Notable Philosophers and Thinkers

This list is comprised of some of the most recognizable names from the world of philosophy. Also included are mathematicians, theologians and those associated with the humanities and social science. However, those considered to be more in the camp of experimental science or invention are listed with the famous scientists.
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NameLifespanOther Names
Abraham Fraenkel1891-1965(Adolf, Halevi)
Abraham Maslow1908-1970
Ada Lovelace1815-1852
Adam Smith1723-1790
Adolf Hurwitz1859-1919
Adolf Noreen1854-1925(Gotthard)
Adolf Reinach1883-1917(Bernhard, Philipp)
Adolf von Harnack1851-1930(Karl, Gustav)
Ahmad ibn Hanbal780-855
Alain Locke1885-1954(LeRoy)
Alan Turing1912-1954
Albert Camus1913-1960
Albert Schweitzer1875-1965
Alexander von Humboldt1769-1859
Alexis de Tocqueville1805-1859(Charles, Henri)
Alfred Adler1870-1937
Alfred Marshall1842-1924
Alfred North Whitehead1861-1947
Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina980-1037
al-Masudi896-956('Ali)
Al-Shafi'i767-820(Muhammad)
Amartya Sen1933-
Ammianus Marcellinusc. 325-c. 391
Anaxagorasc. 500-428 BC
Anaximanderc. 610-c. 546 BC(Aniximander)
Anaximenes of Miletusc. 585-c. 528 BC
Andrew Wiles1953-
Andrey Kolmogorov1903-1987
Anna Freud1895-1982
Anselm of Canterbury1033-1109
Anthony Giddens1938-
Apollonius of Pergac. 262-c. 190 BC(Apollonios)
Appian of Alexandria95-165
Archimedesc. 287-c. 212 BC
Archytas428-347 BC
Aristotle384-322 BC(Aristoteles)
Arnold J. Toynbee1889-1975(Joseph)
Arthur Eddington1882-1944(Stanley)
Arthur Schopenhauer1788-1860
Aryabhata476-550
Atticus1xx-?(Attikos)
Auguste Comte1798-1857
Augustin-Louis Cauchy1789-1857
Augustine of Hippo354-430
Baruch Spinoza1632-1677
Ben Bernanke1953-
Benoit Mandelbrot1924-2010
Bernhard Riemann1826-1866
Bertrand Russell1872-1970
Blaise Pascal1623-1662
Boethius480-524(Anicius, Severinus)
B. F. Skinner1904-1990(Burrhus)
Carl Friedrich Gauss1777-1855(Karl)
Carl Jung1875-1961
Carl Ritter1779-1859(Karl)
Carl Rogers1902-1987
Charles Babbage1791-1871
Charles de Secondat1689-1755(Montesquieu)
Charles Sanders Peirce1839-1914
Christiaan Huygens1629-1695(Christian)
Christopher Hitchens1949-2011
Claude Shannon1916-2001
Confuciusc. 551-479 BC(Qiu)
Daniel Bernoulli1700-1782
Daniel Kahneman1934-
David Benatar1966-
David Hilbert1862-1943
David Hume1711-1776
David Ricardo1772-1823
David Rittenhouse1732-1796
Democritusc. 460-c. 370 BC
Denis Diderot1713-1784
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
Mo Dic. 470-c. 391 BC(Mozi)
Diodorus Siculus?-0xx BC
Diogenes of Sinopec. 412-323 BC
Diophantus of Alexandriac. 205-c. 290
Donald Knuth1938-
Edmund Husserl1859-1938
Edward Carpenter1844-1929
Edward Witten1951-
Einhardc. 775-840
Hakuin Ekaku1686-1769
Elinor Ostrom1933-2012
Emil Cioran1911-1995(Mihai)
Émile Durkheim1858-1917
Emma Goldman1869-1940
Emmy Noether1882-1935(Amalie)
Empedoclesc. 490-430 BC
Epictetusc. 55-c. 135(Epiktetos)
Epicurus341-270 BC(Epikouros)
Eratosthenes of Cyrenec. 276-c. 195 BC
Erich Fromm1900-1980
Erik Erikson1902-1994
Erving Goffman1922-1982
Esther Duflo1972-
Euclidc. 330-275 BC(Eukleides)
Évariste Galois1811-1832
Fatema Mernissi1940-2015
Ferdinand de Saussure1857-1913
Ferdinand Minding1806-1885(Ernst, Adolf)
Ferdo Šišić1869-1940
Fibonaccic. 1170-c. 1250(Leonardo)
Florimond de Beaune1601-1652
Florimond de Raemond1540-1601
Francis of Assisic. 1182-1226(Francesco)
Francis Bacon1561-1626
Franciscus Gomarus1563-1641(François)
François-Marie Arouet "Voltaire"1694-1778
Freeman Dyson1923-2020
Friedrich Engels1820-1895(Frederick)
Friedrich Hayek1899-1992(August)
Friedrich Nietzsche1844-1900
Gautama Buddhac. 563-c. 483 BC(Buddha, Siddhartha)
Geoffrey of Monmouthc. 1100-c. 1155
Geordie Williamson1981-
Georg Cantor1845-1918
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel1770-1831
Georg Simmel1858-1918
George Berkeley1685-1753
George Boole1815-1864
G. E. Moore1873-1958(George, Edward)
George Santayana1863-1952(Jorge)
Georges Dumézil1898-1986
Gerardus Mercator1512-1594
Gerolamo Cardano1501-1576
Giordano Bruno1548-1600
Giovanni Domenico Cassini1625-1712
G. H. Hardy1877-1947(Godfrey, Harold)
Gorgiasc. 485-c. 380 BC
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz1646-1716
Gottlob Frege1848-1925
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli1829-1907
Gregory of Toursc. 538-594
Grigori Perelman1966-
Guidobaldo del Monte1545-1607
Gunnar Myrdal1898-1987
Hannah Arendt1906-1975
Haskell Curry1900-1982(Brooks)
Hecataeus of Miletusc. 550-c. 476 BC(Hekataios)
Helmuth Nyborg1937-
Héloïsec. 1100-1163
Henri Bergson1859-1941
Henri Poincaré1854-1912(Jules)
Henry David Thoreau1817-1862
Heraclitus of Ephesusc. 535-c. 475 BC(Herakleitos)
Hero of Alexandria10-70(Heron)
Herodotusc. 484-425 BC
Hew Strachan1949-(Francis, Anthony)
Hipparchus of Nicaeac. 190-c. 120 BC
Hjalmar Schacht1877-1970
Hugo Grotius1583-1645
Hypatia of Alexandriac. 370-415
Ibn Khaldun1332-1406(Abdur-Rahman)
Immanuel Kant1724-1804
Isaac Newton1642-1727
Isidore of Seville560-636
Jacques Derrida1930-2004(Jackie, Élie)
Jacques Lacan1901-1981
Ja'far al-Sadiq702-765
James Gregory1638-1675
Jan Husc. 1370-1415
Jan Amos Komenský1592-1670(John)
Jan Tinbergen1903-1994
Janet Yellen1946-
Jean-François Champollion1790-1832
Jean Chauvin1509-1564(John)
Jean Piaget1896-1980
Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778
Jean-Paul Sartre1905-1980
Jean Tirole1953-
Jeremy Bentham1748-1832
Jesus Christc. 4 BC-c. 33
Johann Gottlieb Fichte1762-1814
Johann Joachim Winckelmann1717-1768
John Duns Scotusc. 1266-1308
John Dewey1859-1952
John Maynard Keynes1883-1946
John Locke1632-1704
John Stuart Mill1806-1873
John Napier1550-1617
John Forbes Nash Jr.1928-2015
John von Neumann1903-1957(János, Lajos)
Jordan Peterson1962-(Bernt)
Jordanes?-5xx
Joseph Campbell1904-1987
Joseph Fourier1768-1830
Joseph Louis Lagrange1736-1813(Giuseppe, Lodovico)
Joseph Schumpeter1883-1950
Joseph Stiglitz1943-(Eugene)
Josephus37-c. 100(Titus)
Josias Simmler1530-1576
Judith Butler1956-
Jules Michelet1798-1874
Karl Barth1886-1968
Karl Knies1821-1898(Gustav, Adolf)
Karl Marx1818-1883
Karl Popper1902-1994
Karl Verner1846-1896(Carl, Adolf, Adolph)
Katherine Johnson1918-2020(Creola)
Meng Kec. 372-c. 289 BC(Mencius)
Kenneth Arrow1921-2017(Joseph)
Kristalina Georgieva1953-
Kurt Gödel1906-1978
Lactantiusc. 250-c. 325(Lucius)
Laozi?-5xx BC(Lao-Tzu)
Leonhard Euler1707-1783
Leonid Kantorovich1912-1986
Leonida Tonelli1885-1946
Jean Le Rond d'Alembert1717-1783
Lev Vygotsky1896-1934
Livyc. 64 BC-17(Titus)
Ljudevit Gaj1809-1872(Ludwig)
Lotfi A. Zadeh1921-2017(Aliasker)
Luca Paciolic. 1447-1517
Lucius Cassius Dioc. 155-c. 235
Lucretiusc. 99-c. 55 BC(Titus)
Ludwig von Strümpell1812-1899(Adolf, Heinrich)
Ludwig Wittgenstein1889-1951
L. L. Zamenhof1859-1917(Ludwik, Lejzer)
Manetho?-2xx BC
Mani216-274
Marcus Aurelius121-180
Maria Gaetana Agnesi1718-1799
Martha Nussbaum1947-
Martin Heidegger1889-1976
Martin Luther1483-1546
Mary Wollstonecraft1759-1797
Maurice Allais1911-2010
Max Müller1823-1900(Friedrich)
Max Weber1864-1920(Maximilian)
Mazdak?-c. 524
Michel Foucault1926-1984
Milton Friedman1912-2006
Mircea Eliade1907-1986
Moses Maimonides1135-1204(Moshe)
Abu'l-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd1126-1198
Muhammad570-632
Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabic. 872-c. 950
Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali1058-1111
Muhammad al-Idrisi1099-c. 1165(Dreses)
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmic. 780-850
Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Razi865-925
Nagarjunac. 150-250
Niccolò Machiavelli1469-1527(Nicholas)
Nicholas of Cusa1401-1464
Niels Henrik Abel1802-1829
Nikolai Lobachevsky1792-1856
Nikolay Karamzin1766-1826
Noam Chomsky1928-
Norbert Elias1897-1990
Norbert Wiener1894-1964
Nouriel Roubini1958-
Omar Khayyám1048-1131(Umar)
Origen184-253(Origenes)
Oriol Junqueras i Vies1969-
Panini?-4xx BC
Parmenides of Eleac. 515-c. 450 BC
Paul Erdős1913-1996
Paul Krugman1953-
Paul Samuelson1915-2009(Anthony)
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach1723-1789(d'Holbach, Heinrich)
Pausanias110-180
Peter Wessel Zapffe1899-1990
Philip Zimbardo1933-(George)
Philoc. 20 BC-c. 50
Pierre Abélard1079-1142(Peter)
Pierre Bourdieu1930-2002
Pierre de Fermat1607-1665
Pierre-Simon Laplace1749-1827
Platoc. 427-347 BC(Platon)
Plotinusc. 205-270
Plutarchc. 46-120(Lucius)
Polybiusc. 200-c. 118 BC(Polybios)
Procopius of Caesarea500-565
Protagorasc. 490-c. 420 BC
Ptolemyc. 100-c. 168(Claudius)
Pyotr Kropotkin1842-1921(Peter)
Pyrrhoc. 360-c. 270 BC
Pythagorasc. 580-500 BC
Sima Qianc. 145-86 BC(Chien)
Ragnar Frisch1895-1973
Srinivasa Ramanujan1887-1920
Rasmus Rask1787-1832
Raymond Aron1905-1983(Claude, Ferdinand)
René Descartes1596-1650
Robert K. Merton1910-2003(King)
Rudolf Christoph Eucken1846-1926
Rudolf Steiner1861-1925(Joseph, Lorenz)
Rupert of Deutzc. 1075-1129
Ruth Bader Ginsburg1933-2020
Sallust86-c. 35 BC(Gaius)
Sandra Day O'Connor1930-2023
Seneca the Younger4 BC-65
Sigmund Freud1856-1939
Simon Kuznets1901-1985
Simone de Beauvoir1908-1986
Slavoj Žižek1949-
Socratesc. 470-399 BC(Sokrates)
Sofya Kovalevskaya1850-1891(Sofia)
Sophie Germain1776-1831
Søren Kierkegaard1813-1855
Stanley Milgram1933-1984
Stefan Banach1892-1945
Straboc. 64 BC-c. 24
Suetonius69-122(Gaius)
Svetozar Stojanović1931-2010
Tacitusc. 56-c. 117(Publius)
Talcott Parsons1902-1979
Tertullianc. 160-c. 225(Quintus)
Thalesc. 624-c. 546 BC
Theodor W. Adorno1903-1969
Theodor Mommsen1817-1903
Thomas Aquinas1225-1274(Tommaso)
Thomas Hobbes1588-1679
Thomas Kuhn1922-1996
Thomas Robert Malthus1766-1834
Thomas More1478-1535
Thucydidesc. 460-c. 395 BC(Thoukudides)
Sun Tzuc. 544-c. 496 BC(Wu)
Ulpianc. 170-223(Gnaeus)
Urbain Le Verrier1811-1877
Vahakn Dadrian1926-2019
Viktor Frankl1905-1997
Vilfredo Pareto1848-1923
Wassily Leontief1906-1999
Wilhelm Reich1897-1957
Wilhelm Wundt1832-1920
Willard Van Orman Quine1908-2000
William of Ockhamc. 1287-1347
William James1842-1910
Xenophanes of Colophonc. 570-c. 475 BC
Xenophonc. 427-c. 355 BC
Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Kindi801-873(Alkindus)
Zeno of Citiumc. 334-c. 262 BC
Zeno of Eleac. 490-c. 430 BC
Zerah Colburn1804-1839
Zoroaster?-1xxx BC(Zarathustra)