Ada f English, German, Polish, Hungarian, Italian, Finnish, Ancient Germanic
Originally a short form of Germanic names such as Adelaide
that begin with the element adal
meaning "noble". This name was borne by Augusta Ada King (1815-1852), the Countess of Lovelace (known as Ada Lovelace), a daughter of Lord Byron. She was an assistant to Charles Babbage, the inventor of an early mechanical computer.
Adelaide f English, Italian, Portuguese
Means "noble type"
, from the French form of the Germanic name Adalheidis
, which was composed of the elements adal
"noble" and heid
"kind, sort, type". It was borne in the 10th century by Saint Adelaide, the wife of the Holy Roman emperor Otto the Great. In Britain the parallel form Alice
, derived via Old French, has historically been more common, though this form did gain some currency in the 19th century due to the popularity of the German-born wife of King William IV, for whom the city of Adelaide in Australia was named in 1836.
Aelita f Literature, Russian, Latvian
Created by Russian author Aleksey Tolstoy for his science fiction novel Aelita
(1923), where it belongs to a Martian princess. In the book, the name is said to mean "starlight seen for the last time" in the Martian language.
Agnes f English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Estonian, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἁγνή (Hagne)
, derived from Greek ἁγνός (hagnos)
. Saint Agnes was a virgin martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian. The name became associated with Latin agnus "lamb"
, resulting in the saint's frequent depiction with a lamb by her side. Due to her renown, the name became common in Christian Europe.... [more]
Ahab m Biblical, Biblical Latin
, from Hebrew אָח ('ach)
meaning "brother" and אָב ('av)
meaning "father". This was the name of a king of Israel, the husband of Jezebel
, as told in the Old Testament. He was admonished by Elijah
for his sinful behaviour. Herman Melville later used this name in his novel Moby-Dick
(1851), where it belongs to a sea captain obsessively hunting for a white whale.
Aladdin m Literature
Anglicized form of Ala al-Din
. This is the name of a mischievous boy in one of the tales of The 1001 Nights
. A magician traps him in a cave, but he escapes with the help of a genie.
Albena f Bulgarian
Created by Bulgarian writer Yordan Yovkov for the heroine in his drama Albena
(1930). He may have based it on ablen
, the name of a type of peony (a flowering plant).
Alessandro m Italian
Italian form of Alexander
. A famous bearer was Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), the Italian physicist who invented the battery.
Alfred m English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Polish, Dutch
Means "elf counsel"
, derived from the Old English name Ælfræd
, composed of the elements ælf
"elf" and ræd
"counsel". Alfred the Great was a 9th-century king of Wessex who fought unceasingly against the Danes living in northeast England. He was also a scholar, and he translated many Latin books into Old English. His fame helped to ensure the usage of this name even after the Norman Conquest, when most Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. It became rare by the end of the Middle Ages, but was revived in the 18th century.... [more]
Alice f English, French, Portuguese, Italian, German, Czech, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch
From the Old French name Aalis
, a short form of Adelais
, itself a short form of the Germanic name Adalheidis
). This name became popular in France and England in the 12th century. It was among the most common names in England until the 16th century, when it began to decline. It was revived in the 19th century.... [more]
Alison f English, French
Norman French diminutive of Aalis
). It was common in England, Scotland and France in the Middle Ages, and was later revived in England in the 20th century via Scotland. Unlike most other English names ending in son
, it is not derived from a surname.
Amaia f Basque
Means "the end"
in Basque. This is the name of a character in the historical novel Amaya, or the Basques in the 8th century
(1879) by Francisco Navarro-Villoslada (Amaya
in the Spanish original; Amaia
in the Basque translation).
Amanda f English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Late Roman
In part this is a feminine form of Amandus
. However, it was not used during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century it was recreated by authors and poets who based it directly on Latin amanda
meaning "lovable, worthy of love"
. Notably, the playwright Colley Cibber used it for a character in his play Love's Last Shift
(1696). It came into regular use during the 19th century.
Amaryllis f Literature
Derived from Greek ἀμαρύσσω (amarysso)
meaning "to sparkle"
. This was the name of a heroine in Virgil
's epic poem Eclogues
. The amaryllis flower is named for her.
Amber f English, Dutch
From the English word amber
that denotes either the gemstone, which is formed from fossil resin, or the orange-yellow colour. The word ultimately derives from Arabic عنبر ('anbar)
. It began to be used as a given name in the late 19th century, but it only became popular after the release of Kathleen Winsor's novel Forever Amber
Amelia f English, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Ancient Germanic
Variant of Amalia
, though it is sometimes confused with Emilia
, which has a different origin. The name became popular in England after the German House of Hanover came to the British throne in the 18th century - it was borne by daughters of both George II and George III. The author Henry Fielding used it for the title character in his novel Amelia
(1751). Another famous bearer was Amelia Earhart (1897-1937), the first woman to make a solo flight over the Atlantic Ocean.... [more]
Aminta m Literature
Form of Amyntas
used by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso for his play Aminta
(1573). In the play Aminta is a shepherd who falls in love with a nymph.
Amiran m Georgian, Literature
Variant of Amirani
. This is the name of the central character in the medieval Georgian romance Amiran-Darejaniani
by Moses of Khoni. The author was inspired by the mythical Amirani and the stories surrounding him, and loosely based his tale on them.
Amyas m English (Rare)
Meaning unknown, perhaps a derivative of Amis
. Alternatively, it may come from a surname that originally indicated that the bearer was from the city of Amiens in France. Edmund Spenser used this name for a minor character in his epic poem The Faerie Queene
Angelica f English, Italian, Romanian
Derived from Latin angelicus
, ultimately related to Greek ἄγγελος (angelos)
meaning "messenger". The poets Boiardo and Ariosto used this name in their Orlando
poems (1483 and 1532), where it belongs to Orlando
's love interest. It has been used as a given name since the 18th century.
Anne 1 f French, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, German, Dutch, Basque
French form of Anna
. It was imported to England in the 13th century, but it did not become popular until three centuries later. The spelling variant Ann
was also commonly found from this period, and is still used to this day.... [more]
Antigone f Greek Mythology
Derived from Greek ἀντί (anti)
meaning "against, compared to, like" and γονή (gone)
meaning "birth, offspring". In Greek legend Antigone was the daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. King Creon of Thebes declared that her slain brother Polynices was to remain unburied, a great dishonour. She disobeyed and gave him a proper burial, and for this she was sealed alive in a cave.
Antonia f Italian, Spanish, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Romanian, Greek, Croatian, Bulgarian, Ancient Roman
Feminine form of Antonius
Anush f Armenian
in Armenian. This was the name of an 1890 novel by the Armenia writer Hovhannes Tumanyan. It was adapted into an opera in 1912 by Armen Tigranian.
Araminta f English (Rare)
Meaning unknown. This name was (first?) used by William Congreve in his comedy The Old Bachelor
(1693) and later by Sir John Vanbrugh in his comedy The Confederacy
(1705). This was the real name of abolitionist Harriet Tubman (1820-1913), who was born Araminta Ross.
Aramis m Literature
The surname of one of the musketeers in The Three Musketeers
(1844) by Alexandre Dumas. Dumas based the character on the 17th-century Henri d'Aramitz, whose surname was derived from the French village of Aramits (itself from Basque aran
Ardath f English
From the name of a plain that appears in the apocryphal book of 2 Esdras (verse 9:26) in some versions of the Old Testament. This place name was used by Marie Corelli for the title of an 1889 novel, which is probably the reason it gained some currency as a given name just after this time.
Ariel m & f Hebrew, English, French, Spanish, Polish, Biblical, Biblical Greek
Means "lion of God"
in Hebrew, from אֲרִי ('ari)
meaning "lion" and אֵל ('el)
meaning "God". In the Old Testament it is used as another name for the city of Jerusalem. Shakespeare used it as the name of a spirit in his play The Tempest
(1611), and one of the moons of Uranus bears this name in his honour. As an English name, it became more common for females in the 1980s, especially after it was used for the title character in the Disney film The Little Mermaid
Arlo m English
Meaning uncertain. It was perhaps inspired by the fictional place name Arlo Hill from the poem The Faerie Queene
(1590) by Edmund Spenser. Spenser probably got Arlo by altering the real Irish place name Aherlow, which is Gaelic meaning "between two highlands".
Armida f Italian, Spanish (Latin American)
Probably created by the 16th-century Italian poet Torquato Tasso for his epic poem Jerusalem Delivered
(1580). In the poem Armida is a beautiful enchantress who bewitches many of the crusaders.
Artemis f Greek Mythology, Greek
Meaning unknown, possibly related either to Greek ἀρτεμής (artemes)
or ἄρταμος (artamos)
meaning "a butcher"
. Artemis was the Greek goddess of the moon and hunting, the twin of Apollo
and the daughter of Zeus
. She was known as Diana
to the Romans.
Arwen f Literature
Means "noble maiden"
in the fictional language Sindarin. In The Lord of the Rings
(1954) by J. R. R. Tolkien, Arwen was the daughter of Elrond
and the lover of Aragorn
Arya 2 f Literature
Created by author George R. R. Martin for a popular character in his series A Song of Ice and Fire
, published beginning 1996, and the television adaptation Game of Thrones
(2011-2019). In the story Arya is the second daughter of Ned Stark, the lord of Winterfell.
Aslan m Turkish, Kazakh, Azerbaijani, Chechen, Ossetian, Circassian, Literature
From Turkic arslan
. This was a byname or title borne by several medieval Turkic rulers, including the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan (a byname meaning "brave lion") who drove the Byzantines from Anatolia in the 11th century. The author C. S. Lewis later used the name Aslan
for the main protagonist (a lion) in his Chronicles of Narnia
series of books, first appearing in 1950.
Assol f Russian (Rare), Literature
From the 1923 Russian novel Scarlet Sails
by Alexander Grin, adapted into a 1961 Soviet movie. In the story, Assol is a young girl who is told by a prophetic old man that she will one day marry a prince. The meaning of the name is not uncertain, but it has been suggested that it was inspired by the Russian question а соль (a sol)
meaning "and the salt?"
Astrophel m Literature
Probably intended to mean "star lover", from Greek ἀστήρ (aster)
meaning "star" and φίλος (philos)
meaning "lover, friend". This name was first used by the 16th-century poet Sir Philip Sidney in his collection of sonnets Astrophel and Stella
Athol m & f Scottish
From the name of a district in Scotland that was derived from Gaelic ath Fodhla "new Ireland"
Atticus m Literature, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of Greek Ἀττικός (Attikos)
meaning "from Attica"
, referring to the region surrounding Athens in Greece. This name was borne by a few notable Greeks from the Roman period (or Romans of Greek background). The author Harper Lee used the name in her novel To Kill a Mockingbird
(1960) for an Alabama lawyer who defends a black man accused of raping a white woman.
Avonlea f English (Rare)
Created by Lucy Maud Montgomery as the setting for her novel Anne of Green Gables
(1908). She may have based the name on the Arthurian island of Avalon
, though it also resembles the river name Avon
Avtandil m Georgian, Literature
Created by the Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli for his 12th-century epic The Knight in the Panther's Skin
. Rustaveli based it on Persian آفتاب (aftab)
meaning "sunshine" and دل (del)
meaning "heart". In the poem Avtandil is a knight who is sent by Tinatin
to search for the mysterious knight of the title.
Ayla 3 f Literature
Created for the novel Clan of the Cave Bear
(1980) by author Jean M. Auel. In the novel Ayla is an orphaned Cro-Magnon girl adopted by Neanderthals. Ayla
is the Neanderthal pronunciation of her real name, which is not given.
Bambi f English
Derived from Italian bambina
meaning "young girl"
. The American novelist Marjorie Benton Cooke used it in her novel Bambi
(1914). This was also the name of a male deer in a cartoon by Walt Disney, which was based on a 1923 novel by Swiss author Felix Salten.
Bayard m Literature
Derived from Old French baiart
meaning "bay coloured"
. In medieval French poetry Bayard was a bay horse owned by Renaud de Montauban and his brothers. The horse could magically adjust its size to carry multiple riders.
Beatrice f Italian, English, Swedish, Romanian
Italian form of Beatrix
. Beatrice Portinari (1266-1290) was the woman who was loved by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. She serves as Dante's guide through paradise in his epic poem the Divine Comedy
(1321). This is also the name of a character in Shakespeare's comedy Much Ado About Nothing
(1599), in which Beatrice and Benedick are fooled into confessing their love for one another.
Beau m & f English, Dutch (Modern)
in French. It has been used as a given name since the middle of the 20th century. In Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind
(1936) this is the name of Ashley and Melanie's son.... [more]
Bedivere m Welsh Mythology, Arthurian Romance
From the Welsh name Bedwyr
, which is of unknown meaning. In Arthurian legends Bedivere was one of the original companions of King Arthur
. He first appears in early Welsh tales, and his story was later expanded by Geoffrey of Monmouth in the 12th century. He is the one who throws the sword Excalibur into the lake at the request of the dying Arthur.
Belinda f English
The meaning of this name is not known for certain. The first element could be related to Italian bella
"beautiful". The second element could be Germanic lind
meaning "flexible, soft, tender" (and by extension "snake, serpent"). This name first arose in the 17th century, and was subsequently used by Alexander Pope in his poem The Rape of the Lock
Bella f English
Short form of Isabella
and other names ending in bella
. It is also associated with the Italian word bella
Belle f English
Short form of Isabella
or names ending in belle
. It is also associated with the French word belle
meaning "beautiful". A famous bearer was Belle Starr (1848-1889), an outlaw of the American west, whose real given name was Maybelle.
Belphoebe f Literature
Combination of belle
"beautiful" and the name Phoebe
. This name was first used by Edmund Spenser in his poem The Faerie Queene
Benvolio m Literature
Means "good will"
in Italian. This name was used by Shakespeare for a friend of Romeo in his play Romeo and Juliet
(1596). The character had been created earlier by the Italian writer Matteo Bandello, whose play Giuletta e Romeo
(1554) was one of Shakespeare's sources.
Beowulf m Anglo-Saxon Mythology
Possibly means "bee wolf"
(in effect equal to "bear") from Old English beo
"bee" and wulf
"wolf". Alternatively, the first element may be beadu
"battle". This is the name of the main character in the anonymous 8th-century epic poem Beowulf
. Set in Denmark, the poem tells how he slays the monster Grendel and its mother at the request of King Hroðgar
. After this Beowulf becomes the king of the Geats. The conclusion of the poem tells how Beawulf, in his old age, slays a dragon but is himself mortally wounded in the act.
Bertha f German, English, Ancient Germanic
Originally a short form of Germanic names beginning with the element beraht
meaning "bright, famous"
. It was borne by the mother of Charlemagne
in the 8th century, and it was popularized in England by the Normans. It died out as an English name after the Middle Ages, but was revived in the 19th century. The name also appears in southern Germanic legends (often spelled Perchta
) belonging to a goddess of animals and weaving.
Beryl f English
From the English word for the clear or pale green precious stone, ultimately deriving from Sanskrit. As a given name, it first came into use in the 19th century.
Beverly f & m English
From a surname that was originally derived from the name of an English city, itself meaning "beaver stream"
in Old English. It came into use as a masculine given name in the 19th century, and it became common as an American feminine name after the publication of George Barr McCutcheon's 1904 novel Beverly of Graustark
Bianca f Italian, Romanian
Italian cognate of Blanche
. Shakespeare used characters named Bianca in Taming of the Shrew
(1593) and Othello
Bilbo m Literature
This is the name of the hero of The Hobbit
(1937) by J. R. R. Tolkien. His real hobbit name is Bilba
, which is of unknown meaning, but this was altered by Tolkien in order to use the more masculine o
ending. In the novel Bilbo Baggins is recruited by the wizard Gandalf
to join the quest to retake Mount Erebor from the dragon Smaug.
Bill m English
Short form of William
. This spelling was first used in the 19th century. The change in the initial consonant may have been influenced by an earlier Irish pronunciation of the name. Famous bearers include basketball player Bill Russell (1934-), comedian Bill Cosby (1937-), American president Bill Clinton (1946-), and Microsoft founder Bill Gates (1955-).
Billy m English
Diminutive of Bill
. A notable bearer was the American outlaw Billy the Kid (1859-1881), whose real name was William H. Bonney.
Bob m English, Dutch
Short form of Robert
. It arose later than Dob
, which were medieval rhyming nicknames of Robert. It was borne by the character Bob Cratchit in Charles Dickens' novel A Christmas Carol
(1843). Other famous bearers include American folk musician Bob Dylan (1941-) and Jamaican reggae musician Bob Marley (1945-1981).
Bonnie f English
from the Scottish word bonnie
, which was itself derived from Middle French bon
"good". It has been in use as an American given name since the 19th century, and it became especially popular after the movie Gone with the Wind
(1939), in which it was the nickname of Scarlett's daughter.
Bradamante f Literature
Used by Matteo Maria Boiardo for a female knight in his epic poem Orlando Innamorato
(1483). He possibly intended it to derive from Italian brado
"wild, untamed, natural" and amante
"loving" or perhaps Latin amantis
"lover, sweetheart, mistress", referring to her love for the Saracen Ruggiero
. Bradamante also appears in Ludovico Ariosto's poem Orlando Furioso
(1532) and Handel's opera Alcina
Briana f English
Feminine form of Brian
. This name was used by Edmund Spenser in The Faerie Queene
(1590). The name was not commonly used until the 1970s, when it rapidly became popular in the United States.
Bridget f Irish, English, Irish Mythology
Anglicized form of the Irish name Brighid
meaning "exalted one"
. In Irish mythology this was the name of the goddess of fire, poetry and wisdom, the daughter of the god Dagda. In the 5th century it was borne by Saint Brigid, the founder of a monastery at Kildare and a patron saint of Ireland. Because of the saint, the name was considered sacred in Ireland, and it did not come into general use there until the 17th century. In the form Birgitta
this name has been common in Scandinavia, made popular by the 14th-century Saint Birgitta of Sweden, patron saint of Europe.
Bronte m & f English (Rare)
From a surname, an Anglicized form of Irish Ó Proinntigh
meaning "descendant of Proinnteach"
. The given name Proinnteach
meant "bestower" in Gaelic. The Brontë sisters - Charlotte, Emily, and Anne - were 19th-century English novelists. Their father changed the spelling of the family surname from Brunty
, possibly to make it coincide with Greek βροντή
Bryony f English (Rare)
From the name of a type of Eurasian vine, formerly used as medicine. It ultimately derives from Greek βρύω (bryo)
meaning "to swell".
Cameron m & f English
From a Scottish surname meaning "crooked nose"
from Gaelic cam
"crooked" and sròn
Caradog m Welsh
Welsh form of Caratacos
. This is the name of several figures in Welsh history and legend, including a 6th-century king of Gwent and a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian romance.
Caspian m Literature
Used by author C. S. Lewis for a character in his Chronicles of Narnia
series, first appearing in 1950. Prince Caspian first appears in the fourth book, where he is the rightful king of Narnia driven into exile by his evil uncle Miraz. Lewis probably based the name on the Caspian Sea, which was named for the city of Qazvin, which was itself named for the ancient Cas tribe.
Cedric m English
Invented by Sir Walter Scott for a character in his novel Ivanhoe
(1819). Apparently he based it on the actual name Cerdic
, the name of the semi-legendary founder of the kingdom of Wessex in the 6th century. The meaning of Cerdic
is uncertain, but it does not appear to be Old English in origin. It could be connected to the Brythonic name Caratacos
. The name was also used by Frances Hodgson Burnett for the main character in her novel Little Lord Fauntleroy
Celia f English, Spanish
Feminine form of the Roman family name Caelius
. Shakespeare used it in his play As You Like It
(1599), which introduced the name to the English-speaking public at large. It is sometimes used as a short form of Cecilia
Charissa f English
Elaborated form of Charis
. Edmund Spencer used it in his epic poem The Faerie Queene
Charles m English, French
From the Germanic name Karl
, which was derived from a Germanic word meaning "man"
. However, an alternative theory states that it is derived from the common Germanic name element hari
meaning "army, warrior"
Charlie m & f English
Diminutive or feminine form of Charles
. A famous bearer was the British comic actor Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977). It is also borne by Charlie Brown, the main character in the comic strip Peanuts
by Charles Schulz.
Charlotte f French, English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch
French feminine diminutive of Charles
. It was introduced to Britain in the 17th century. It was the name of a German-born 18th-century queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland. Another notable bearer was Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), the eldest of the three Brontë sisters and the author of Jane Eyre
Charmaine f English
Meaning unknown, perhaps a combination of Charmian
or the English word charm
with the aine
suffix from Lorraine
. It was (first?) used for a character in the play What Price Glory
(1924), which was made into a popular movie in 1926.
Chobin m History
From Persian چوبین (Chubin)
. Bahram Chobin was a 6th-century Sasanian general and, for a short period, the king. He received this nickname because he was tall and thin. He appears in the 10th-century Persian epic the Shahnameh
Christabel f English (Rare)
Combination of Christina
and the name suffix bel
. This name occurs in medieval literature, and was later used in 1800 by Samuel Coleridge in his poem Christabel
Christopher m English
From the Late Greek name Χριστόφορος (Christophoros)
meaning "bearing Christ"
, derived from Χριστός (Christos)
combined with φέρω (phero)
meaning "to bear, to carry". Early Christians used it as a metaphorical name, expressing that they carried Christ in their hearts. In the Middle Ages, literal interpretations of the name's etymology led to legends about a Saint Christopher who carried the young Jesus
across a river. He has come to be regarded as the patron saint of travellers.... [more]
Cinderella f Literature
Means "little ashes"
, in part from the French name Cendrillon
. This is the main character in the folk tale Cinderella
about a maltreated young woman who eventually marries a prince. This old story is best known in the English-speaking world from the French author Charles Perrault's 1697 version. She has other names in other languages, usually with the meaning "ashes", such as German Aschenputtel
and Italian Cenerentola
Clara f German, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Catalan, Romanian, English, Swedish, Danish, Late Roman
Feminine form of the Late Latin name Clarus
, which meant "clear, bright, famous"
. The name Clarus
was borne by a few early saints. The feminine form was popularized by the 13th-century Saint Clare of Assisi (called Chiara
in Italian), a friend and follower of Saint Francis, who left her wealthy family to found the order of nuns known as the Poor Clares. As an English name it has been in use since the Middle Ages, originally in the form Clare
, though the Latinate spelling Clara
became more popular in the 19th century.
Clare f English
Medieval English form of Clara
. This is also the name of an Irish county, which was itself probably derived from Irish clár
meaning "plank, level surface".
Claribel f English
Combination of Clara
and the popular name suffix bel
. This name was used by Edmund Spenser in his poem The Faerie Queene
(1590; in the form Claribell
) and by Shakespeare in his play The Tempest
(1611). Alfred Lord Tennyson also wrote a poem entitled Claribel
Clarinda f English
Combination of Clara
and the popular name suffix inda
. It was first used by Edmund Spenser in his epic poem The Faerie Queene
Clarissa f English, Italian
Latinate form of Clarice
. This was the name of the title character in a 1748 novel by Samuel Richardson. In the novel Clarissa is a virtuous woman who is tragically exploited by her family and her lover.
Cleopatra f Ancient Greek (Latinized)
From the Greek name Κλεοπάτρα (Kleopatra)
meaning "glory of the father"
, derived from κλέος (kleos)
meaning "glory" combined with πατήρ (pater)
meaning "father" (genitive πατρός
). This was the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra
(1606) tells the story of her life.
Cora f English, German, Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Latinized form of Kore
. It was not used as a given name in the English-speaking world until after it was employed by James Fenimore Cooper for a character in his novel The Last of the Mohicans
(1826). In some cases it may be a short form of Cordula
and other names beginning with a similar sound.
Coraline f Literature, French
Created by the French composer Adolphe Adam for one of the main characters in his opera Le toréador
(1849). He probably based it on the name Coralie
. It was also used by the author Neil Gaiman for the young heroine in his novel Coraline
(2002). Gaiman has stated that in this case the name began as a typo of Caroline
Cordelia f Literature, English
, a name appearing in the 12th-century chronicles of Geoffrey of Monmouth, borne by the youngest of the three daughters of King Leir
and the only one to remain loyal to her father. Geoffrey possibly based her name on that of Creiddylad, a daughter of Lludd Llaw Eraint in the early Arthurian tale Culhwch and Olwen
. This Welsh name is of uncertain meaning.... [more]
Corinna f German, Italian, English, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Κορίννα (Korinna)
, which was derived from κόρη (kore)
. This was the name of a Greek lyric poet of the 5th century BC. The Roman poet Ovid
used it for the main female character in his book Amores
. In the modern era it has been in use since the 17th century, when Robert Herrick used it in his poem Corinna's going a-Maying
Cosette f French, Literature
From French chosette
meaning "little thing"
. This is the nickname of the illegitimate daughter of Fantine in Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables
(1862). Her real name is Euphrasie
, though it is seldom used. In the novel young Cosette is the ward of the cruel Thénardiers until she is retrieved by Jean Valjean.
Csilla f Hungarian
Derived from Hungarian csillag
. This name was created by the Hungarian author András Dugonics for an 1803 novel and later used and popularized by the poet Mihály Vörösmarty.
Cuthbert m English (Rare)
Derived from the Old English elements cuþ
"famous" and beorht
"bright". Saint Cuthbert was a 6th-century hermit who became the bishop of Lindisfarne, an island off the coast of England. He was known as performer of healing miracles. Because of the saint, this name remained in use in England even after the Norman Conquest. It became rare after the Protestant Reformation, but it was (briefly) revived in the 19th century.
Cyrano m Literature
Possibly derived from the name of the ancient Greek city of Cyrene, which was located in North Africa. Edmond Rostand used this name in his play Cyrano de Bergerac
(1897). He based his character upon a real person, Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, a French satirist of the 17th century.
Cyrus m English, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
From Κῦρος (Kyros)
, the Greek form of the Persian name Kūrush
, which may mean "far sighted"
. The name is sometimes associated with Greek κύριος (kyrios)
meaning "lord". It was borne by several kings of Persia, including Cyrus the Great, who conquered Babylon. He is famous in the Old Testament for freeing the captive Jews and allowing them to return to Israel. As an English name, it first came into use among the Puritans after the Protestant Reformation.
Daenerys f Literature
Created by author George R. R. Martin for a character in his series A Song of Ice and Fire
, first published 1996, and the television adaptation Game of Thrones
(2011-2019). An explanation for the meaning of her name is not provided, though it is presumably intended to be of Valyrian origin. In the series Daenerys Targaryen is a queen of the Dothraki and a claimant to the throne of Westeros.
Daisy f English
Simply from the English word for the white flower, ultimately derived from Old English dægeseage
meaning "day eye". It was first used as a given name in the 19th century, at the same time many other plant and flower names were coined.
Damayanti f Hinduism
in Sanskrit. In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata
this is the name of a beautiful princess, the wife of Nala.
Dante m Italian
Medieval short form of Durante
. The most notable bearer of this name was Dante Alighieri, the 13th-century Italian poet who wrote the Divine Comedy
David m English, Hebrew, French, Scottish, Welsh, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Czech, Slovene, Russian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian, Biblical, Biblical Latin
From the Hebrew name דָּוִד (Dawid)
, which was derived from Hebrew דּוֹד (dod)
. David was the second and greatest of the kings of Israel, ruling in the 10th century BC. Several stories about him are told in the Old Testament, including his defeat of Goliath
, a giant Philistine. According to the New Testament, Jesus
was descended from him.... [more]
Deirdre f English, Irish, Irish Mythology
From the older Gaelic form Derdriu
, meaning unknown, possibly derived from Old Irish der
. This was the name of a tragic character in Irish legend who died of a broken heart after Conchobhar
, the king of Ulster, forced her to be his bride and killed her lover Naoise
Demelza f English (British, Rare)
From a Cornish place name meaning "fort of Maeldaf"
. It has been used as a given name since the middle of the 20th century. It was popularized in the 1970s by a character from the British television series Poldark
, which was set in Cornwall.
Despoina f Greek Mythology, Greek
Means "mistress, lady"
in Greek. In Greek mythology this was the name of the daughter of Demeter and Poseidon. She was worshipped in the Eleusinian Mysteries, which were secret rites practiced at Eleusis near Athens.
Diamond f English (Modern)
From the English word diamond
for the clear colourless precious stone, the birthstone of April. It is derived from Late Latin diamas
, from Latin adamas
, which is of Greek origin meaning "invincible, untamed".
Diana f English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Catalan, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Estonian, Lithuanian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Roman Mythology
Probably derived from an old Indo-European root meaning "heavenly, divine"
, related to dyeus
). Diana was a Roman goddess of the moon, hunting, forests, and childbirth, often identified with the Greek goddess Artemis
Doreen f English
Combination of Dora
and the name suffix een
. The name was (first?) used by novelist Edna Lyall in her novel Doreen
Dorian m English, French, Romanian
The name was first used by Oscar Wilde in his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray
(1891), which tells the story of a man whose portrait ages while he stays young. Wilde may have taken it from the name of the ancient Greek tribe the Dorians.
Dorinda f English
Combination of Dora
and the name suffix inda
. It was apparently coined by the English writers John Dryden and William D'Avenant for their play The Enchanted Island
(1667). In the play, a loose adaptation of Shakespeare's The Tempest
, Dorinda is the sister of Miranda.
Dorothea f German, Dutch, English, Late Greek
Feminine form of the Late Greek name Δωρόθεος (Dorotheos)
, which meant "gift of God"
from Greek δῶρον (doron)
meaning "gift" and θεός (theos)
meaning "god". The name Theodore
is composed of the same elements in reverse order. Dorothea was the name of two early saints, notably the 4th-century martyr Dorothea of Caesarea. It was also borne by the 14th-century Saint Dorothea of Montau, who was the patron saint of Prussia.
Dorothy f English
Usual English form of Dorothea
. It has been in use since the 16th century. The author L. Frank Baum used it for the central character, Dorothy Gale, in his fantasy novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
(1900) and several of its sequels.
Dulcinea f Literature
Derived from Spanish dulce
. This name was (first?) used by Miguel de Cervantes in his novel Don Quixote
(1605), where it belongs to the love interest of the main character, though she never actually appears in the story.
Ebenezer m Biblical
Means "stone of help"
in Hebrew. This was the name of a monument erected by Samuel
in the Old Testament. Charles Dickens used it for the miserly character Ebenezer Scrooge in his novel A Christmas Carol
Edda 2 f Icelandic, Ancient Scandinavian
Possibly from Old Norse meaning "great-grandmother"
. This was the name of two 13th-century Icelandic literary works: the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda. This is also the name of a character in the Poetic Edda, though it is unclear if her name is connected to the name of the collection.
Edith f English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch
From the Old English name Eadgyð
, derived from the elements ead
"wealth, fortune" and gyð
"war". It was popular among Anglo-Saxon royalty, being borne for example by Saint Eadgyeth;, the daughter of King Edgar the Peaceful. The name remained common after the Norman Conquest. It became rare after the 15th century, but was revived in the 19th century.
Edmund m English, German, Polish
Means "rich protection"
, from the Old English elements ead
"wealth, fortune" and mund
"protection". This was the name of two Anglo-Saxon kings of England. It was also borne by two saints, including a 9th-century king of East Anglia who, according to tradition, was shot to death with arrows after refusing to divide his Christian kingdom with an invading pagan Danish leader. This Old English name remained in use after the Norman Conquest (even being used by King Henry III for one of his sons), though it became less common after the 15th century.... [more]
Eglantine f English (Rare)
From the English word for the flower also known as sweetbrier. It is derived via Old French from Vulgar Latin *aquilentum
meaning "prickly". It was early used as a given name (in the form Eglentyne
) in Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century story The Prioress's Tale
Elaine f English, Arthurian Romance
From an Old French form of Helen
. It appears in Arthurian legend; in Thomas Malory's 15th-century compilation Le Morte d'Arthur
Elaine was the daughter of Pelleas, the lover of Lancelot
, and the mother of Galahad
. It was not commonly used as an English given name until after the appearance of Tennyson's Arthurian epic Idylls of the King
Elanor f Literature
Means "star sun"
in the fictional language Sindarin. In The Lord of the Rings
(1954) by J. R. R. Tolkien this is Sam's eldest daughter, named after a type of flower.
Eleanor f English
From the Old French form of the Occitan name Alienòr
. Among the name's earliest bearers was the influential Eleanor of Aquitaine (12th century), who was the queen of Louis VII, the king of France, and later Henry II, the king of England. She was named Aenor
after her mother, and was called by the Occitan phrase alia Aenor "the other Aenor"
in order to distinguish her from her mother. However, there appear to be examples of bearers prior to Eleanor of Aquitaine. It is not clear whether they were in fact Aenors who were retroactively recorded as having the name Eleanor, or whether there is an alternative explanation for the name's origin.... [more]
Elizabeth f English, Biblical
From Ἐλισάβετ (Elisabet)
, the Greek form of the Hebrew name אֱלִישֶׁבַע ('Elisheva')
meaning "my God is an oath"
, derived from the roots אֵל ('el)
referring to the Hebrew God and שָׁבַע (shava')
meaning "oath". The Hebrew form appears in the Old Testament where Elisheba is the wife of Aaron
, while the Greek form appears in the New Testament where Elizabeth is the mother of John
the Baptist.... [more]
Eloise f English
From the Old French name Héloïse
, which was probably from the Germanic name Helewidis
, composed of the elements heil
meaning "hale, healthy" and wid
meaning "wide". It is sometimes associated with the Greek word ἥλιος (helios)
meaning "sun" or the name Louise
, though there is not likely an etymological connection. This name was borne by the 12th-century French scholar and philosopher Héloïse. Secretly marrying the theologian Peter Abelard at a young age, she became a nun (and eventually an abbess) after Abelard was violently castrated by order of her uncle Fulbert.... [more]
Elrond m Literature
Means "star dome"
in the fictional language Sindarin. In The Lord of the Rings
(1954) by J. R. R. Tolkien, Elrond was the elven ruler of Rivendell.
Emma f English, French, Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Finnish, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Ancient Germanic
Originally a short form of Germanic names that began with the element ermen
. It was introduced to England by Emma of Normandy, who was the wife both of King Ethelred II (and by him the mother of Edward the Confessor) and later of King Canute. It was also borne by an 11th-century Austrian saint, who is sometimes called Hemma
Emmeline f English
From an Old French form of the Germanic name Amelina
, originally a diminutive of Germanic names beginning with the element amal
. The Normans introduced this name to England.
Enikő f Hungarian
Created by the Hungarian poet Mihály Vörösmarty in the 19th century. He based it on the name of the legendary mother of the Hungarian people, Enéh
, of Turkic origin meaning "young hind"
(modern Hungarian ünő
Éowyn f Literature
Means "horse joy"
in Old English. This name was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien who used Old English to represent the Rohirric language. In his novel The Lord of the Rings
(1954) Eowyn is the niece of King Theoden of Rohan. She slays the Lord of the Nazgul in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.
Eponine f Literature
Meaning unknown. Victor Hugo used this name in his novel Les Misérables
(1862) for a daughter of the Thénardiers. Her mother got her name from a romance novel.
Eric m English, Swedish, German, Spanish
Means "ever ruler"
, from the Old Norse name Eiríkr
, derived from the elements ei
"ever, always" and ríkr
"ruler, mighty". A notable bearer was Eiríkr inn Rauda (Eric the Red in English), a 10th-century navigator and explorer who discovered Greenland. This was also the name of several early kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway.... [more]
Esmeralda f Spanish, Portuguese, English, Literature
in Spanish and Portuguese. Victor Hugo used this name in his novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
(1831), in which Esmeralda is the Gypsy girl who is loved by Quasimodo. It has occasionally been used in the English-speaking world since that time.
Esperanza f Spanish
Spanish form of the Late Latin name Sperantia
, which was derived from sperare "to hope"
Estella f English
Latinate form of Estelle
. This was the name of the heroine, Estella Havisham, in Charles Dickens' novel Great Expectations
Ethel f English
Short form of names beginning with the Old English element æðel
. It was coined in the 19th century, when many Old English names were revived. It was popularized by the novels The Newcomes
(1855) by William Makepeace Thackeray and The Daisy Chain
(1856) by C. M. Yonge. A famous bearer was American actress and singer Ethel Merman (1908-1984).
Etzel m Germanic Mythology
Form of Attila
used in the medieval German saga the Nibelungenlied
. In the story Etzel is a fictional version of Attila the Hun.
Eva f Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Czech, Slovak, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Estonian, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese, Romanian, Greek, Slovene, Bulgarian, Croatian, Russian, Georgian, Old Church Slavic, Biblical Latin
Form of Eve
used in various languages. This form is used in the Latin translation of the New Testament, while Hava
is used in the Latin Old Testament. The name appears in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
(1852) belonging to the character Little Eva, whose real name is in fact Evangeline.... [more]
Evangeline f English
Means "good news"
from Greek εὖ (eu)
meaning "good" and ἄγγελμα (angelma)
meaning "news, message". It was (first?) used by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1847 epic poem Evangeline
. It also appears in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
(1852) as the full name of the character Eva.
Eve f English, Estonian, Biblical
From the Hebrew name חַוָּה (Chawwah)
, which was derived from the Hebrew word חָוָה (chawah)
meaning "to breathe"
or the related word חָיָה (chayah)
meaning "to live"
. According to the Old Testament Book of Genesis, Eve and Adam
were the first humans. God created her from one of Adam's ribs to be his companion. At the urging of a serpent she ate the forbidden fruit and shared some with Adam, causing their expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Faith f English
Simply from the English word faith
, ultimately from Latin fidere
"to trust". This was one of the virtue names adopted by the Puritans in the 17th century.
Fantine f Literature
This name was used by Victor Hugo for the mother of Cosette in his novel Les Misérables
(1862). The name was given to her by a passerby who found the young orphan on the street. Hugo may have intended it to be a derivative of the French word enfant
Fay f English
Derived from Middle English faie
, ultimately (via Old French) from Latin fata
meaning "the Fates". It appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Arthurian legends in the name of Morgan le Fay. It has been used as a given name since the 19th century. In some cases it may be used as a short form of Faith
Felicity f English
From the English word felicity
, which ultimately derives from Latin felicitas
"good luck". This was one of the virtue names adopted by the Puritans around the 17th century. It can sometimes be used as an English form of the Latin name Felicitas
. This name was revived in the late 1990s after the appearance of the television series Felicity
Fiammetta f Italian
Derived from Italian fiamma
combined with a diminutive suffix.
Finnegan m Irish, English (Modern)
From an Irish surname, an Anglicized form of Ó Fionnagáin
meaning "descendant of Fionnagán"
. The name Fionnagán
is a diminutive of Fionn
. This was the name of a character in James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake
(1939), the title of which was based on a 19th-century Irish ballad called Finnegan's Wake
Fiona f Scottish, English
Feminine form of Fionn
. This name was (first?) used by the Scottish poet James Macpherson in his poem Fingal
(1762), in which it is spelled as Fióna
Florimond m Literature, French
Possibly from Latin florens
meaning "prosperous, flourishing" combined with the Germanic element mund
meaning "protection". This is the name of the prince in some versions of the fairy tale Sleeping Beauty
Ford m English
From a surname that was derived from a place name meaning "ford"
in Old English. A famous bearer of the surname was the American industrialist Henry Ford (1863-1947).
Frankenstein m Popular Culture
From the surname Frankenstein
, used by Mary Shelley in her 1818 novel of the same name for the scientist Victor Frankenstein. The monster that Frankenstein created, which has no name in the novel, is sometimes called Frankenstein in modern speech, as if it were his given name.
Frederick m English
English form of a Germanic name meaning "peaceful ruler"
, derived from frid
"peace" and ric
"ruler, mighty". This name has long been common in continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Notables among these rulers include the 12th-century Holy Roman emperor and crusader Frederick I Barbarossa, the 13th-century emperor and patron of the arts Frederick II, and the 18th-century Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great.... [more]
Frodo m Literature
Derived from Old English froda
. This is the name of the hobbit hero in The Lord of the Rings
(1954) by J. R. R. Tolkien, who used Old English to translate some hobbit names (Frodo's true hobbit-language name is Maura
). In the novel Frodo Baggins is the bearer of the One Ring on the quest to destroy it in Mount Doom.
Gabriel m French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Catalan, English, Romanian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Georgian, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
From the Hebrew name גַבְרִיאֵל (Gavri'el)
meaning "God is my strong man"
, derived from גֶּבֶר (gever)
meaning "strong man, hero" and אֵל ('el)
meaning "God". Gabriel is an archangel in Hebrew tradition, often appearing as a messenger of God. In the Old Testament he is sent to interpret the visions of the prophet Daniel
, while in the New Testament he serves as the announcer of the births of John
. According to Islamic tradition he was the angel who dictated the Quran to Muhammad
Gage m English (Modern)
From an English surname of Old French origin meaning either "measure", originally denoting one who was an assayer, or "pledge", referring to a moneylender. It was popularized as a given name by a character from the book Pet Sematary
(1983) and the subsequent movie adaptation (1989).
Galadriel f Literature
Means "maiden crowned with a radiant garland"
in the fictional language Sindarin. Galadriel was a Noldorin elf princess renowned for her beauty and wisdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels. The elements are galad
"radiant" and riel
"garlanded maiden". Alatáriel
is the Quenya form of her name.
Galahad m Arthurian Romance
Meaning unknown. In Arthurian legend Sir Galahad was the son of Lancelot
. He was the most pure of the Knights of the Round Table, and he was the only one to succeed in finding the Holy Grail. He first appears in the medieval French Lancelot-Grail
Gandalf m Norse Mythology, Literature
Means "wand elf"
in Old Norse, from the elements gandr
"wand, staff, magic, monster" and alfr
"elf". This name belongs to a dwarf (Gandálfr) in the Völuspá
, a 13th-century Scandinavian manuscript that forms part of the Poetic Edda. The author J. R. R. Tolkien borrowed the name for a wizard in his novels The Hobbit
(1937) and The Lord of the Rings
Gareth m Welsh, English (British), Arthurian Romance
Meaning uncertain. It first appears in this form in Thomas Malory's 15th-century compilation of Arthurian legends Le Morte d'Arthur
, in which Gareth was a Knight of the Round Table, the brother of Sir Gawain
. Malory based the name on Gahariet
, which was the name of a similar Arthurian character in French sources. It may ultimately have a Welsh origin, possibly related to gwaredd
Gawain m Welsh, Arthurian Romance
Meaning uncertain, from the Latin form Walganus
used by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth. This was the name of a nephew of King Arthur
and one of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. He can be identified with the earlier Welsh hero Gwalchmei, and it is likely that the name derives from Gwalchmei
. Alternatively it may have a different Celtic or even a Germanic origin. Gawain was a popular hero in medieval stories such as the 14th-century romantic poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
George m English, Romanian
From the Greek name Γεώργιος (Georgios)
, which was derived from the Greek word γεωργός (georgos)
meaning "farmer, earthworker"
, itself derived from the elements γῆ (ge)
meaning "earth" and ἔργον (ergon)
meaning "work". Saint George was a 3rd-century Roman soldier from Palestine who was martyred during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. Later legends describe his defeat of a dragon, with which he was often depicted in medieval art.... [more]
Gerald m English, German, Dutch
From a Germanic name meaning "rule of the spear"
, from the elements ger
meaning "spear" and wald
meaning "rule". The Normans brought this name to Britain. Though it died out in England during the Middle Ages, it remained common in Ireland. It was revived in the English-speaking world in 19th century.
Geronimo m History
, a Spanish form of Hieronymos
). This is the better-known name of the Apache leader Goyathlay
(1829-1909). It was given to him by the Mexicans, his enemies.
Gertrude f English, Dutch, French
Means "spear of strength"
, derived from the Germanic elements ger
"spear" and thrud
"strength". Saint Gertrude the Great was a 13th-century nun and mystic writer. It was probably introduced to England by settlers from the Low Countries in the 15th century. Shakespeare used the name in his play Hamlet
(1600) for the mother of the title character. Another famous bearer was the American writer Gertrude Stein (1874-1946).
Gilbert m English, French, Dutch, German, Ancient Germanic
Means "bright pledge"
, derived from the Germanic elements gisil
"pledge, hostage" and beraht
"bright". The Normans introduced this name to England, where it was common during the Middle Ages. It was borne by a 12th-century English saint, the founder of the religious order known as the Gilbertines.
Gilgamesh m Sumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Possibly means "the ancestor is a hero"
, from Sumerian 𒉋𒂵 (bilga)
meaning "ancestor" and 𒈩 (mes)
meaning "hero, young man". This was the name of a Sumerian hero, later appearing in the Akkadian poem the Epic of Gilgamesh
. Gilgamesh, with his friend Enkidu, battled the giant Humbaba and stopped the rampage of the Bull of Heaven, besides other adventures. Gilgamesh was probably based on a real person: a king of Uruk who ruled around the 27th century BC.
Glinda f Literature
Created by author L. Frank Baum for his character Glinda the Good Witch, a kind sorceress in his Oz
series of books beginning in 1900. It is not known what inspired the name.
Gloria f English, Spanish, Italian, German
, from the Portuguese and Spanish titles of the Virgin Mary Maria da Glória
and María de Gloria
. Maria da Glória (1819-1853) was the daughter of the Brazilian emperor Pedro I, eventually becoming queen of Portugal as Maria II.... [more]
Gloriana f English (Rare)
Elaborated form of Latin gloria
. In Edmund Spenser's poem The Faerie Queene
(1590) this was the name of the title character, a representation of Queen Elizabeth I.
Gordan m Serbian, Croatian
Derived from South Slavic gord
. This name and the feminine form Gordana were popularized by the publication of Croatian author Marija Jurić Zagorka's novel Gordana
Grażyna f Polish
in Lithuanian. This name was created by Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz for his poem Grażyna
Gregor m German, Scottish, Slovak, Slovene
German, Scottish, Slovak and Slovene form of Gregorius
). A famous bearer was Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), a Czech monk and scientist who did experiments in genetics.
Griselda f English, Spanish, Literature
Possibly derived from the Germanic elements gris
"grey" and hild
"battle". It is not attested as a Germanic name. This was the name of a patient wife in medieval tales by Boccaccio and Chaucer.
Guinevere f Arthurian Romance
From the Norman French form of the Welsh name Gwenhwyfar
meaning "white phantom"
, ultimately from the Old Celtic roots *windos
meaning "fair, white, blessed" (modern Welsh gwen
) and *sebros
meaning "phantom, magical being". In Arthurian legend she was the beautiful wife of King Arthur
. According to the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, she was seduced by Mordred
before the battle of Camlann, which led to the deaths of both Mordred and Arthur. According to the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes, she engaged in an adulterous affair with Sir Lancelot
Gwalchmei m Welsh Mythology
Derived from Welsh gwalch
"hawk", possibly combined with mei
"May (the month)". This is the name of a character in Welsh legend. He is probably the antecedent of Gawain
from Arthurian romance.
Gwendolen f Welsh
Means "white ring"
, derived from the Welsh elements gwen
meaning "white, fair, blessed" and dolen
meaning "ring, loop". This was the name of a mythical queen of the Britons who defeated her husband in battle, as told by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Gyneth f Literature
Perhaps a variant of Gwyneth
. Sir Walter Scott used this name for the daughter of King Arthur
in his work The Bridal of Triermain
Haidee f Literature
Perhaps intended to derive from Greek αἰδοῖος (aidoios)
meaning "modest, reverent"
. This name was created by Lord Byron for a character (written as Haidée
) in his 1819 poem Don Juan
Hamlet m Literature, Armenian
Anglicized form of the Danish name Amleth
. Shakespeare used this name for the Prince of Denmark in his play Hamlet
(1600), which he based upon earlier Danish tales.
Harold m English
From the Old English name Hereweald
, derived from the elements here
"army" and weald
"power, leader, ruler". The Old Norse cognate Haraldr
was also common among Scandinavian settlers in England. This was the name of five kings of Norway and three kings of Denmark. It was also borne by two kings of England, both of whom were from mixed Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon backgrounds, including Harold II who lost the Battle of Hastings (and was killed in it), which led to the Norman Conquest. After the conquest the name died out, but it was eventually revived in the 19th century.
Harper f & m English
From an Old English surname that originally belonged to a person who played the harp or who made harps. A notable bearer was the American author Harper Lee (1926-2016), who wrote To Kill a Mockingbird
Haydée f Spanish, French (Rare)
Spanish and French form of Haidee
, from Lord Byron's Don Juan
(1819). It was later used by Alexander Dumas for a character in The Count of Monte Cristo
Hector m English, French, Greek Mythology (Latinized), Arthurian Romance
Latinized form of Greek Ἕκτωρ (Hektor)
, which was derived from ἕκτωρ (hektor)
meaning "holding fast"
, ultimately from ἔχω (echo)
meaning "to hold, to possess". In Greek legend Hector was one of the Trojan champions who fought against the Greeks. After he killed Achilles
' friend Patroclus
in battle, he was himself brutally slain by Achilles, who proceeded to tie his dead body to a chariot and drag it about. This name also appears in Arthurian legends where it belongs to King Arthur
's foster father.... [more]
Heidi f German, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, English
German diminutive of Adelheid
. This is the name of the title character in the children's novel Heidi
(1880) by the Swiss author Johanna Spyri. The name began to be used in the English-speaking world shortly after the 1937 release of the movie adaptation, which starred Shirley Temple.
Hermia f Literature
Feminine form of Hermes
. Shakespeare used this name in his comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream
Hester f English, Biblical Latin
Latin form of Esther
. Like Esther
, it has been used in England since the Protestant Reformation. Nathaniel Hawthorne used it for the heroine of his novel The Scarlet Letter
(1850), Hester Prynne, a Puritan woman forced to wear a red letter A
on her chest after giving birth to a child out of wedlock.
Hiawatha m History, Indigenous American, Iroquois
From the Iroquoian name Haio-went-ha
meaning "he who combs"
. This was the name of a Mohawk or Onondaga leader who founded the Iroquois Confederacy, possibly in the 15th century. He was later the subject of a fictionalized 1855 poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
Holden m English (Modern)
From a surname that was originally derived from a place name meaning "deep valley"
in Old English. This is the name of the main character in J. D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye
(1951), Holden Caufield.
Holly f English
From the English word for the holly tree, ultimately derived from Old English holen
Hroðgar m Anglo-Saxon
Old English cognate of Hrodger
). The name became unused after the Normans introduced Hrodger
after their invasion. In the Old English poem Beowulf
this is the name of the Danish king.
Ichabod m Biblical
Means "no glory"
in Hebrew. In the Old Testament he is the grandson of Eli
and the son of Phinehas
. This name was also used by Washington Irving for Ichabod Crane, the main character in his short story The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
Ida f English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, Slovak, Slovene, Ancient Germanic
Derived from the Germanic element id
meaning "work, labour"
. The Normans brought this name to England, though it eventually died out there in the Middle Ages. It was strongly revived in the 19th century, in part due to the heroine in Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem The Princess
(1847), which was later adapted into the play Princess Ida
(1884) by Gilbert and Sullivan.... [more]
Igraine f Arthurian Romance
Meaning unknown, from Igerna
, the Latinized form of Welsh Eigyr
. In Arthurian legend she is the mother of King Arthur
by Uther Pendragon and the mother of Morgan
le Fay by Gorlois. The Welsh form Eigyr
was rendered into Latin as Igerna
by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Imogen f English (British)
The name of a princess in the play Cymbeline
(1609) by Shakespeare. He based her on a legendary character named Innogen
, but the name was printed incorrectly and never corrected. The name Innogen
is probably derived from Gaelic inghean
. As a given name it is chiefly British and Australian.
India f English
From the name of the country, which is itself derived from the name of the Indus River. The river's name is ultimately from Sanskrit सिन्धु (Sindhu)
meaning "body of trembling water, river".
Iracema f Indigenous American, Tupi
Means "honey lips"
in Tupi. This is the name of an 1865 novel by José de Alencar, about the relationship between a Tupi woman and a Portuguese man during the early colonial period. Alencar may have constructed the name so that it would be an anagram of America
Isabella f Italian, German, English, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, Dutch, Romanian
Latinate form of Isabel
. This name was borne by many medieval royals, including queen consorts of England, France, Portugal, the Holy Roman Empire and Hungary, as well as the powerful ruling queen Isabella of Castile (properly called Isabel
Isagani m Filipino, Tagalog
Possibly from Tagalog masaganang ani
meaning "bountiful harvest"
. This is the name of a character in the novel El Filibusterismo
(1891) by José Rizal.
Isolde f English (Rare), German, Arthurian Romance
The origins of this name are uncertain, though some Celtic roots have been suggested. It is possible that the name is ultimately Germanic, perhaps from a hypothetic name like Ishild
, composed of the elements is
"ice, iron" and hild
Jacob m English, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Jewish, Biblical
From the Latin Iacob
, which was from the Greek Ἰακώβ (Iakob)
, which was from the Hebrew name יַעֲקֹב (Ya'aqov)
. In the Old Testament Jacob (later called Israel
) is the son of Isaac
and the father of the twelve founders of the twelve tribes of Israel. He was born holding his twin brother Esau
's heel, and his name is explained as meaning "holder of the heel"
, because he twice deprived his brother of his rights as the firstborn son (see Genesis 27:36
). Other theories claim that it is in fact derived from a hypothetical name like יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el)
meaning "may God protect"
Jade f & m English, French
From the name of the precious stone that is often used in carvings. It is derived from Spanish (piedra de la) ijada
meaning "(stone of the) flank", relating to the belief that jade could cure renal colic. As a given name, it came into general use during the 1970s. It was initially unisex, though it is now mostly feminine.
Jaime 2 f English
Variant of Jamie
. The character Jaime Sommers from the television series The Bionic Woman
(1976-1978) helped to popularize the name. It can sometimes be given in reference to the French phrase j'aime
meaning "I love", though it is pronounced differently.
Jane f English
Medieval English form of Jehanne
, an Old French feminine form of Iohannes
). This became the most common feminine form of John
in the 17th century, surpassing Joan
. In the first half of the 20th century Joan
once again overtook Jane
for a few decades in both the United States and the United Kingdom.... [more]
Janice f English
Elaborated form of Jane
, created by Paul Leicester Ford for his novel Janice Meredith
Jared m English, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יָרֶד (Yared)
or יֶרֶד (Yered)
. This is the name of a close descendant of Adam
in the Old Testament. It has been used as an English name since the Protestant Reformation, and it was popularized in the 1960s by the character Jarrod Barkley on the television series The Big Valley
Jay 1 m English
Short form of names beginning with the sound J
, such as James
. It was originally used in America in honour of founding father John Jay (1749-1825), whose surname was derived from the jaybird.
Jeb m English
Sometimes a diminutive of Jacob
. This name may have also resulted from a nickname of James Ewell Brown Stuart (1833-1864), a Confederate general in the American Civil War, which was formed from the initial letters of his three given names.
Jesse m English, Dutch, Finnish, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יִשַׁי (Yishai)
, which possibly means "gift"
. In the Old Testament Jesse is the father of King David
. It began to be used as an English given name after the Protestant Reformation. A famous bearer was Jesse James (1847-1882), an American outlaw who held up banks and stagecoaches. He was eventually shot by a fellow gang member for a reward. Another famous bearer was the American athlete Jesse Owens (1913-1980), whose real name was James Cleveland (or J. C.) Owens.
Jody f & m English
Probably either a variant of Judy
or a diminutive of Joseph
. It was popularized by the young hero in Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' novel The Yearling
(1938) and the subsequent film adaptation (1946).
Joe m English
Short form of Joseph
. Five famous sports figures who have had this name are boxers Joe Louis (1914-1981) and Joe Frazier (1944-), baseball player Joe DiMaggio (1914-1999), and football quarterbacks Joe Namath (1943-) and Joe Montana (1956-).
John m English, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Biblical
English form of Iohannes
, the Latin form of the Greek name Ἰωάννης (Ioannes)
, itself derived from the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan)
meaning "Yahweh is gracious"
, from the roots יוֹ (yo)
referring to the Hebrew God and חָנַן (chanan)
meaning "to be gracious". The Hebrew form occurs in the Old Testament (spelled Johanan
in the English version), but this name owes its popularity to two New Testament characters, both highly revered saints. The first is John the Baptist, a Jewish ascetic who is considered the forerunner of Jesus
. He baptized Jesus and was later executed by Herod
Antipas. The second is the apostle John, who is traditionally regarded as the author of the fourth gospel and Revelation. With the apostles Peter
(his brother), he was part of the inner circle of Jesus.... [more]
Jolánka f Hungarian (Rare)
Created by the Hungarian writer András Dugonics for the main character in his novel Jólánka, Etelkának Leánya
(1803). He may have based it on Hungarian jóleán
meaning "good girl" or possibly on the name Yolanda
Jolyon m English (Rare)
Medieval form of Julian
. The author John Galsworthy used it for a character in his Forsyte Saga
novels (published between 1906 and 1922).
Jonathan m English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹנָתָן (Yehonatan)
, contracted to יוֹנָתָן (Yonatan)
, meaning "Yahweh has given"
, derived from the roots יְהוֹ (yeho)
referring to the Hebrew God and נָתַן (natan)
meaning "to give". According to the Old Testament, Jonathan was the eldest son of Saul
. His relationship with his father was strained due to his close friendship with his father's rival David
. Along with Saul he was killed in battle with the Philistines.... [more]
Judy f English
Diminutive of Judith
. A well-known bearer of this name was the American singer and actress Judy Garland (1922-1969).
Julia f English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Estonian, Russian, Ukrainian, Ancient Roman, Biblical
Feminine form of the Roman family name Julius
. Among the notable women from this family were Julia Augusta (also known as Livia Drusilla), the wife of Emperor Augustus, and Julia the Elder, the daughter of Augustus and the wife of Tiberius. A person by this name has a brief mention in the New Testament. It was also borne by a few early saints and martyrs, including the patron saint of Corsica. Additionally, Shakespeare used it in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Justine f French, English
French form of Iustina
). This is the name of the heroine in the novel Justine
(1791) by the Marquis de Sade.
Kate f English, Croatian
Diminutive of Katherine
, often used independently. It has been used in England since the Middle Ages. This was the name of the woman who Petruchio marries and tries to tame in Shakespeare's comedy Taming of the Shrew
(1593). A famous bearer is the British actress Kate Winslet (1975-).
Katniss f Literature
From the English word katniss
, the name of a variety of edible aquatic flowering plants (genus Sagittaria). Katniss Everdeen is the protagonist of The Hunger Games
series of novels by Suzanne Collins, released 2008 to 2010, about a young woman forced to participate in a violent televised battle.
Kenneth m Scottish, English, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
Anglicized form of both Coinneach
. This name was borne by the Scottish king Kenneth (Cináed) mac Alpin, who united the Scots and Picts in the 9th century. It was popularized outside of Scotland by Sir Walter Scott, who used it for the hero in his 1825 novel The Talisman
. A famous bearer was the British novelist Kenneth Grahame (1859-1932), who wrote The Wind in the Willows
Kevin m English, Irish, French (Modern), Spanish (Modern), German (Modern), Dutch (Modern), Swedish (Modern), Norwegian (Modern), Danish (Modern)
Anglicized form of the Irish name Caoimhín
meaning "handsome birth"
, derived from the older Cóemgein
, composed of the Old Irish elements cóem
"kind, gentle, handsome" and gein
"birth". Saint Caoimhín established a monastery in Glendalough, Ireland in the 6th century and is the patron saint of Dublin. It became popular in the English-speaking world outside of Ireland in the middle of the 20th century, and elsewhere in Europe in the late 20th century.
Khaleesi f Literature
From a title used in the George R. R. Martin book series A Song of Ice and Fire
(first published 1996) and the television adaptation Game of Thrones
(2011-2019). It is a feminine form of the Dothraki title khal
meaning "warlord". In the series Daenerys
Targaryen gains this title after she marries Khal Drogo.
Kim 1 f & m English
At the present it is usually considered a short form of Kimberly
, but it in fact predates it as a given name. The author Rudyard Kipling used it for the title hero of his novel Kim
(1901), though in this case it was short for Kimball
. In her novel Show Boat
(1926) Edna Ferber used it for a female character who was born on the Mississippi River and was named from the initials of the states Kentucky, Illinois and Mississippi. The name was popularized in America by the actresses Kim Hunter (1922-2002) and Kim Novak (1933-), both of whom assumed it as a stage name.
Lalage f Literature
Derived from Greek λαλαγέω (lalageo)
meaning "to babble, to prattle"
. The Roman poet Horace used this name in one of his odes.
Lancelot m Arthurian Romance
Meaning unknown, possibly an Old French diminutive of Lanzo
). In Arthurian legend Lancelot was the bravest of the Knights of the Round Table. He became the lover of Arthur
's wife Guinevere
, ultimately causing the destruction of Arthur's kingdom. His earliest appearance is in the works of the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes.
Lara 1 f Russian, English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian
Russian short form of Larisa
. It was introduced to the English-speaking world by a character from Boris Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago
(1957) and the subsequent movie adaptation (1965).
Lassie f Literature
From a diminutive of the northern English word lass
meaning "young girl"
, a word probably of Norse origin. This name was used by the author Eric Knight for a collie dog in his novel Lassie Come-Home
(1940), later adapted into a popular film and television series.
Laura f English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Catalan, Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Polish, Slovene, Croatian, Czech, Slovak, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Lithuanian, Latvian, Late Roman
Feminine form of the Late Latin name Laurus
, which meant "laurel"
. This meaning was favourable, since in ancient Rome the leaves of laurel trees were used to create victors' garlands. The name was borne by the 9th-century Spanish martyr Saint Laura, who was a nun thrown into a vat of molten lead by the Moors. It was also the name of the subject of poems by the 14th-century Italian poet Petrarch.... [more]
Lavinia f Roman Mythology, Romanian
Meaning unknown, probably of Etruscan origin. In Roman legend Lavinia was the daughter of King Latinus, the wife of Aeneas
, and the ancestor of the Roman people. According to the legend Aeneas named the town of Lavinium in honour of his wife.
Layla f Arabic, English
in Arabic. Layla was the love interest of the poet Qays
(called Majnun) in an old Arab tale, notably retold by the 12th-century Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi in his poem Layla and Majnun
. This story was a popular romance in medieval Arabia and Persia. The name became used in the English-speaking world after the 1970 release of the song Layla
by Derek and the Dominos, the title of which was inspired by the medieval story.
Legolas m Literature
Means "green leaves"
in the fictional language Sindarin, from laeg
"green" combined with go-lass
"collection of leaves". In The Lord of the Rings
(1954) by J. R. R. Tolkien, Legolas is the son of the elf lord Thranduil and a member of the Fellowship of the Ring.
Leida f Estonian
Meaning unknown. It was popularized by a character in Estonian writer Andres Saal's historical stories Vambola
(1889) and Aita
(1891). Saal associated it with Estonian leidma
Leili f Estonian
Probably from Laila 2
, but also associated with Estonian leil
meaning "vapour, steam"
. It became popular due to Andres Saal's novel Leili
Lemuel m Biblical, Mormon, Biblical Hebrew
Means "for God"
in Hebrew. This was the name of a king briefly mentioned in Proverbs in the Old Testament. In the Book of Mormon it is the name of a son of Lehi and Sariah. It is also borne by the hero of Jonathan Swift's novel Gulliver's Travels
Lenore f English
Short form of Eleanor
. This was the name of the departed love of the narrator in Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven
Leopold m German, Dutch, English, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Polish
Derived from the Germanic elements leud
"people" and bald
"bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo
"lion". This name was common among German royalty, first with the Babenbergs and then the Habsburgs. Saint Leopold was a 12th-century Babenberg margrave of Austria, who is now considered the patron of that country. It was also borne by two Habsburg Holy Roman emperors, as well as three kings of Belgium. Since the 19th century this name has been occasionally used in England, originally in honour of Queen Victoria's uncle, a king of Belgium, after whom she named one of her sons. It was later used by James Joyce for the main character, Leopold Bloom, in his novel Ulysses
Lestat m Literature
Name used by author Anne Rice for a character in her Vampire Chronicles
series of novels, first released in 1976, where it belongs to the French vampire Lestat de Lioncourt. Rice possibly intended the name to appear derived from Old French or Occitan l'estat "state, status"
, though apparently her husband's name Stan
Ligeia f Greek Mythology, Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek λιγύς (ligys)
meaning "clear-voiced, shrill, whistling"
. This was the name of one of the Sirens in Greek legend. It was also used by Edgar Allan Poe in his story Ligeia
Loredana f Italian, Romanian
Used by the French author George Sand for a character in her novel Mattea
(1833) and later by the Italian author Luciano Zuccoli in his novel L'amore de Loredana
(1908). It was possibly based on the Venetian surname Loredan
, which was derived from the place name Loreo