Sardinia.
Antonino m Italian
Italian form of the Roman name Antoninus
, which was derived from Antonius
). There were several early saints named Antoninus, including the patron saint of Sorrento. This was also the name of a 2nd-century Roman emperor.
Asen m Bulgarian
Meaning unknown, probably of Turkic origin. This was the name of a 12th-century Bulgarian emperor (Ivan Asen I) and several of his successors.
Ashoka m Sanskrit
Means "without sorrow"
in Sanskrit. This name was borne by Ashoka the Great, a 3rd-century BC emperor of India.
Atahualpa m Indigenous American, Quechua
Means "hen of fortune"
, from Quechua ataw
meaning "lucky, fortunate" and wallpa
meaning "hen". This was the name of the last sovereign Inca emperor. He was executed by the Spanish in 1533.
Attila m History, Hungarian, Turkish
Possibly means "little father"
from Gothic atta
"father" combined with a diminutive suffix. This was the name of a 5th-century leader of the Huns, a nomadic people from Central Asia who had expanded into Eastern Europe by the 4th century. Attila
was the name given to him by his Gothic-speaking subjects in Eastern Europe; his real name may have been Avithohol.
Augustus m Ancient Roman, Dutch (Rare)
Means "exalted, venerable"
, derived from Latin augere
meaning "to increase". Augustus was the title given to Octavian
, the first Roman emperor. He was the adopted son of Julius Caesar who rose to power through a combination of military skill and political prowess. In 26 BC the senate officially gave him the name Augustus
, and after his death it was used as a title for subsequent emperors. This was also the name of three kings of Poland (August
Aurangzeb m History
Means "honouring the throne"
in Persian. This was the name of a 17th-century Mughal emperor of India.
Aurelius m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was derived from Latin aureus
meaning "golden, gilded"
. Marcus Aurelius was a 2nd-century Roman emperor and philosophical writer. This was also the name of several early saints.
Avitus m Ancient Roman
From a Roman family name that meant "ancestral"
in Latin. This was the name of an emperor who briefly reigned over the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. It was also the name of several saints, including a 6th-century bishop of Vienne.
Bahram m Persian, Persian Mythology
Modern Persian form of Avestan Verethragna
meaning "victory over resistance"
. This was the name of a Zoroastrian god (one of the Amesha Spenta) associated with victory and war. This name was borne by several Sassanid emperors. It is also the Persian name for the planet Mars.
Basil 1 m English
From the Greek name Βασίλειος (Basileios)
, which was derived from βασιλεύς (basileus)
. Saint Basil the Great was a 4th-century bishop of Caesarea and one of the fathers of the early Christian church. Due to him, the name (in various spellings) has come into general use in the Christian world, being especially popular among Eastern Christians. It was also borne by two Byzantine emperors.
Berengar m Ancient Germanic
Germanic name derived from the elements bern
"bear" and ger
"spear". This was the name of two medieval kings of Italy and a Holy Roman emperor.
Boris m Bulgarian, Russian, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak, Georgian, German
From the Turkic name Bogoris
, perhaps meaning "short"
or "snow leopard"
. It was borne by the 9th-century King Boris I of Bulgaria who converted his country to Christianity, as well as two later Bulgarian emperors. The name was popularized in the Slavic world due to the 11th-century Saint Boris, who was a Russian prince martyred with his brother Gleb. His mother may have been Bulgarian. Another famous bearer was the 16th-century Russian emperor Boris Godunov, later the subject of a play of that name by Aleksandr Pushkin.
Caligula m History
Means "little boot"
in Latin. This was a nickname for the Roman emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus given to him in his youth by his father's soldiers.
Caracalla m Ancient Roman
From Latin caracalla
, which referred to a type of hooded tunic worn by the Gauls. This was the agnomen, or nickname, of a 3rd-century Roman emperor.
Charles m English, French
From the Germanic name Karl
, which was derived from a Germanic word meaning "man"
. However, an alternative theory states that it is derived from the common Germanic name element hari
meaning "army, warrior"
Claudius m Ancient Roman
From a Roman family name that was possibly derived from Latin claudus
meaning "lame, crippled"
. This was the name of a patrician family prominent in Roman politics. The ancestor of the family was said to have been a 6th-century BC Sabine leader named Attius Clausus, who adopted the name Appius Claudius upon becoming a Roman citizen. The family produced several Roman emperors of the 1st century, including the emperor known simply as Claudius. He was poisoned by his wife Agrippina in order to bring her son Nero (Claudius's stepson) to power. The name was later borne by several early saints, including a 7th-century bishop of Besançon.
Constans m Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "constant, steadfast"
. This was the name of a 4th-century Roman emperor, a son of Constantine
Constantine m History
From the Latin name Constantinus
, a derivative of Constans
. Constantine the Great (272-337) was the first Roman emperor to adopt Christianity. He moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (modern Istanbul).
Cuauhtémoc m Indigenous American, Nahuatl
Means "descending eagle"
in Nahuatl. This was the name of the last Aztec emperor, ruling until he was captured and executed by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés in the year 1525.
Diadumenian m History
From the Roman cognomen Diadumenianus
, which was derived from the Greek name Diadumenus
. This was the name of a Roman Emperor who reigned briefly in the 3rd century.
Diocletian m History
From the Roman cognomen Diocletianus
, a derivative of Diokles
. This was the name of a Roman emperor of the 3rd and 4th centuries. He is remembered for persecuting Christians, but he also reformed and stabilized the crumbling Empire.
Domitian m History
From the Roman cognomen Domitianus
, itself derived from the family name Domitius
. This was the name of a 1st-century Roman emperor, Titus Flavius Domitianus.
Elagabalus m Semitic Mythology (Latinized)
Latinized form of an Arabic name, derived from إله (ilah)
meaning "god" and جبل (jabal)
meaning "mountain". This was the name of a sun god worshipped in Emesa, in the Roman province of Syria. A 3rd-century Roman emperor, who served as a priest of this god in his youth in Syria, is known to history by the name Elagabalus. After ruling for four years he was assassinated at the age of 18, in part because he promoted the god to the head of the Roman pantheon.
Franz m German
German form of Franciscus
). This name was borne by the influential writer Franz Kafka (1883-1924), author of The Trial
and The Castle
among other works. It was also the name of rulers of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire.
Frederick m English
English form of a Germanic name meaning "peaceful ruler"
, derived from frid
"peace" and ric
"ruler, mighty". This name has long been common in continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Notables among these rulers include the 12th-century Holy Roman emperor and crusader Frederick I Barbarossa, the 13th-century emperor and patron of the arts Frederick II, and the 18th-century Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great.... [more]
Gaius m Ancient Roman, Biblical Latin, Biblical
Roman praenomen, or given name, of uncertain meaning. It is possibly derived from Latin gaudere "to rejoice"
, though it may be of unknown Etruscan origin. This was a very common Roman praenomen, the most famous bearers being Gaius Julius Caesar, the great leader of the Roman Republic, and his adopted son Gaius Octavius (later known as Augustus), the first Roman emperor. This name also appears in the New Testament belonging to a bishop of Ephesus who is regarded as a saint.
Gordian m History
From the Roman cognomen Gordianus
meaning "from Gordium"
, Gordium being the capital of Phrygia in Asia Minor. This is the name by which three Roman emperors are known.
Gratian m History
From the Roman name Gratianus
, which meant "grace"
from Latin gratus
. Saint Gratian was the first bishop of Tours (4th century). This was also the name of a Roman emperor.
Hadrian m History
From the Roman cognomen Hadrianus
, which meant "from Hadria"
in Latin. Hadria was the name of two Roman settlements. The first (modern Adria) is in northern Italy and was an important Etruscan port town. The second (modern Atri) is in central Italy and was named after the northern town. The Adriatic Sea is also named after the northern town.... [more]
Harsha m Indian, Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit
in Sanskrit. This was the name of a 7th-century emperor of northern India. He was also noted as an author.
Heraclius m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek personal name Ἡράκλειος (Herakleios)
, which was derived from the name of the Greek hero Herakles
. This was the name of a 7th-century Byzantine emperor, known for his victories over the Sassanid Persian Empire. This name was also borne by two early saints.
Hirohito m Japanese
From Japanese 裕 (hiro)
meaning "abundant" and 人 (hito)
meaning "person" or 仁 (hito)
meaning "compassionate". Hirohito (1901-1989), name written 裕仁
, was the emperor of Japan from 1926 to 1989. Different combinations of kanji can also form this name.
Honorius m Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "honour"
. This was the name of an emperor of the Western Roman Empire. It was also borne by a few early saints and four popes.
Ivan m Russian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Serbian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Macedonian, Slovene, English, Italian, Romanian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Estonian
Newer form of the old Slavic name Іѡаннъ (Ioannu)
, which was derived from Greek Ioannes
). This was the name of six Russian rulers, including the 15th-century Ivan III the Great and 16th-century Ivan IV the Terrible, the first tsar of Russia. It was also borne by nine emperors of Bulgaria. Other notable bearers include the Russian author Ivan Turgenev (1818-1883), who wrote Fathers and Sons
, and the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), who is best known for his discovery of the conditioned reflex.
Ivaylo m Bulgarian
Perhaps derived from an old Bulgar name meaning "wolf"
. This was the name of a 13th-century emperor of Bulgaria. It is possible that this spelling was the result of a 15th-century misreading of his real name Vulo
from historical documents.
Jahan m Persian
in Persian. This name was borne by Shah Jahan, a 17th-century Mughal emperor who is best known as the builder of the Taj Mahal.
Jahangir m Persian, Urdu
Means "world conqueror"
in Persian. This was the name of a 17th-century Mughal emperor.
Jian m & f Chinese
From Chinese 建 (jiàn)
meaning "build, establish", 健 (jiàn)
meaning "strong, healthy", or other characters that are pronounced in a similar fashion.
Jimmu m Japanese Mythology
Means "divine warrior"
, from Japanese 神 (jin)
meaning "god" and 武 (mu)
meaning "military, martial". In Japanese legend this was the name of the founder of Japan and the first emperor, supposedly ruling in the 7th century BC.
John m English, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Biblical
English form of Iohannes
, the Latin form of the Greek name Ἰωάννης (Ioannes)
, itself derived from the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan)
meaning "Yahweh is gracious"
, from the roots יוֹ (yo)
referring to the Hebrew God and חָנַן (chanan)
meaning "to be gracious". The Hebrew form occurs in the Old Testament (spelled Johanan
in the English version), but this name owes its popularity to two New Testament characters, both highly revered saints. The first is John the Baptist, a Jewish ascetic who is considered the forerunner of Jesus
. He baptized Jesus and was later executed by Herod
Antipas. The second is the apostle John, who is traditionally regarded as the author of the fourth gospel and Revelation. With the apostles Peter
(his brother), he was part of the inner circle of Jesus.... [more]
Julian m English, Polish, German
From the Roman name Iulianus
, which was derived from Julius
. This was the name of the last pagan Roman emperor, Julian the Apostate (4th century). It was also borne by several early saints, including the legendary Saint Julian the Hospitaller. This name has been used in England since the Middle Ages, at which time it was also a feminine name (from Juliana
, eventually becoming Gillian
Justin m English, French, Slovene
From the Latin name Iustinus
, which was derived from Justus
. This was the name of several early saints including Justin Martyr, a Christian philosopher of the 2nd century who was beheaded in Rome. It was also borne by two Byzantine emperors. As an English name, it has occasionally been used since the late Middle Ages, though it did not become common until the 20th century. Famous modern bearers include pop stars Justin Timberlake (1981-) and Justin Bieber (1994-).
Justinian m History
From the Latin name Iustinianus
, which was derived from Iustinus
). This was the name of a 6th-century Byzantine emperor who attempted to restore the borders of the Roman Empire.
Kaloyan m Bulgarian
From Greek καλός Ἰωάννης (kalos Ioannes)
meaning "handsome John"
, the nickname of a 13th-century emperor of Bulgaria. He successfully defended the empire from the Fourth Crusade.
Karl m German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Finnish, Estonian, Ancient Germanic
German and Scandinavian form of Charles
. This was the name of seven emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and an emperor of Austria, as well as kings of Sweden and Norway. Other famous bearers include Karl Marx (1818-1883), the German philosopher and revolutionary who laid the foundations for communism, and Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), a German existentialist philosopher.
Keiko f Japanese
From Japanese 慶 (kei)
meaning "celebrate", 敬 (kei)
meaning "respect", 啓 (kei)
meaning "open, begin" or 恵 (kei)
meaning "favour, benefit" combined with 子 (ko)
meaning "child". Other kanji combinations are possible.
Kublai m History
From the Mongolian name Khubilai
, of unknown meaning. This was the name of a 13th-century grandson of Genghis
Khan (being the son of his son Tolui), and the fifth ruler of the Mongol Empire. He is also considered the first ruler of the Chinese Yuan dynasty.
Leo m German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, English, Croatian, Late Roman
Derived from Latin leo
, a cognate of Leon
. It was popular among early Christians and was the name of 13 popes, including Saint Leo the Great who asserted the dominance of the Roman bishops (the popes) over all others in the 5th century. It was also borne by six Byzantine emperors and five Armenian kings. Another famous bearer was Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), a Russian novelist whose works include War and Peace
and Anna Karenina
. Leo is also the name of a constellation and the fifth sign of the zodiac.
Leontios m Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek λέων (leon)
. This was the name of various early saints and martyrs. It was also borne by a 7th-century Byzantine emperor.
Leopold m German, Dutch, English, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Polish
Derived from the Germanic elements leud
"people" and bald
"bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo
"lion". This name was common among German royalty, first with the Babenbergs and then the Habsburgs. Saint Leopold was a 12th-century Babenberg margrave of Austria, who is now considered the patron of that country. It was also borne by two Habsburg Holy Roman emperors, as well as three kings of Belgium. Since the 19th century this name has been occasionally used in England, originally in honour of Queen Victoria's uncle, a king of Belgium, after whom she named one of her sons. It was later used by James Joyce for the main character, Leopold Bloom, in his novel Ulysses
Louis m French, English, Dutch
French form of Ludovicus
, the Latinized form of Ludwig
. This was the name of 18 kings of France, starting with Louis I the son of Charlemagne
. Others include Louis IX (Saint Louis) who led two crusades and Louis XIV (called the Sun King) who was the ruler of France during the height of its power, the builder of the Palace of Versailles, and the longest reigning monarch in the history of Europe. It was also borne by kings of Germany (as Ludwig
), Hungary (as Lajos
), and other places.... [more]
Ludwig m German
From the Germanic name Chlodovech
meaning "famous battle"
, composed of the elements hlud
"famous" and wig
"war, battle". This was the name of three Merovingian kings of the Franks (though their names are usually spelled in the Latinized form Clovis
) as well as several Carolingian kings and Holy Roman emperors (names often spelled in the French form Louis
). Other famous bearers include the German composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) and the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), who contributed to logic and the philosophy of language.
Manuel m Spanish, Portuguese, German, Italian, French, Romanian, Late Greek (Latinized)
Spanish and Portuguese form of Emmanuel
. In the spelling Μανουήλ (Manouel)
it was also used in the Byzantine Empire, notably by two emperors. It is possible this form of the name was transmitted to Spain and Portugal from Byzantium, since there were connections between the royal families (king Ferdinand III of Castile married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, who had Byzantine roots, and had a son named Manuel). The name has been used in Iberia since at least the 13th century and was borne by two kings of Portugal.
Marcianus m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was a derivative of the praenomen Marcus
. This was the name of a 5th-century Eastern Roman emperor. It was also borne by a 2nd-century saint: a bishop of Tortona, Italy.
Marcus m Ancient Roman, Biblical Latin, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Roman praenomen, or given name, that was probably derived from the name of the Roman god Mars
. This was among the most popular of the Roman praenomina. Famous bearers include Marcus Tullius Cicero (known simply as Cicero), a 1st-century BC statesman and orator, Marcus Antonius (known as Mark Antony), a 1st-century BC politician, and Marcus Aurelius, a notable 2nd-century emperor. This was also the name of a pope of the 4th century. This spelling has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world, though the traditional English form Mark
has been more common.
Maurice m English, French
From the Roman name Mauritius
, a derivative of Maurus
. Saint Maurice was a 3rd-century Roman soldier from Egypt. He and the other Christians in his legion were supposedly massacred on the orders of Emperor Maximian for refusing to worship Roman gods. Thus, he is the patron saint of infantry soldiers.... [more]
Maxence m French
French form of the Roman name Maxentius
, a derivative of Latin maximus "greatest"
. This was the agnomen of an early 4th-century Roman emperor, a rival of Constantine
. It was also borne by a 6th-century saint from Agde in France.
Michael m English, German, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Dutch, Czech, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
From the Hebrew name מִיכָאֵל (Mikha'el)
meaning "who is like God?"
. This is a rhetorical question, implying no person is like God. Michael is one of the archangels in Hebrew tradition and the only one identified as an archangel in the Bible. In the Book of Daniel in the Old Testament he is named as a protector of Israel. In the Book of Revelation in the New Testament he is portrayed as the leader of heaven's armies in the war against Satan, and is thus considered the patron saint of soldiers in Christianity.... [more]
Min m & f Chinese, Korean
From 敏 (mǐn)
meaning "quick, clever, sharp", 民 (mín)
meaning "people, citizens", or other Chinese/Sino-Korean characters that are pronounced similarly.
Muhammad m Arabic, Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, Bengali, Tajik, Uzbek, Indonesian, Malay, Avar
Means "praised, commendable"
in Arabic, derived from the root حَمِدَ (hamida)
meaning "to praise". This was the name of the prophet who founded the Islamic religion in the 7th century. According to Islamic belief, at age 40 Muhammad was visited by the angel Gabriel
, who provided him with the first verses of the Quran. Approximately 20 years later he conquered Mecca, the city of his birth, and his followers controlled most of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of his death in 632.... [more]
Napoleon m History, English
From the old Italian name Napoleone
, used most notably by the French emperor Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who was born on Corsica. The etymology is uncertain, but it is possibly derived from the Germanic Nibelungen
meaning "sons of mist"
, a name used in Germanic mythology to refer to the keepers of a hoard of treasure (often identified with the Burgundians). Alternatively, it could be connected to the name of the Italian city of Napoli (Naples).
Nero 1 m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen, which was probably of Sabine origin meaning "strong, vigorous"
. It was borne most infamously by a tyrannical Roman emperor of the 1st century.
Nerva m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen derived from Latin nervus "strength"
. This is the name by which the 1st-century Roman emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva is commonly known.
Nikephoros m & f Ancient Greek, Greek Mythology
Means "carrying victory"
from Greek νίκη (nike)
meaning "victory" and φέρω (phero)
meaning "to carry, to bear". This name was borne by several Byzantine emperors, including the 10th-century Nikephoros II Phokas. Besides being a masculine personal name, it was also a title borne by the goddess Athena
Octavian m History, Romanian
From the Roman name Octavianus
, which was derived from the name Octavius
. After Gaius Octavius (later the Roman emperor Augustus
) was adopted by Julius Caesar he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.
Otho m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen of unknown meaning. This was the name of a short-lived 1st-century Roman emperor.
Otto m German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, Ancient Germanic
Later German form of Audo
, originally a short form of various names beginning with the Germanic element aud
meaning "wealth, fortune"
. This was the name of four kings of Germany, starting in the 10th century with Otto I, the first Holy Roman emperor, who was known as Otto the Great. This name was also borne by a 19th-century king of Greece who was originally from Bavaria. Another notable bearer was the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898).
Pedro m Spanish, Portuguese
Spanish and Portuguese form of Peter
. This was the name of the only two emperors of Brazil, reigning between 1822 and 1889.
Petronius m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was possibly derived from Latin petro, petronis
Phocas m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Φωκᾶς (Phokas)
, which meant "seal (animal)"
from Greek φώκη (phoke)
. This was the name of an early saint and martyr from Asia Minor. Sentenced to death for being a Christian, he is said to have given his killers lodging and then dug his own grave before he was executed.
Publius m Ancient Roman
Roman praenomen, or given name, meaning "public"
in Latin. This was among the more common of the Roman praenomina, being borne by (among others) the emperor Hadrian and the poet Virgil.
Rudolf m German, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Dutch, Russian, Armenian
From the Germanic name Hrodulf
, which was derived from the elements hrod
"fame" and wulf
"wolf". It was borne by three kings of Burgundy, as well as several Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria. Anthony Hope used this name for the hero in his popular novel The Prisoner of Zenda
Salvius m Ancient Roman
Roman family name derived from Latin salvus
. This was the family name of the short-lived Roman emperor Otho. It was also borne by several early saints.
Sargon m Akkadian (Anglicized), Biblical, Biblical Hebrew
From the Hebrew form סַרְגּוֹן (Sargon)
of the Akkadian name Sharru-ukin
, from šarru
meaning "king" and kīnu
meaning "legitimate, true". This was the name of the first king of the Akkadian Empire, beginning in the 24th century BC. It was also borne by the 8th-century BC Assyrian king Sargon II, who appears briefly in the Old Testament. The usual English spelling of the name is based on this biblical mention, applied retroactively to the earlier king.
Shahjahan m Urdu
Means "king of the world"
from Persian شاه (shah)
meaning "king" and جهان (jahan)
meaning "world". This was the name of the 17th-century Mughal emperor who built the Taj Mahal.
Tacitus m Ancient Roman
Roman cognomen meaning "silent, mute"
in Latin. This was the name of a 1st-century Roman historian, known for writing the Histories
and the Annals
Tafari m Eastern African (Rare), Amharic (Rare)
Possibly means "he who inspires awe"
in Amharic. This name was borne by Lij Tafari Makonnen (1892-1975), also known as Haile Selassie, the last emperor of Ethiopia. Rastafarians (Ras Tafari
meaning "king Tafari") revere him as the earthly incarnation of God.
Theodore m English
From the Greek name Θεόδωρος (Theodoros)
, which meant "gift of god"
from Greek θεός (theos)
meaning "god" and δῶρον (doron)
meaning "gift". The name Dorothea
is derived from the same roots in reverse order. This was the name of several saints, including Theodore of Amasea, a 4th-century Greek soldier; Theodore of Tarsus, a 7th-century archbishop of Canterbury; and Theodore the Studite, a 9th-century Byzantine monk. It was also borne by two popes.... [more]
Theodosius m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Θεοδόσιος (Theodosios)
meaning "giving to god"
, derived from θεός (theos)
meaning "god" and δόσις (dosis)
meaning "giving". Saint Theodosius of Palestine was a monk who founded a monastery near Bethlehem in the 5th century. This also was the name of emperors of the Eastern Roman and Byzantine Empires.
Tiberius m Ancient Roman
Roman praenomen, or given name, meaning "of the Tiber"
in Latin. The Tiber is the river that runs through Rome. Tiberius was the second Roman emperor, the stepson of Emperor Augustus.
Timur m Tatar, Chechen, Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkish, Russian, History
From the Turkic and Mongol name Temür
. This was the name of several Mongol, Turkic and Yuan leaders. A notable bearer was Timur, also known as Tamerlane
(from Persian تیمور لنگ (Timur e Lang)
meaning "Timur the lame"), a 14th-century Turkic leader who conquered large areas of Western Asia.
Titus m Ancient Roman, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Roman praenomen, or given name, which is of unknown meaning, possibly related to Latin titulus "title of honour"
. It is more likely of Oscan origin, since it was borne by the legendary Sabine king Titus Tatius.... [more]
Trajan 1 m History
From the Roman cognomen Traianus
, which is of unknown meaning. The Roman emperor Trajan (full name Marcus Ulpius Traianus) is considered among the most capable men to have led the empire. His military accomplishments include victories over Dacia and Parthia.
Valerian m Russian, Georgian, Romanian, History
From the Roman cognomen Valerianus
, which was itself derived from the Roman name Valerius
. This was the name of a 3rd-century Roman emperor. Several saints also had this name, including a 2nd-century martyr of Lyons.
Valerius m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was derived from Latin valere "to be strong"
. This was the name of several early saints.
Vespasian m History
From the Roman cognomen Vespasianus
, derived either from Latin vesper
. This was the name of a 1st-century Roman emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the founder of the Flavian dynasty.
Wilhelm m German, Polish, Ancient Germanic
German cognate of William
. This was the name of two German emperors. It was also the middle name of several philosophers from Germany: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716), who was also a notable mathematician.
Wu m & f Chinese
From Chinese 武 (wǔ)
meaning "military, martial" (which is generally only masculine) or 务 (wù)
meaning "affairs, business", as well as other characters that are pronounced similarly. This was the name of several Chinese rulers, including the 2nd-century BC emperor Wu of Han (name spelled 武
) who expanded the empire and made Confucianism the state philosophy.