Names Starting with M

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Dutch diminutive of MARIA.
MAALAfBiblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Form of MAHLAH used in the Greek and Latin Old Testament.
Means "owner, possessor, master" in Arabic.
Limburgish short form of HERMAN.
Finnish form of MARIA.
MAARIKAfEstonian, Finnish
Diminutive of MAARJA (Estonian) or MAARIA (Finnish).
Finnish form of MARGARET.
Estonian form of MARIA.
Dutch form of MARTIN.
Dutch feminine form of MARTIN.
Dutch short form of THOMAS.
Maori form of MARTHA.
MAAYANf & mHebrew
Means "spring of water" in Hebrew.
Medieval feminine form of AMABILIS. This spelling and Amabel were common during the Middle Ages, though they became rare after the 15th century. It was revived in the 19th century after the publication of C. M. Yonge's novel 'The Heir of Redclyffe' (1854), which featured a character named Mabel (as well as one named Amabel).
MABELLAfEnglish (Rare)
Elaborated form of MABEL.
Variant of MABEL. It also coincides with the French phrase ma belle meaning "my beautiful".
Variant of MABEL.
MABONmWelsh, Welsh Mythology
Derived from Welsh mab meaning "son". This was the name of an old Celtic god.
Means "youth" in Welsh. This was the name of an obscure 6th-century Welsh saint. She was one of the daughters of Saint Brychan.
From the name of a barrio (district) in Seville, which got its name from a temple which may have been named for a person named Macarius (see MACARIO). The Virgin of Macarena, that is Mary, is widely venerated in Seville.
Feminine form of MACARIO.
Spanish form of the Latin name Macarius, derived from the Greek name Μακαριος (Makarios), which was in turn derived from Greek μακαρ (makar) meaning "blessed, happy". This was the name of several early saints.
Anglicized form of the Gaelic given name Mac Beatha meaning "son of life", implying holiness. This was the name of an 11th-century Scottish king. Shakespeare based his play 'Macbeth' loosely on this king's life.
MACHLAHf & mBiblical Hebrew
Hebrew form of MAHLAH.
Dutch form of MATILDA.
Variant of MACY.
Polish form of MATTHIAS.
MACK (1)mEnglish
From a surname which was originally a shortened form of various Gaelic surnames beginning with Mac or Mc (from Gaelic mac meaning "son"). It is also used as a generic slang term for a man.
MACK (2)mMedieval English
Medieval short form of MAGNUS, brought to Britain by Scandinavian settlers.
MACKENZIEf & mEnglish
From the Gaelic surname Mac Coinnich, which means "son of COINNEACH". A famous bearer of the surname was William Lyon MacKenzie (1795-1861), a Canadian journalist and political rebel. As a feminine given name, it was popularized by the American actress Mackenzie Phillips (1959-).
Welsh form of MAXIMUS. Magnus Maximus (known as Macsen in Welsh) was a 4th-century co-ruler of the Western Roman Empire. In Wales he was regarded as the founder of several royal lineages. He appears in the Mabinogion, a collection of tales from Welsh myth.
From an English surname which was from various towns named Massy in France. The towns themselves were originally named from a Gallo-Roman personal name that was Latinized as Maccius. This is the name of a chain of American department stores founded by Rowland Hussey Macy (1822-1877).
Means "Medes" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a son of Japheth. He was the ancestor of the Medes, an ancient people related to the Persians.
Irish form of MAGDALENE.
Portuguese form of MAGDALENA.
Romanian form of MAGDALENE.
MADALITSOm & fSouthern African, Chewa
Means "blessings" in Chewa.
From the Latvian name for a type of flowering plant, known as cleavers or bedstraw in English.
Means "girl" in German. It is not used as a name in Germany itself.
Italian form of MAGDALENE.
Diminutive of MADELINE or MADISON.
MADDOXmEnglish (Modern)
From a Welsh surname meaning "son of MADOC". It was brought to public attention when the actress Angelina Jolie gave this name to her adopted son in 2002.
Diminutive of MADELINE or MADISON.
MADEm & fIndonesian, Balinese
From Sanskrit मध्य (madhya) meaning "middle". This name is traditionally given to the family's second-born child.
Derived from Dutch madeliefje meaning "daisy".
MADELINEfEnglish, French
English form of MAGDALENE. This is the name of the heroine in a series of children's books by Ludwig Bemelmans, first published 1939.
Dutch form of MAGDALENE.
Diminutive of MARGARET.
MADHAVAmSanskrit, Hinduism
Means "vernal, of the springtime" in Sanskrit. This is an epithet of several Hindu gods. It was also the name of a 14th-century Hindu scholar.
MADHAVIfHinduism, Indian, Telugu, Marathi, Hindi
Feminine form of MADHAVA. This is another name of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi.
MADHUf & mIndian, Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu
From Sanskrit मधु (madhu) meaning "sweet, honey". This is another name of Chaitra, the first month of the Hindu year (which occurs in March and April).
MADHUKARmIndian, Hindi, Marathi
Means "bee, honey-maker" in Sanskrit.
MADHURm & fIndian, Hindi
Means "sweet" in Sanskrit.
MADHURIfIndian, Marathi, Hindi, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada
Means "sweetness" in Sanskrit.
Azerbaijani form of MADINA.
MADINAfKazakh, Avar, Chechen
From the name of the city of Medina, Arabic المدينة (al-Madinah), which means "the city". The Saudi city is considered an Islamic holy site because the Prophet Muhammad was based there for a period.
MADISONf & mEnglish
From an English surname meaning "son of MAUD". It was not commonly used as a feminine name until after the movie 'Splash' (1984), in which the main character adopted it as her name after seeing a street sign for Madison Avenue in New York City. A famous bearer of the surname was James Madison (1751-1836), one of the authors of the American constitution who later served as president.
Czech diminutive of MARIE.
Possibly derived from Welsh mad "fortunate" combined with a diminutive suffix.
Variant of MADOC.
Georgian form of MADONNA.
From a title of the Virgin Mary meaning "my lady" in Italian. A famous bearer of the name is American singer Madonna Ciccone (1958-), known simply as Madonna.
Danish short form of MATHIAS.
Variant of MAY. A famous bearer was American actress Mae West (1893-1980), whose birth name was Mary.
MÁEDÓCmAncient Irish
Meaning unknown. Saint Máedóc (also known as Áedán) of Ferns was a 7th-century Irish bishop.
Icelandic diminutive of MARIA.
MAËLmFrench, Breton
French form of Breton Mael, which was derived from a Celtic word meaning "chief" or "prince". Saint Mael was a 5th-century Breton hermit who lived in Wales.
Breton form of MAËL.
Feminine form of MAËL.
MAELETHfBiblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Form of MAHALATH used in the Greek and Latin Old Testament.
MAËLLEfFrench, Breton
French feminine form of MAËL.
MÁEL MÁEDÓCmAncient Irish
Means "disciple of Saint MÁEDÓC" in Irish. Saint Máel Máedóc (also known as Malachy) was a 12th-century archbishop of Armagh.
Means "disciple of Saint SEACHNALL" in Irish. This was the name of two Irish high kings: Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid who ruled all of Ireland in the 9th century; and Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill (called Malachy) who defeated the Norse of Dublin in the 10th century.
Feminine form of MAËL, possibly influenced by the spelling of MAILYS.
MAEVAfTahitian, French
Means "welcome" in Tahitian. It gained popularity in France during the 1980s.
MAEVEfIrish, Irish Mythology
Anglicized form of the Gaelic name Medb meaning "intoxicating". In Irish legend this was the name of a warrior queen of Connacht. Her fight against Ulster and the hero Cúchulainn is told in the Irish epic 'The Cattle Raid of Cooley'.
MAFALDAfItalian, Portuguese
Italian and Portuguese form of MATILDA.
Means "true, certain" in Chamorro.
MAGALIfFrench, Occitan
Occitan form of MAGDALENE.
Variant of MAGALI.
MAGDALÉNAfCzech, Slovak, Hungarian
Czech, Slovak and Hungarian form of MAGDALENE.
MAGDALENEfGerman, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
From a title which meant "of Magdala". Mary Magdalene, a character in the New Testament, was named thus because she was from Magdala - a village on the Sea of Galilee whose name meant "tower" in Hebrew. She was cleaned of evil spirits by Jesus and then remained with him during his ministry, witnessing the crucifixion and the resurrection. She was a popular saint in the Middle Ages, and the name became common then. In England it is traditionally rendered Madeline, while Magdalene or Magdalen is the learned form.
MAGDALINAfOld Church Slavic, Bulgarian
Old Slavic form of MAGDALENE, as well as a Bulgarian variant form.
Modern Greek transcription of MAGDALENE.
Hungarian form of MAGDALENE.
Diminutive of MARGARET.
Irish form of MAGNUS.
Modern form of MAGNI as well as a variant of MAGNUS.
Derived from Old Norse magn "mighty, strong" and hildr "battle". This was the name of a novel by the Norwegian author Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.
MAGNImAncient Scandinavian, Norse Mythology
Derived from the Old Norse element magn meaning "mighty, strong". In Norse mythology this name is borne by a son of Thor and the giant Járnsaxa.
From the English word magnolia for the flower, which was named for the French botanist Pierre Magnol.
Icelandic form of MAGNUS.
MAGNUSmSwedish, Norwegian, Danish, Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "great". It was borne by a 7th-century saint who was a missionary in Germany. It became popular in Scandinavia after the time of the 11th-century Norwegian king Magnus I, who was said to have been named after Charlemagne, or Carolus Magnus in Latin (however there was also a Norse name Magni). The name was borne by six subsequent kings of Norway as well as three kings of Sweden. It was imported to Scotland and Ireland during the Middle Ages.
MAGOMEDmAvar (Russified), Chechen (Russified)
Russian form of MUHAMMAD, used particularly in the Caucasus.
MAGOMETmAvar (Russified), Chechen (Russified)
Russian form of MUHAMMAD, used particularly in the Caucasus.
Means "oryx" in Arabic. The oryx is a variety of antelope that is said to represent beauty.
Variant of MAHALAH or MAHALATH. It has occasionally been used as an English Christian name since the Protestant Reformation.
Variant of MAHLAH used in the King James Version of the Old Testament.
From the Hebrew name מָחֲלַת (Machalat) meaning "lyre". In the Old Testament she is the daughter of Ishmael and the wife of Esau.
Variant of MAHLI.
Azerbaijani form of MUHAMMAD.
Alternate transcription of Azerbaijani MƏHƏMMƏD.
From the Indian title महात्मा (Mahatma) meaning "great soul", derived from Sanskrit महा (maha) meaning "great" and आत्मन् (atman) meaning "soul, spirit, life". This title was given to, among others, Mohandas Karamchand, also known as Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948).
MAHAUTfFrench (Archaic)
Medieval French form of MATHILDE.
MAHAVIRmIndian, Hindi
Modern form of MAHAVIRA.
Means "great hero" from Sanskrit महा (maha) meaning "great" and वीर (vira) meaning "hero, man". This was the name of the 6th-century BC founder of Jainism.
MAHDImArabic, Persian
Means "guided one" in Arabic.
MAHENDRAmIndian, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Sanskrit
From Sanskrit महा (maha) meaning "great" combined with the name of the Hindu god INDRA. This was the name of a son of the 3rd-century BC Indian emperor Ashoka. He is credited with introducing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.
Means "great lord" from Sanskrit महा (maha) meaning "great" and ईश (isha) meaning "lord, ruler". This is another name of the Hindu god Shiva.
Means "safeguarded" in Arabic.
Means "related to the moon" in Persian.
MAHINDERm & fIndian (Sikh)
Variant of MAHENDRA used by Sikhs.
Alternate transcription of Persian مهین (see MAHIN).
Turkish form of MAHIR.
Means "skilled" in Arabic.
MAHLAHf & mBiblical
From the Hebrew name מַחְלָה (Machlah), possibly from חָלָה (chalah) meaning "weak, sick". This name is used in the Old Testament as both a feminine and masculine name. In some versions of the Bible the masculine name is spelled Mahalah.
From the Hebrew name מַחְלִי (Machli), possibly meaning "weak, sick". This was the name of two characters mentioned briefly in the Old Testament.
Alternate transcription of Arabic محمود (see MAHMUD).
MAHMOUDmArabic, Persian
Alternate transcription of Arabic/Persian محمود (see MAHMUD).
MAHMUDmArabic, Persian, Pashto, Bengali, Indonesian, Malay
Means "praiseworthy" in Arabic, from the same root as Muhammad. This was the name of the first Muslim ruler of India (11th century). It was also borne by two Ottoman sultans.
Turkish form of MAHMUD.
MAHOMETmArabic (Anglicized)
Archaic transcription of MUHAMMAD, based on the usual Latin spelling Mahometus.
Anglicized form of MATHGHAMHAIN.
MAHPIYAmNative American, Sioux
Means "cloud, sky" in Dakota and Lakota. This is the first part of the names of the Dakota chief Mahpiya Wicasta (1780-1863), known as Cloud Man, and the Lakota chiefs Mahpiya Luta (1822-1909), known as Red Cloud, and Mahpiya Iyapato (1838-1905), known as Touch the Clouds.
Means "like the moon" in Persian.
Means "moonlight" in Persian.
MAHTHILDISfAncient Germanic
Old Germanic form of MATILDA.
Possibly inspired by MAGDALENA. The Czech author Julius Zeyer created it for a character in his play 'Radúz and Mahulena' (1898).
Possibly means "moon-like" in Persian.
Means "sad" in Turkish.
MAI (1)fVietnamese
From Sino-Vietnamese (mai) meaning "plum, apricot" (refers specifically to the species Prunus mume).
MAI (2)fJapanese
From Japanese (mai) meaning "dance" or 麻衣 (mai) meaning "linen robe". It can also come from (ma) meaning "real, genuine" combined with (ai) meaning "love, affection". Other kanji or kanji combinations can also form this name.
French form of MAIA (1).
MAIA (1)fGreek Mythology, Roman Mythology, Portuguese, Georgian
From Greek μαια (maia) meaning "good mother, dame, foster mother", perhaps in origin a nursery form of μητηρ (meter). In Greek and Roman mythology she was the eldest of the Pleiades, the group of seven stars in the constellation Taurus, who were the daughters of Atlas and Pleione. Her son by Zeus was Hermes.
MAIA (2)fRoman Mythology
Means "great" in Latin. This was the name of a Roman goddess of spring, the wife of Vulcan. The month of May is named for her.
MAIA (3)fBasque
Basque form of MARIA.
Basque form of MAGDALENE.
MAIARAfNative American, Tupi
Means "great grandmother, wise" in Tupi.
Scottish form of MARGARET.
Finnish variant of MARIA.
MAIKEfFrisian, German
Frisian diminutive of MARIA.
Dutch variant form of MICHAEL.
MAIKENfDanish, Norwegian
Danish and Norwegian diminutive of MARIA.
From the name of a type of vine that grows in Hawaii and is used in making leis.
Variant of MAYLIS.
Means "little" in Estonian.
MAINAmEastern African, Kikuyu
Means "sing, dance" in Kikuyu. Kikuyu males were traditionally organized into age sets or generations, each lasting about 30 years. The Maina generation occupied the last part of the 19th century.
Means "little monk", derived from Irish manach "monk" combined with a diminutive suffix.
Means "excellent" in Finnish.
Welsh form of MARY.
Irish form of MARY.
Derived from Finnish mairea "gushing, sugary".
Irish form of MARGARET.
Scottish form of MARGARET.
Scottish form of MARY.
Irish diminutive of MARY.
Irish form of MARTIN.
Combination of MAIR and Welsh gwen meaning "white, fair, blessed".
Diminutive of MAIREAD.
MAITE (1)fSpanish
Contraction of MARÍA and TERESA.
MAITE (2)fBasque
Means "lovable" in Basque.
Irish form of MATTHEW.
MAITLANDmEnglish (Rare)
From an English surname which was from a Norman French place name possibly meaning "inhospitable".
Either a masculine form of MAJA (1), or else from the Slovene name for the month of May.
Means "glorious" in Arabic.
From a surname which was originally derived from the given name Mauger, an Old French form of the Germanic name Malger meaning "council spear". The name can also be given in reference to the English word major.
Hawaiian form of MATTHEW.
MAKANAm & fHawaiian
Means "gift" in Hawaiian.
Russian form of Makarios (see MACARIO).
MAKARAm & fKhmer
Means "January" in Khmer.
MAKARImRussian (Archaic)
Alternate transcription of Russian Макарий (see MAKARIY).
MAKARIYmRussian (Archaic)
Russian form of Makarios (see MACARIO).
Means "liked" in Turkish.
Possibly means "greatness" in Ethiopic. This was the name of an Ethiopian queen of the 10th-century BC. She is probably the same person as the Queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon in the Old Testament.
MAKENAf & mEastern African, Kikuyu
Means "happy one" in Kikuyu.
MAKHMUDmUzbek, Kazakh, Chechen
Uzbek, Kazakh and Chechen form of MAHMUD.
MAKOTOm & fJapanese
From Japanese (makoto) meaning "sincerity", as well as other kanji or kanji combinations.
Means "generous" or "noble" in Arabic.
Short form of MAKSIM.
MAKSIMmRussian, Belarusian, Macedonian, Ukrainian
Russian, Belarusian and Macedonian form of MAXIMUS, as well as an alternate transcription of Ukrainian Максим (see MAKSYM).
MAKSYMmUkrainian, Polish
Ukrainian and Polish form of MAXIMUS.
Derived from Georgian მაყვალი (maqvali) meaning "blackberry".
MALAfIndian, Hindi
Means "necklace" in Sanskrit.
MALACHImHebrew, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin
From the Hebrew name מַלְאָכִי (Mal'akhi) meaning "my messenger" or "my angel". This is one of the twelve minor prophets of the Old Testament, the author of the Book of Malachi, which some claim foretells the coming of Christ. In England the name came into use after the Protestant Reformation.
Anglicized form of MÁEL SECHNAILL or MÁEL MÁEDÓC, influenced by the spelling of MALACHI. Saint Malachy (in Irish, Máel Máedóc) was a 12th-century archbishop of Armagh renowned for his miracles.
Means "garland of flowers" in Thai.
Means "angels" from the plural of Arabic ملك (malak).
MALAKf & mArabic
Means "angel" in Arabic.
MAL'AKHImBiblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew form of MALACHI.
Means "sad, grieved" in Pashto. This was the name of a Pashtun woman who encouraged the Afghan forces during the 1880 Battle of Maiwand against the British.
MALANDRAfEnglish (Rare)
Invented name, a prefixed form of ANDRA.
MALATIfIndian, Hindi
Means "jasmine" in Sanskrit.
MALCOLMmScottish, English
From Scottish Máel Coluim which means "disciple of Saint COLUMBA". This was the name of four kings of Scotland starting in the 10th century, including Malcolm III, who became king after killing Macbeth, the usurper who had murdered his father. The character Malcolm in Shakespeare's tragedy 'Macbeth' (1606) is based on him. Another famous bearer was Malcolm X (1925-1965), an American civil rights leader.
Welsh form of BALDWIN.
Hawaiian form of MARK.
MALENAfSwedish, Spanish, Czech
Swedish and Spanish short form of MAGDALENA, and a Czech short form of MAHULENA.
MALENEfDanish, Norwegian
Danish and Norwegian short form of MAGDALENA.
Polish form of MARGARET.
Means "flower" in Thai.
Hawaiian form of MARIA.
Means "calm" in Hawaiian.
MALIK (1)mArabic
Means "king" in Arabic. In Islamic tradition الملك (al-Malik) is one of the 99 names of Allah. This can also be another way of transcribing the name مالك (see MAALIK).
MALIK (2)mNative American, Greenlandic
Means "wave" in Greenlandic.
Means "queen" in Arabic, the feminine form of MALIK (1).
MALINfSwedish, Norwegian
Swedish and Norwegian short form of MAGDALENE.
MALINA (1)fScottish
Feminine form of MALCOLM.
MALINA (2)fBulgarian, Serbian, Polish
Means "raspberry" in several Slavic languages.
MALINALLIfNative American, Nahuatl
Means "grass" in Nahuatl.
MALINIfIndian, Hindi
Means "fragrant" in Sanskrit.
Means "queen" in Hebrew.
Possibly means "beautiful, elegant, youthful" in Georgian.
Irish form of MOLLY.
MALLEfMedieval English
Medieval diminutive of MARY.
MALLORYfEnglish (Modern)
From an English surname which meant "unfortunate" in Norman French. It first became common in the 1980s due to the television comedy 'Family Ties', which featured a character by this name.
Welsh form of MAUD.
MALONEmEnglish (Rare)
From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Maoil Eoin meaning "descendant of a disciple of Saint JOHN".
MALTEmDanish, Swedish, German
Short form of the Germanic name HELMOLD.
MALVINAfScottish, English, Literature
Created by the poet James MacPherson in the 18th century for a character in his Ossian poems. He probably intended it to mean "smooth brow" in Gaelic.
Means "ill will" in Italian. This name was invented by Shakespeare for a character in his play 'Twelfth Night' (1602).
Polish form of MALVINA.
MAMADOUmWestern African, Wolof, Serer, Fula, Manding
Form of MUHAMMAD used in western Africa.
From Japanese (ma) meaning "real, genuine" or (ma) meaning "flax" combined with (mi) meaning "beautiful". Other combinations of kanji can form this name as well.
Diminutive of MARY or MARGARET.
Alternate transcription of Arabic مأمون (see MAMUN).
Means "little father" in Georgian.
MAMUNmArabic, Bengali
Means "trustworthy" in Arabic.
MANAEMmBiblical Greek
Form of MENAHEM used in the Greek Old Testament.
MANAHEMmBiblical Latin
Form of MENAHEM used in the Latin Old Testament.
MANAIAf & mMaori
From the name of a stylized design common in Maori carvings. It represents a mythological creature with the head of a bird and the body of a human.
From Japanese (mana) meaning "love, affection" combined with (mi) meaning "beautiful" or (mi) meaning "sea, ocean". Other kanji combinations are possible.
Means "heather" in Georgian.
MANASmBengali, Indian, Assamese, Hindi
Means "mind, intellect, spirit" in Sanskrit.
Means "causing to forget" in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of the oldest son of Joseph and Asenath and the ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. It was also borne by a 7th-century BC king of Judah, condemned in the bible for allowing the worship of other gods.
MANASSESmBiblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Form of MANASSEH used in the Greek and Latin Bible. It is also the form used in some English versions of the New Testament.
MANDAWUYmIndigenous Australian, Yolngu
Means "from clay" in Yolngu.
MANDEEPm & fIndian (Sikh)
From Sanskrit मनस् (manas) meaning "mind, intellect, spirit" and दीप (dipa) meaning "lamp, light".
Diminutive of AMANDA.
Diminutive of MANDA.
MANDLAmSouthern African, Zulu, Ndebele
Means "strength, power" in Zulu and Ndebele.
MANDLENKOSImSouthern African, Zulu, Ndebele
From Zulu and Ndebele amandla "strength, power" and inkosi "king, chief".
Diminutive of AMANDA.
Catalan form of MANUEL.
MANFREDmGerman, Dutch, Polish
Derived from the Germanic elements magan "strength" and frid "peace". This is the name of the main character in Byron's drama 'Manfred' (1817). This name was also borne by Manfred von Richthofen (1892-1918), the German pilot in World War I who was known as the Red Baron.
Italian form of MANFRED.
MANGATJAYmIndigenous Australian, Yolngu
Meaning unknown, of Yolngu origin.
MANI (1)mHinduism, Tamil, Indian, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada
Means "jewel" in Sanskrit. In the Hindu epic the 'Mahabharata' this name is borne by a serpent and an attendant of Skanda.
MANI (2)mPersian
Meaning unknown, presumably of Persian origin. Mani was a 3rd-century prophet who founded the religion of Manichaeism (which is now extinct).
MANINDERm & fIndian (Sikh)
From Sanskrit मनस् (manas) meaning "mind, intellect, spirit" combined with the name of the Hindu god INDRA.
MANISHmIndian, Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Malayalam, Punjabi, Tamil, Nepali
From Sanskrit मनीषा (manisha) meaning "thought, wisdom".