ABIJAH m & f Biblical
Means "my father is YAHWEH"
in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of several characters, both male and female, including the second king of Judah (also known as Abijam
ADRASTOS m Greek Mythology
Means "not inclined to run away"
in Greek. This was the name of a king of Argos in Greek legend.
ÆÐELRÆD m Anglo-Saxon
Derived from the Old English elements æðel
"noble" and ræd
"counsel". This was the name of two Saxon kings of England including Æðelræd II "the Unready" whose realm was overrun by the Danes in the early 11th century. The name was rarely used after the Norman Conquest.
ÆÐELRIC m Anglo-Saxon
Derived from the Old English elements æðel
"noble" and ric
"ruler". This was the name of several early Anglo-Saxon kings.
ÆÐELSTAN m Anglo-Saxon
Derived from the Old English elements æðel
"noble" and stan
"stone". This was the name of a 10th-century English king, the first to rule all of England. The name was rarely used after the Norman Conquest, though it enjoyed a modest revival (as Athelstan
) in the 19th century.
AGILULF m Ancient Germanic
Germanic name derived from the elements agil
"edge (of a sword), blade" and wulf
"wolf". This name was borne by a 6th-century king of the Lombards and by an 8th-century bishop of Cologne and saint.
AGRIPPA m & f Ancient Roman, Biblical
Roman cognomen of unknown meaning, possibly from a combination of Greek ἄγριος (agrios)
meaning "wild" and ἵππος (hippos)
meaning "horse" or alternatively of Etruscan origin. It was also used as a praenomen, or given name, by the Furia and Menenia families. In the New Testament this name was borne by Herod Agrippa (a grandson of Herod the Great), the king of Israel who put the apostle James to death. It was also borne by the 1st-century BC Roman general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
AHAB m Biblical, Biblical Latin
, from Hebrew אָח ('ach)
meaning "brother" and אָב ('av)
meaning "father". This was the name of a king of Israel, the husband of Jezebel
, as told in the Old Testament. He was admonished by Elijah
for his sinful behaviour. Herman Melville later used this name in his novel Moby-Dick
(1851), where it belongs to a sea captain obsessively hunting for a white whale.
ALARIC m Ancient Germanic
From the Gothic name Alareiks
, which meant "ruler of all"
, derived from the Germanic element ala
"all" combined with ric
"ruler". This was the name of a king of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in the 5th century.
ALBERICH m Ancient Germanic, Germanic Mythology
Derived from the Germanic elements alf
"elf" and ric
"ruler, mighty". Alberich was the name of the sorcerer king of the dwarfs in Germanic mythology. He also appears in the Nibelungenlied
as a dwarf who guards the treasure of the Nibelungen.
ALBERT m English, French, Catalan, German, Polish, Russian, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Romanian, Hungarian, Ancient Germanic
From the Germanic name Adalbert
meaning "noble and bright"
, composed of the elements adal
"noble" and beraht
"bright". This name was common among medieval German royalty. The Normans introduced it to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Æðelberht
. Though it became rare in England by the 17th century, it was repopularized in the 19th century by the German-born Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria.... [more]
ALEXANDER m English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Hungarian, Slovak, Biblical, Ancient Greek (Latinized), Greek Mythology (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros)
, which meant "defending men"
from Greek ἀλέξω (alexo)
meaning "to defend, help" and ἀνήρ (aner)
meaning "man" (genitive ἀνδρός
). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris
, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, king of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.... [more]
ALF (1) m Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Norse Mythology
Derived from Old Norse alfr
. In Norse legend this was the name of king, the suitor of a reluctant maiden named Alfhild. She avoided marrying him by disguising herself as a warrior, but when they fought she was so impressed by his strength that she changed her mind.
ALFRED m English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Polish, Dutch
Means "elf counsel"
, derived from the Old English name Ælfræd
, composed of the elements ælf
"elf" and ræd
"counsel". Alfred the Great was a 9th-century king of Wessex who fought unceasingly against the Danes living in northeast England. He was also a scholar, and he translated many Latin books into Old English. His fame helped to ensure the usage of this name even after the Norman Conquest, when most Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. It became rare by the end of the Middle Ages, but was revived in the 18th century.... [more]
ALPIN m Scottish
Anglicized form of the Gaelic name Ailpein
, possibly derived from a Pictish word meaning "white"
. This was the name of two kings of Dál Riata and two kings of the Picts in the 8th and 9th centuries.
AMALRIC m Ancient Germanic
Germanic name derived from the elements amal
meaning "work, labour" and ric
meaning "ruler, mighty". This was the name of a 6th-century king of the Visigoths, as well as two 12th-century rulers of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
AMULIUS m Roman Mythology
Meaning unknown. In Roman mythology Amulius overthrew his brother Numitor, king of Alba Longa, but was eventually deposed by Numitor's grandsons Romulus
ANDREW m English, Biblical
English form of the Greek name Ἀνδρέας (Andreas)
, which was derived from ἀνδρεῖος (andreios)
meaning "manly, masculine"
, a derivative of ἀνήρ (aner)
meaning "man". In the New Testament the apostle Andrew, the first disciple to join Jesus
, is the brother of Simon Peter
. According to tradition, he later preached in the Black Sea region, with some legends saying he was crucified on an X-shaped cross. Andrew
, being a Greek name, was probably only a nickname or a translation of his real Hebrew name, which is not known.... [more]
ANTHONY m English
English form of the Roman family name Antonius
, which is of unknown Etruscan origin. The most notable member of the Roman family was the general Marcus Antonius (called Mark Antony in English), who for a period in the 1st century BC ruled the Roman Empire jointly with Augustus. When their relationship turned sour, he and his mistress Cleopatra were attacked and forced to commit suicide, as related in Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra
ANTIOCHUS m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
From the Greek name Ἀντίοχος (Antiochos)
, derived from Greek ἀντί (anti)
meaning "against, compared to, like" and ὀχή (oche)
meaning "support". This was the name of several rulers of the Seleucid Empire. It was also borne by a 2nd-century Christian martyr, the patron saint of Sardinia.
AODH m Irish, Scottish, Irish Mythology
From the old Irish name Áed
, which meant "fire"
. This was a very popular name in early Ireland, being borne by numerous figures in Irish mythology and several high kings. It has been traditionally Anglicized as Hugh
AONGHUS m Irish, Scottish, Irish Mythology
Possibly meaning "one strength"
derived from Irish óen
"one" and gus
"force, strength, energy". Aonghus (sometimes surnamed Mac Og
meaning "young son") was the Irish god of love and youth. The name was also borne by an 8th-century Pictish king and several Irish kings.
ARA m Armenian, Armenian Mythology
Meaning unknown, possibly of Sumerian origin. In Armenian legend this was the name of an Armenian king who was so handsome that the Assyrian queen Semiramis went to war to capture him. During the war Ara was slain.
ARAGORN m Literature
Meaning unexplained, though the first element is presumably Sindarin ara
"noble, kingly". This is the name of a character in The Lord of the Rings
(1954) by J. R. R. Tolkien. In the book Aragorn is the heir of the Dúnedain kings of the north.
ATHANARIC m Ancient Germanic
From the Gothic name Athanareiks
, derived from the Germanic element athana
meaning "year" combined with ric
meaning "ruler, mighty". Athanaric was a 4th-century ruler of the Visigoths.
AUGUSTUS m Ancient Roman, Dutch
Means "exalted, venerable"
, derived from Latin augere
meaning "to increase". Augustus was the title given to Octavian
, the first Roman emperor. He was the adopted son of Julius Caesar who rose to power through a combination of military skill and political prowess. In 26 BC the senate officially gave him the name Augustus
, and after his death it was used as a title for subsequent emperors. This was also the name of three kings of Poland (August
AURELIUS m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was derived from Latin aureus
meaning "golden, gilded"
. Marcus Aurelius was a 2nd-century Roman emperor and philosophical writer. This was also the name of several early saints.
BALDWIN m English, Ancient Germanic
Means "bold friend"
, derived from the Germanic elements bald
"bold, brave" and win
"friend". In the Middle Ages this was a popular name in Flanders and among the Normans, who brought it to Britain. It was borne by one of the leaders of the First Crusade, an 11th-century nobleman from Flanders. After the crusaders conquered Jerusalem, he was crowned as the king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
BÅRD m Norwegian
Norwegian form of the Old Norse name Bárðr
, which was derived from the elements baðu
"battle" and friðr
BÉLA m Hungarian
The meaning of this name is not known for certain. It could be derived from Hungarian bél
meaning "guts, bowel" or Slavic бѣлъ (belu)
meaning "white". This was the name of four Hungarian kings.
BERENGAR m Ancient Germanic
Germanic name derived from the elements bern
"bear" and ger
"spear". This was the name of two medieval kings of Italy and a Holy Roman emperor.
BLEDDYN m Welsh
From Welsh blaidd "wolf"
combined with a diminutive suffix. This was the name of an 11th-century king of Gwynedd and Powys.
BOLESŁAW m Polish
Derived from the Slavic elements bolye
"more, greater" and slava
"glory". This was the name of kings of Poland, starting in the 11th century with the first Polish king Bolesław the Brave.
BORIS m Bulgarian, Russian, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak, Georgian, German
From the Turkic name Bogoris
, perhaps meaning "short"
or "snow leopard"
. It was borne by the 9th-century King Boris I of Bulgaria who converted his country to Christianity, as well as two later Bulgarian emperors. The name was popularized in the Slavic world due to the 11th-century Saint Boris, who was a Russian prince martyred with his brother Gleb. His mother may have been Bulgarian. Another famous bearer was the 16th-century Russian emperor Boris Godunov, later the subject of a play of that name by Aleksandr Pushkin.
BRAN (2) m Welsh, Welsh Mythology
in Welsh. In Welsh legend Bran the Blessed (called also Bendigeid Vran) was the son of the god Llyr
. Later Welsh legends describe him as a king of Britain who was killed attacking Ireland.
BRIAN m English, Irish, Ancient Irish
The meaning of this name is not known for certain but it is possibly related to the old Celtic element bre
, or by extension "high, noble"
. It was borne by the semi-legendary Irish king Brian Boru, who thwarted Viking attempts to conquer Ireland in the 11th century. He was slain in the Battle of Clontarf, though his forces were decisively victorious. The name was common in Ireland before his time, and even more so afterwards. It came into use in England in the Middle Ages, introduced by Breton settlers. It subsequently became rare, but was revived in the 20th century.
BRUCE m Scottish, English
From a Scottish surname, of Norman origin, which probably originally referred to the town of Brix in France. The surname was borne by Robert the Bruce, a Scottish hero of the 14th century who achieved independence from England and became the king of Scotland. It has been in use as a given name in the English-speaking world since the 19th century. A notable bearer is the American musician Bruce Springsteen (1949-).
CAMBYSES m History
From Καμβύσης (Kambyses)
, the Greek form of the Old Persian name Kambujiya
, which is of unknown meaning. Two Persian kings bore this name, including Cambyses II who conquered Egypt.
CARL m German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English
German form of CHARLES
. Two noteworthy bearers of the name were the German mathematician Carl Gauss (1777-1855), who made contributions to number theory and algebra as well as physics and astronomy, and the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung (1875-1961), who founded analytical psychology. It was imported to America in the 19th century by German immigrants.
CASIMIR m English, French
English form of the Polish name Kazimierz
, derived from the Slavic element kaziti
"to destroy" combined with miru
"peace, world". Four kings of Poland have borne this name, including Casimir III the Great, who greatly strengthened the Polish state in the 14th century. It was also borne Saint Casimir, a 15th-century Polish prince and a patron saint of Poland and Lithuania. The name was imported into Western Europe via Germany, where it was borne by some royalty.
CASPIAN m Literature
Used by author C. S. Lewis for a character in his Chronicles of Narnia
series, first appearing in 1950. Prince Caspian first appears in the fourth book, where he is the rightful king of Narnia driven into exile by his evil uncle Miraz. Lewis probably based the name on the Caspian Sea, which was named for the city of Qazvin, which was itself named for the ancient Cas tribe.
CENNÉTIG m Irish
Old Irish byname meaning "armoured head"
or "misshapen head"
. This was the name of an Irish king, the father of Brian
CHARLEMAGNE m History
From Old French Charles le Magne
meaning "CHARLES the Great"
. This is the name by which the Frankish king Charles the Great (742-814) is commonly known.
CHARLES m English, French
From the Germanic name Karl
, which was derived from a Germanic word meaning "man"
. However, an alternative theory states that it is derived from the common Germanic name element hari
meaning "army, warrior"
CHOBIN m History
From Persian چوبین (Chubin)
. Bahram Chobin was a 6th-century Sasanian general and, for a short period, the king. He received this nickname because he was tall and thin. He appears in the 10th-century Persian epic the Shahnameh
CHRISTIAN m English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
From the medieval Latin name Christianus
meaning "a Christian"
(see CHRISTOS (1)
). In England it has been in use since the Middle Ages, during which time it was used by both males and females, but it did not become common until the 17th century. In Denmark the name has been borne by ten kings since the 15th century. A famous bearer was Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875), the Danish author of such fairy tales as The Ugly Duckling
and The Emperor's New Clothes
CHRISTOPHER m English
From the Late Greek name Χριστόφορος (Christophoros)
meaning "bearing CHRIST"
, derived from Χριστός (Christos)
combined with φέρω (phero)
meaning "to bear, to carry". Early Christians used it as a metaphorical name, expressing that they carried Christ in their hearts. In the Middle Ages, literal interpretations of the name's etymology led to legends about a Saint Christopher who carried the young Jesus
across a river. He has come to be regarded as the patron saint of travellers.... [more]
CINÁED m Scottish, Irish
Means "born of fire"
in Gaelic. This was the name of the first king of the Scots and Picts (9th century). It is often Anglicized as Kenneth
CONOR m Irish, English, Irish Mythology
Anglicized form of the Irish name Conchobar
, derived from Old Irish con
"hound, dog, wolf" and cobar
"desiring". It has been in use in Ireland for centuries and was the name of several Irish kings. It was also borne by the legendary Ulster king Conchobar mac Nessa, known for his tragic desire for Deirdre
CONRAD m English, German, Ancient Germanic
Means "brave counsel"
, derived from the Germanic elements kuoni
"brave" and rad
"counsel". This was the name of a 10th-century saint and bishop of Konstanz, in southern Germany. It was also borne by several medieval German kings and dukes. In England it was occasionally used during the Middle Ages, but has only been common since the 19th century when it was reintroduced from Germany.
CONSTANTINE m History
From the Latin name Constantinus
, a derivative of CONSTANS
. Constantine the Great (272-337) was the first Roman emperor to adopt Christianity. He moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (modern Istanbul).
CORMAC m Irish
Possibly derived from Irish Gaelic corb
"raven" or "wheel" and mac
"son". This was the name of a 3rd-century king of Ireland.
CUNOBELINUS m Brythonic
Possibly means "hound of Belenus"
from the old Celtic element koun
"hound" combined with the name of the god BELENUS
. This was the name of a 1st-century king of southeast Britain.
CYRUS m English, Biblical, Biblical Latin, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
From Κῦρος (Kyros)
, the Greek form of the Persian name Kūrush
, which may mean "far sighted"
. The name is sometimes associated with Greek κύριος (kyrios)
meaning "lord". It was borne by several kings of Persia, including Cyrus the Great, who conquered Babylon. He is famous in the Old Testament for freeing the captive Jews and allowing them to return to Israel. As an English name, it first came into use among the Puritans after the Protestant Reformation.
DARIUS m English, Lithuanian, Romanian, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Roman form of Δαρεῖος (Dareios)
, which was the Greek form of the Persian name Dārayavahush
meaning "possessing goodness"
, composed of the elements dâraya
"to possess" and vahu
"good". Three ancient kings of Persia bore this name, including Darius the Great who expanded the Achaemenid Empire to its greatest extent. His forces invaded Greece but were defeated in the Battle of Marathon.... [more]
DAVID m English, Hebrew, French, Scottish, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Czech, Slovene, Russian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian, Biblical, Biblical Latin
From the Hebrew name דָּוִד (Dawid)
, which was derived from Hebrew דּוֹד (dod)
. David was the second and greatest of the kings of Israel, ruling in the 10th century BC. Several stories about him are told in the Old Testament, including his defeat of Goliath
, a giant Philistine. According to the New Testament, Jesus
was descended from him.... [more]
DECEBAL m Romanian
Means "powerful, brave"
in Dacian. This was the name adopted by Diurpaneus, a 1st-century king of Dacia. For many years he successfully resisted Roman expansion into his territory but was finally defeated by the forces of Emperor Trajan in 106.
DEMETRIUS m Ancient Greek (Latinized)
Latinized form of the Greek name Δημήτριος (Demetrios)
, which was derived from the name of the Greek goddess DEMETER (1)
. Kings of Macedon and the Seleucid kingdom have had this name. This was also the name of several early saints including a Saint Demetrius who was martyred in the 4th century.
DESIDERIUS m Late Roman
Derived from Latin desiderium
meaning "longing, desire"
. It was the name of several early saints. It was also borne in the 8th century by the last king of the Lombard Kingdom.
DIARMAID m Irish, Irish Mythology
Perhaps means "without envy"
in Irish. In Irish mythology this was the name of a warrior who became the lover of Gráinne
. It was also the name of several ancient Irish kings.
DILIPA m Hinduism
Means "protector of Delhi"
from Sanskrit दिल्ली
) combined with प (pa)
meaning "protecting". This is the name of several kings in Hindu texts.
DONALD m Scottish, English
From the Gaelic name Domhnall
meaning "ruler of the world"
, composed of the old Celtic elements dumno
"world" and val
"rule". This was the name of two 9th-century kings of the Scots and Picts. It has traditionally been very popular in Scotland, and during the 20th century it became common in the rest of the English-speaking world. This is the name of one of Walt Disney's most popular cartoon characters, Donald Duck. It was also borne by Australian cricket player Donald Bradman (1908-2001).
DRUST m Ancient Celtic
Pictish name probably derived from Celtic drest
. This name was borne by several kings of the Picts, including their last king Drust X, who ruled in the 9th century.
DUNCAN m Scottish, English
Anglicized form of the Gaelic name Donnchadh
, derived from Gaelic donn
"brown" and cath
"battle". This was the name of two kings of Scotland, including the one who was featured in Shakespeare's play Macbeth
EDGAR m English, French, Portuguese, German
Derived from the Old English elements ead
"wealth, fortune" and gar
"spear". This was the name of a 10th-century English king, Edgar the Peaceful. The name did not survive long after the Norman Conquest, but it was revived in the 18th century, in part due to a character by this name in Sir Walter Scott's novel The Bride of Lammermoor
(1819), which tells of the tragic love between Edgar Ravenswood and Lucy Ashton. Famous bearers include author and poet Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), French impressionist painter Edgar Degas (1834-1917), and author Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950).
EDMUND m English, German, Polish
Means "rich protection"
, from the Old English elements ead
"wealth, fortune" and mund
"protection". This was the name of two Anglo-Saxon kings of England. It was also borne by two saints, including a 9th-century king of East Anglia who, according to tradition, was shot to death with arrows after refusing to divide his Christian kingdom with an invading pagan Danish leader. This Old English name remained in use after the Norman Conquest (even being used by King Henry III for one of his sons), though it became less common after the 15th century.... [more]
EDWARD m English, Polish
Means "rich guard"
, derived from the Old English elements ead
"wealth, fortune" and weard
"guard". This was the name of several Anglo-Saxon kings, the last being Saint Edward the Confessor shortly before the Norman Conquest in the 11th century. He was known as a just ruler, and because of his popularity his name remained in use after the conquest when most other Old English names were replaced by Norman ones. The 13th-century Plantagenet king Henry III named his son and successor after the saint, and seven subsequent kings of England were also named Edward.... [more]
EGBERT m English, Dutch
Means "bright edge"
from the Old English elements ecg
"edge of a sword" and beorht
"bright". This was the name of kings of Kent and Wessex as well as two English saints. The name was rarely used after the Norman Conquest but was revived in the 19th century.
EINION m Welsh
Probably from the Latin name Ennianus
, a derivative of Ennius
). It is also a modern Welsh word meaning "anvil". This was the name of a 5th-century Welsh king who is considered a saint in some Christian traditions.
ELIAKIM m Biblical
Means "God rises"
in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of the master of Hezekiah's household.
ELISEDD m Ancient Welsh
Derived from Welsh elus
. This was the name of two kings of Powys in Wales.
ERIC m English, Swedish, German, Spanish
Means "ever ruler"
, from the Old Norse name Eiríkr
, derived from the elements ei
"ever, always" and ríkr
"ruler, mighty". A notable bearer was Eiríkr inn Rauda (Eric the Red in English), a 10th-century navigator and explorer who discovered Greenland. This was also the name of several early kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway.... [more]
ERIK m Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Estonian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian, German, Dutch, English
Scandinavian form of ERIC
. This was the name of kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. King Erik IX of Sweden (12th century) is the patron saint of that country.
ERMENRICH m Ancient Germanic
From the Germanic elements ermen
"whole, universal" and ric
"ruler, mighty". Ermenrich (also often called Ermanaric) was a 4th-century Gothic king.
EUDES m Medieval French
Old French form of Audo
). This was the name of an 8th-century French saint. It was also borne by a 9th-century French king.
FARAMUND m Ancient Germanic
Derived from the Germanic elements fara
"journey" and mund
"protection". This was the name of a semi-legendary 5th-century king of the Franks.
FIONN m Irish, Irish Mythology
From Irish fionn
(older Irish finn
) meaning "fair"
. Fionn mac Cumhail was a legendary Irish hero who became all-wise by eating an enchanted salmon. He fought against the giant Fomors with his son Oisín
and grandson Oscar
FLAITHRÍ m Irish
Means "king of princes"
from Gaelic flaith
"prince" and rí
FLANN m & f Irish
in Irish Gaelic. This was the name of a 9th-century king of Tara in Ireland.
FRANÇOIS m French
French form of Franciscus
). François Villon was a French lyric poet of the 15th century. This was also the name of two kings of France.
FRANZ m German
German form of Franciscus
). This name was borne by the influential writer Franz Kafka (1883-1924), author of The Trial
and The Castle
among other works. It was also the name of rulers of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire.
FREDERICK m English
English form of a Germanic name meaning "peaceful ruler"
, derived from frid
"peace" and ric
"ruler, mighty". This name has long been common in continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Notables among these rulers include the 12th-century Holy Roman emperor and crusader Frederick I Barbarossa, the 13th-century emperor and patron of the arts Frederick II, and the 18th-century Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great.... [more]
FRIEDRICH m German
German form of FREDERICK
. This was the name of kings of Germany. The socialist Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) and the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) are two famous bearers of this name.
FYODOR m Russian
Russian form of THEODORE
. It was borne by three tsars of Russia. Another notable bearer was Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881), the Russian author of such works as Crime and Punishment
and The Brothers Karamazov
GARSEA m Medieval Spanish
Meaning unknown, possibly related to the Basque word hartz
. This was the name of several medieval kings of Navarre and Leon.
GENGHIS m History
From the title Genghis
, meaning "universal ruler", which was adopted by the Mongol Empire founder Temujin
in the late 12th century. Remembered both for his military brilliance and his brutality towards civilians, he went on to conquer huge areas of Asia and Eastern Europe.
GENTIUS m Albanian
Possibly means "to beget"
in Illyrian. This was the name of a 2nd-century BC Illyrian king who went to war with Rome.
GEORGE m English, Romanian
From the Greek name Γεώργιος (Georgios)
, which was derived from the Greek word γεωργός (georgos)
meaning "farmer, earthworker"
, itself derived from the elements γῆ (ge)
meaning "earth" and ἔργον (ergon)
meaning "work". Saint George was a 3rd-century Roman soldier from Palestine who was martyred during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. Later legends describe his defeat of a dragon, with which he was often depicted in medieval art.... [more]
GILGAMESH m Sumerian Mythology, Semitic Mythology
Possibly means "the ancestor is a hero"
, from Sumerian 𒉋𒂵 (bilga)
meaning "ancestor" and 𒈩 (mes)
meaning "hero, young man". This was the name of a Sumerian hero, later appearing in the Akkadian poem the Epic of Gilgamesh
. Gilgamesh, with his friend Enkidu, battled the giant Humbaba and stopped the rampage of the Bull of Heaven, besides other adventures. Gilgamesh was probably based on a real person: a king of Uruk who ruled around the 27th century BC.
GRAHAM m Scottish, English
From a Scottish surname, originally derived from the English place name Grantham
, which probably meant "gravelly homestead"
in Old English. The surname was first taken to Scotland in the 12th century by the Norman baron William de Graham. A famous bearer was Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the Scottish-Canadian-American inventor who devised the telephone.
GRUFFUDD m Welsh
From the Old Welsh name Grippiud
, the second element deriving from Welsh udd
"lord, prince" but the first element being of uncertain meaning (possibly cryf
"strong"). This was a common name among medieval Welsh royalty. Gruffudd (or Gruffydd) ap Llywelyn was an 11th-century Welsh ruler who fought against England.
GÜNTHER m German, Germanic Mythology
From the Germanic name Gundahar
, derived from the elements gund
"war" and hari
"army, warrior". This was the name of a semi-legendary 5th-century Burgundian king. He appears in the Germanic saga the Nibelungenlied
, which has him wooing the Icelandic queen Brünhild
. He wins her hand in marriage with the help of the hero Siegfried
. He ultimately betrays Siegfried, but Siegfried's widow Kriemhild
(Günther's sister) takes her revenge upon him.
GUNTRAM m German
Means "war raven"
from the Germanic elements gund
"war" and hramn
"raven". This was the name of a 6th-century Frankish king.
GUSTAV m Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Czech
Possibly means "staff of the Geats"
, derived from the Old Norse elements gautr
"Geat, Goth" and stafr
"staff". However, the root name Gautstafr
is not well attested in the Old Norse period. Alternatively, it might be derived from the Slavic name GOSTISLAV
. This name has been borne by six kings of Sweden, including the 16th-century Gustav I Vasa.
GWRTHEYRN m Ancient Welsh
Means "supreme king"
from Welsh gor
meaning "over" and teyrn
meaning "king, monarch". It is possible that this is not a name, but a title. According to medieval chroniclers, Gwrtheyrn (also known as Vortigern) was a 5th-century king of the Britons. It was he who invited the brothers Hengist
to Britain, which eventually led to the Anglo-Saxon conquest of England.
HÅKON m Norwegian
Modern Norwegian form of the Old Norse name Hákon
, which meant "high son"
"high" and konr
"son, descendant". This was the name of seven kings of Norway.
HAROLD m English
From the Old English name Hereweald
, derived from the elements here
"army" and weald
"power, leader, ruler". The Old Norse cognate Haraldr
was also common among Scandinavian settlers in England. This was the name of five kings of Norway and three kings of Denmark. It was also borne by two kings of England, both of whom were from mixed Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon backgrounds, including Harold II who lost the Battle of Hastings (and was killed in it), which led to the Norman Conquest. After the conquest the name died out, but it was eventually revived in the 19th century.
HASAN m Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Urdu, Punjabi, Bengali, Indonesian
in Arabic, from the root حَسُنَ (hasuna)
meaning "to be beautiful, to be good". Hasan was the son of Ali
and the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad
. He was poisoned by one of his wives and is regarded as a martyr by Shia Muslims. This was also the name of two kings of Morocco. It is sometimes transcribed as Hassan
, though this is a distinct name in Arabic.
HENRY m English
From the Germanic name Heimirich
meaning "home ruler"
, composed of the elements heim
"home" and ric
"ruler". It was later commonly spelled Heinrich
, with the spelling altered due to the influence of other Germanic names like Haganrich
, in which the first element is hagan
HEROD m Biblical
From the Greek name Ἡρῴδης (Herodes)
, which probably means "song of the hero"
from ἥρως (heros)
meaning "hero, warrior" combined with ᾠδή (ode)
meaning "song, ode". This was the name of several rulers of Judea during the period when it was part of the Roman Empire. This includes two who appear in the New Testament: Herod the Great, the king who ordered the slaughter of the children, and his son Herod Antipas, who had John
the Baptist beheaded.
HEZEKIAH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name חִזְקִיָהוּ (Chizqiyahu)
, which means "YAHWEH strengthens"
, from the roots חָזַק (chazaq)
meaning "to strength" and יָה (yah)
referring to the Hebrew God. This name was borne by a powerful king of Judah who reigned in the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Also in the Old Testament, this is the name of an ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah
HIRAM m Biblical, Biblical Hebrew, English
Probably of Phoenician origin, though it could be from Hebrew meaning "exalted brother"
. This was the name of a king of Tyre in the Old Testament. As an English given name, Hiram
came into use after the Protestant Reformation. In the 17th century the Puritans brought it to America, where it gained some currency.
HRÓARR m Ancient Scandinavian
Old Norse name, derived from the element hróðr
"fame" combined with either geirr
"spear" (making it a relation of HRÓÐGEIRR
"warrior" or varr
"vigilant, cautious". This is the name of a legendary Danish king, the same one who is featured in the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf
with the name Hroðgar
HROÐGAR m Anglo-Saxon
Old English cognate of Hrodger
). The name became unused after the Normans introduced Hrodger
after their invasion. In the Old English poem Beowulf
this is the name of the Danish king.
HUGH m English
From the Germanic element hug
meaning "heart, mind, spirit"
. It was common among Frankish and French nobility, being borne by Hugh Capet, a 10th-century king of France who founded the Capetian dynasty. The Normans brought the name to England and it became common there, even more so after the time of the 12th-century bishop Saint Hugh of Lincoln, who was known for his charity. This was also the name of kings of Cyprus and the crusader kingdom of Jerusalem. The name is used in Ireland and Scotland as the Anglicized form of Aodh
HYE m Korean
From Sino-Korean 慧 (hye)
meaning "bright, intelligent" or other characters that are pronounced in the same way. Although it does appear rarely as a single-character name, it is more often used in combination with another character. A notable bearer was a 6th-century king of Baekje.
HYWEL m Welsh
in Welsh. This was the name of a 10th-century king of Wales.
IAGO m Welsh, Galician, Portuguese
Welsh and Galician form of Iacobus
). This was the name of two early Welsh kings of Gwynedd. It is also the name of the villain in Shakespeare's tragedy Othello
INGE f & m Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, German, Dutch, Estonian
Short form of Scandinavian and German names beginning with the element ing
, which refers to the Germanic god ING
. In Sweden and Norway this is primarily a masculine name, elsewhere it is usually feminine.
JAMSHID m Persian, Uzbek, Persian Mythology
Modern Persian form of Avestan Yima Kshaeta
, which meant "shining JAM"
. This was the name of a mythological king of Persia. He is known as either Jamshid
, where Jamshid
is a combination of his original name and an honourific.
JEHOASH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹאָשׁ (Yeho'ash)
, an extended form of יוֹאָשׁ
). According to the Old Testament, this was the name of a king of Israel. He probably reigned in the 8th century BC.
JEHORAM m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יְהוֹרָם (Yehoram)
meaning "exalted by YAHWEH"
. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah and a king of Israel, both of whom ruled at about the same time in the 9th century BC.
JEHOSHAPHAT m Biblical
Means "YAHWEH has judged"
in Hebrew. In the Old Testament he is the fourth king of Judah, noted for having a generally peaceful and prosperous reign.
JOASH m Biblical
From the Hebrew name יוֹאָשׁ (Yo'ash)
, possibly meaning "fire of YAHWEH"
. In the Old Testament this name was borne by several characters including the father of Gideon
, a king of Judah, and a son of King Ahab
JOHN m English, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Biblical
English form of Iohannes
, the Latin form of the Greek name Ἰωάννης (Ioannes)
, itself derived from the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan)
meaning "YAHWEH is gracious"
, from the roots יוֹ (yo)
referring to the Hebrew God and חָנַן (chanan)
meaning "to be gracious". The Hebrew form occurs in the Old Testament (spelled Johanan
in the English version), but this name owes its popularity to two New Testament characters, both highly revered saints. The first is John the Baptist, a Jewish ascetic who is considered the forerunner of Jesus
. He baptized Jesus and was later executed by Herod
Antipas. The second is the apostle John, who is traditionally regarded as the author of the fourth gospel and Revelation. With the apostles Peter
(his brother), he was part of the inner circle of Jesus.... [more]
JORAM m Biblical
Contracted form of Yehoram
). This name belongs to several minor characters in the Old Testament, as well as being another name for the kings Jehoram of Israel and Jehoram of Judah.
JOSIAH m Biblical, English
From the Hebrew name יֹאשִׁיָהוּ (Yoshiyahu)
meaning "YAHWEH supports"
. In the Old Testament this is the name of a king of Judah famous for his religious reforms. He was killed fighting the Egyptians at Megiddo in the 7th century BC. In England this name came into use after the Protestant Reformation.
JOTHAM m Biblical
Means "YAHWEH is perfect"
in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of both a son of Gideon
and a king of Judah.
JULIUS m Ancient Roman, English, German, Finnish, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Dutch, Czech
From a Roman family name that was possibly derived from Greek ἴουλος (ioulos)
. Alternatively, it could be related to the name of the Roman god JUPITER
. This was a prominent patrician family of Rome, who claimed descent from the mythological Julus, son of Aeneas
. Its most notable member was Gaius Julius Caesar, who gained renown as a military leader for his clever conquest of Gaul. After a civil war he became the dictator of the Roman Republic, but was eventually stabbed to death in the senate.... [more]
KARL m German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Finnish, Estonian, Ancient Germanic
German and Scandinavian form of CHARLES
. This was the name of seven emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and an emperor of Austria, as well as kings of Sweden and Norway. Other famous bearers include Karl Marx (1818-1883), the German philosopher and revolutionary who laid the foundations for communism, and Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), a German existentialist philosopher.
KARNA m Hinduism
Derived from Sanskrit कर्ण (karna)
. This is the name of the son of the Hindu sun god Surya and the goddess Kunti, who gave birth to him through her ear. He was a great warrior who joined the Kauravas to fight against his half-brothers the Pandavas, eventually becoming the king of Anga.
KENNETH m Scottish, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Anglicized form of both COINNEACH
. This name was borne by the Scottish king Kenneth (Cináed) mac Alpin, who united the Scots and Picts in the 9th century. It was popularized outside of Scotland by Sir Walter Scott, who used it for the hero in his 1825 novel The Talisman
. A famous bearer was the British novelist Kenneth Grahame (1859-1932), who wrote The Wind in the Willows
KNUT m Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German
Derived from Old Norse knútr
. Knut was a Danish prince who defeated Æðelræd II, king of England, in the early 11th century and became the ruler of Denmark, Norway and England.
LÁSZLÓ m Hungarian
Hungarian form of VLADISLAV
. Saint László was an 11th-century king of Hungary, looked upon as the embodiment of Christian virtue and bravery.
LEMUEL m Biblical, Mormon, Biblical Hebrew
Means "for God"
in Hebrew. This was the name of a king briefly mentioned in Proverbs in the Old Testament. In the Book of Mormon it is the name of a son of Lehi and Sariah. It is also borne by the hero of Jonathan Swift's novel Gulliver's Travels
LEO m German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, English, Croatian, Late Roman
Derived from Latin leo
, a cognate of LEON
. It was popular among early Christians and was the name of 13 popes, including Saint Leo the Great who asserted the dominance of the Roman bishops (the popes) over all others in the 5th century. It was also borne by six Byzantine emperors and five Armenian kings. Another famous bearer was Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), a Russian novelist whose works include War and Peace
and Anna Karenina
. Leo is also the name of a constellation and the fifth sign of the zodiac.
LEONIDAS m Greek, Ancient Greek
Derived from Greek λέων (leon)
meaning "lion" combined with the patronymic suffix ἴδης (ides)
. Leonidas was a Spartan king of the 5th century BC who sacrificed his life and his army defending the pass of Thermopylae from the Persians. This was also the name of a 3rd-century saint and martyr, the father of Origen, from Alexandria.
LEOPOLD m German, Dutch, English, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Polish
Derived from the Germanic elements leud
"people" and bald
"bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo
"lion". This name was common among German royalty, first with the Babenbergs and then the Habsburgs. Saint Leopold was a 12th-century Babenberg margrave of Austria, who is now considered the patron of that country. It was also borne by two Habsburg Holy Roman emperors, as well as three kings of Belgium. Since the 19th century this name has been occasionally used in England, originally in honour of Queen Victoria's uncle, a king of Belgium, after whom she named one of her sons. It was later used by James Joyce for the main character, Leopold Bloom, in his novel Ulysses
LLYR m Welsh Mythology
Means "the sea"
in Welsh. This was the name of the Welsh god of the sea. He possibly forms the basis for the legendary King Lear of the Britons.
LÓEGAIRE m Irish Mythology, Ancient Irish
Means "calf herder"
, derived from Irish loagh
"calf". In Irish mythology Lóegaire Búadach was an Ulster warrior. He saved the life of the poet Áed
, but died in the process. This was also the name of several Irish high kings.
LOT (2) m Arthurian Romance
From the name of the region of Lothian in southern Scotland, of unknown meaning. A king of Lothian by this name appears in early Latin and Welsh texts (as Leudonus
respectively). He was inserted into Arthurian legend by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, who makes him the father of Gawain
LOUIS m French, English, Dutch
French form of Ludovicus
, the Latinized form of LUDWIG
. This was the name of 18 kings of France, starting with Louis I the son of Charlemagne
. Others include Louis IX (Saint Louis) who led two crusades and Louis XIV (called the Sun King) who was the ruler of France during the height of its power, the builder of the Palace of Versailles, and the longest reigning monarch in the history of Europe. It was also borne by kings of Germany (as Ludwig
), Hungary (as Lajos
), and other places.... [more]
LUCIUS m Ancient Roman, Biblical, English
Roman praenomen, or given name, which was derived from Latin lux "light"
. This was the most popular of the praenomina. Two Etruscan kings of early Rome had this name as well as several prominent later Romans, including Lucius Annaeus Seneca (known simply as Seneca), a statesman, philosopher, orator and tragedian. The name is mentioned briefly in the New Testament belonging to a Christian in Antioch. It was also borne by three popes, including the 3rd-century Saint Lucius. Despite this, the name was not regularly used in the Christian world until after the Renaissance.
LUDWIG m German
From the Germanic name Chlodovech
meaning "famous battle"
, composed of the elements hlud
"famous" and wig
"war, battle". This was the name of three Merovingian kings of the Franks (though their names are usually spelled in the Latinized form Clovis
) as well as several Carolingian kings and Holy Roman emperors (names often spelled in the French form Louis
). Other famous bearers include the German composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) and the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), who contributed to logic and the philosophy of language.
MACBETH m History
Anglicized form of the Gaelic given name Mac Beatha
meaning "son of life"
, implying holiness. This was the name of an 11th-century Scottish king. Shakespeare based his play Macbeth
loosely on this king's life.
MAGNUS m Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Late Roman
Late Latin name meaning "great"
. It was borne by a 7th-century saint who was a missionary in Germany. It became popular in Scandinavia after the time of the 11th-century Norwegian king Magnus I, who was said to have been named after Charlemagne
, or Carolus Magnus in Latin (however there was also a Norse name Magni
). The name was borne by six subsequent kings of Norway as well as three kings of Sweden. It was imported to Scotland and Ireland during the Middle Ages.
MANASSEH m Biblical
Means "causing to forget"
in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of the oldest son of Joseph
and the ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel. It was also borne by a 7th-century BC king of Judah, condemned in the bible for allowing the worship of other gods.
MANUEL m Spanish, Portuguese, German, Italian, French, Romanian, Late Greek (Latinized)
Spanish and Portuguese form of EMMANUEL
. In the spelling Μανουήλ (Manouel)
it was also used in the Byzantine Empire, notably by two emperors. It is possible this form of the name was transmitted to Spain and Portugal from Byzantium, since there were connections between the royal families (king Ferdinand III of Castile married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, who had Byzantine roots, and had a son named Manuel). The name has been used in Iberia since at least the 13th century and was borne by two kings of Portugal.
MARCIUS m Ancient Roman
Roman family name that was a derivative of the praenomen MARCUS
. This was the name of an early, possibly legendary, king of Rome.
MARTIN m English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, Russian, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Finnish
From the Roman name Martinus
, which was derived from Martis
, the genitive case of the name of the Roman god MARS
. Saint Martin of Tours was a 4th-century bishop who is the patron saint of France. According to legend, he came across a cold beggar in the middle of winter so he ripped his cloak in two and gave half of it to the beggar. He was a favourite saint during the Middle Ages, and his name has become common throughout the Christian world.... [more]
MATTANIAH m Biblical
Means "gift of YAHWEH"
in Hebrew. This was the original name of Zedekiah, a king of Judah, in the Old Testament.
MAXIMILIAN m German, English, Swedish, Norwegian (Rare), Danish (Rare)
From the Roman name Maximilianus
, which was derived from MAXIMUS
. It was borne by a 3rd-century saint and martyr. In the 15th century the Holy Roman emperor Frederick III gave this name to his son and eventual heir. In this case it was a blend of the names of the Roman generals Fabius Maximus and Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (see EMILIANO
), who Frederick admired. It was subsequently borne by a second Holy Roman emperor, two kings of Bavaria, and a short-lived Habsburg emperor of Mexico.
MENAHEM m Biblical, Hebrew
From the Hebrew name מְנַחֵם (Menachem)
. This was the name of a king of Israel, appearing in the Old Testament. His reign was noted for its brutality.
MENELAUS m Greek Mythology (Latinized)
From the Greek name Μενέλαος (Menelaos)
, derived either from μένω (meno)
meaning "to stay, to wait" or μένος (menos)
meaning "mind, strength, force" combined with λαός (laos)
meaning "the people". In Greek legend he was a king of Sparta and the husband of Helen
. When his wife was taken by Paris
, the Greeks besieged the city of Troy in an effort to get her back. After the war Menelaus and Helen settled down to a happy life.
MENES m Ancient Egyptian (Hellenized)
Greek form of Egyptian mnj
, possibly derived from mn
"to endure". Menes was an Egyptian king who united Upper and Lower Egypt around 3000 BC. He is also known as Narmer; Menes was probably his funeral name.
MERVYN m Welsh, English
From the Welsh name Merfyn
, which possibly meant "marrow famous"
. This was the name of a 9th-century Welsh king, Merfyn Frych.
MIESZKO m Polish
Diminutive of MIECZYSŁAW
. This was the name of two rulers of Poland, including Mieszko I who converted the country to Christianity.
MILAN m Czech, Slovak, Russian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian
From the Slavic element milu
meaning "gracious, dear"
, originally a short form of names that began with that element. A city in Italy bears this name, though it originates from a different source.
MINOS m Greek Mythology
Possibly from a Cretan word or title meaning "king"
. This was the name of a king of Crete in Greek mythology. He was the son of Zeus
. Because Minos had refused to sacrifice a certain bull to Poseidon
, the god had caused his wife Pasiphaë to mate with the bull, which produced the half-bull creature called the Minotaur. Minos had Daedalus
construct the Labyrinth to house the beast, but it was eventually slain by Theseus
MUIREDACH m Irish
in Irish. This was the name of several legendary and historical kings of Ireland.
NABOPOLASSAR m Babylonian (Anglicized)
From the Akkadian name Nabu-apla-usur
meaning "Nabu protect my son"
, derived from the god's name NABU
combined with aplu
meaning "son, heir" and an imperative form of naṣāru
meaning "to protect". This was the name of a 7th-century BC king of the Babylonian Empire, the first of the Chaldean dynasty.
NAGENDRA m Hinduism, Indian, Kannada, Telugu
Means "lord of snakes"
from Sanskrit नाग (naga)
meaning "snake" (also "elephant") combined with the name of the Hindu god INDRA
, used here to mean "lord". This is another name for Vasuki, the king of snakes, in Hindu mythology.
NANDA m Hinduism, Indian, Kannada, Tamil
in Sanskrit. In Hindu texts this is a name of both Vishnu
and the foster-father of Krishna
, as well as various other characters. In Buddhist texts this is the name of a god and a disciple of Buddha. Nanda was also the name of a 4th-century BC king who founded a dynasty in Magadha in India.
NEBUCHADNEZZAR m Babylonian (Anglicized), Biblical
From נְבוּכַדְנֶאצֲּר (Nevukhadnetzzar)
, the Hebrew form of the Akkadian name Nabu-kudurri-usur
meaning "Nabu protect my eldest son", derived from the god's name NABU
combined with kudurru
meaning "eldest son" and an imperative form of naṣāru
meaning "to protect". This name was borne by a 12th-century BC king of the Babylonian Empire. It was also borne by a 6th-century BC king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. He captured Jerusalem, and ultimately destroyed the city's temple and deported many of its citizens, as told in the Old Testament.
NECHTAN m Irish Mythology, Ancient Celtic
Celtic name of uncertain meaning, possibly meaning "damp"
(cognate with NEPTUNE
). In Irish mythology Nechtan was the husband of Boand, the goddess of the River Boyne. This name was also borne by the 5th-century Saint Nectan of Hartland in Devon, who was supposedly born in Ireland. It was also the name of several kings of the Picts.
NEIL m Irish, Scottish, English
From the Gaelic name Niall
, which is of disputed origin, possibly meaning "champion"
. This was the name of a semi-legendary 4th-century Irish king, Niall of the Nine Hostages.... [more]
NESTOR m Greek Mythology, Russian
Means "returner, homecomer"
in Greek, from νέομαι (neomai)
meaning "to return". In Homer
this was the name of the king of Pylos, famous for his great wisdom and longevity, who acted as a counselor to the Greek allies.
OBERON m Literature
Variant of AUBERON
. Oberon was the king of the fairies in Shakespeare's comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream
(1595). A moon of Uranus bears this name in his honour.
ODOVACAR m Ancient Germanic
From the Germanic name Audovacar
meaning "wealthy and vigilant"
, derived from the elements aud
"wealth" and wacar
"vigilant". Odovacar, also called Odoacer, was a 5th-century Gothic leader who overthrew the last Western Roman emperor and became the first barbarian king of Italy.
ODYSSEUS m Greek Mythology
Perhaps derived from Greek ὀδύσσομαι (odyssomai)
meaning "to hate"
. In Greek legend Odysseus was one of the Greek heroes who fought in the Trojan War. In the Odyssey Homer
relates Odysseus's misadventures on his way back to his kingdom and his wife Penelope
OLAF m Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Polish
From the Old Norse name Áleifr
meaning "ancestor's descendant"
, derived from the elements anu
"ancestor" and leifr
"descendant". This was the name of five kings of Norway, including Saint Olaf (Olaf II).
OMRI m Biblical, Hebrew, Biblical Hebrew
Possibly means "life"
in Hebrew (or a related Semitic language). This was the name of a 9th-century BC military commander who became king of Israel. He appears in the Old Testament, where he is denounced as being wicked.
OSCAR m English, Irish, Portuguese (Brazilian), Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, French, Irish Mythology
Possibly means "deer friend"
, derived from Gaelic os
"deer" and cara
"friend". Alternatively, it may derive from the Old English name OSGAR
or its Old Norse cognate ÁSGEIRR
, which may have been brought to Ireland by Viking invaders and settlers. In Irish legend Oscar was the son of the poet Oisín
and the grandson of the hero Fionn
mac Cumhail.... [more]
OSKAR m Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Polish
Scandinavian, German, Polish and Slovene form of OSCAR
. A famous bearer was Oskar Schindler (1908-1974), who is credited for saved over 1,000 Polish Jews during World War II.
OSWIN m English (Rare)
From the Old English elements os
"god" and wine
"friend". Saint Oswin was a 7th-century king of Northumbria. After the Norman Conquest this name was used less, and it died out after the 14th century. It was briefly revived in the 19th century.
OTTO m German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, Ancient Germanic
Later German form of Audo
, originally a short form of various names beginning with the Germanic element aud
meaning "wealth, fortune"
. This was the name of four kings of Germany, starting in the 10th century with Otto I, the first Holy Roman emperor, who was known as Otto the Great. This name was also borne by a 19th-century king of Greece who was originally from Bavaria. Another notable bearer was the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898).
PANTALEON m Ancient Greek
Derived from the Greek elements πᾶν (pan)
meaning "all" (genitive παντός
) and λέων (leon)
meaning "lion". This was the name of a 2nd-century BC king of Bactria. It was also borne by Saint Pantaleon (also called Panteleimon
), a doctor from Asia Minor who was martyred during the persecutions of the Roman emperor Diocletian in the early 4th century. He is a patron saint of doctors and midwives.
PETER m English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Slovene, Slovak, Biblical
Derived from Greek Πέτρος (Petros)
. This is a translation used in most versions of the New Testament of the name Cephas
, meaning "stone" in Aramaic, which was given to the apostle Simon
(compare Matthew 16:18
and John 1:42
). Simon Peter was the most prominent of the apostles during Jesus' ministry and is often considered the first pope.... [more]
PHILIP m English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Biblical
From the Greek name Φίλιππος (Philippos)
meaning "friend of horses"
, composed of the elements φίλος (philos)
meaning "friend, lover" and ἵππος (hippos)
meaning "horse". This was the name of five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great. The name appears in the New Testament belonging to two people who are regarded as saints. First, one of the twelve apostles, and second, an early figure in the Christian church known as Philip the Deacon.... [more]
POMARE m & f Tahitian
Means "night cough"
, from Tahitian po
"night" and mare
"cough". This name was borne by four kings and a queen of Tahiti. The first king adopted the name after his child died of a cough in the night.
RAGHU m Hinduism, Indian, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam
in Sanskrit. This is the name of a heroic king in Hindu epics, the great-grandfather of Rama
. It is also mentioned as the name of a son of Buddha in Buddhist texts.
RAMIRO m Spanish, Portuguese
Spanish and Portuguese form of Ramirus
, a Latinized form of a Visigothic name derived from the Germanic elements ragin
"advice" and mari
"famous". Saint Ramirus was a 6th-century prior of the Saint Claudius Monastery in Leon. He and several others were executed by the Arian Visigoths, who opposed orthodox Christianity. This name was subsequently borne by kings of León, Asturias and Aragon.
REHOBOAM m Biblical
From the Hebrew name רֵחַבְעָם (Rechav'am)
meaning "he enlarges the people"
. In the Old Testament this is the name of a son of Solomon
. He succeeded his father as king of Israel, but his subjects eventually revolted because of high taxes. This resulted in the division of the kingdom into Israel and Judah, with Rehoboam ruling Judah.
RHODRI m Welsh
Derived from the Welsh elements rhod
"wheel" and rhi
"king". This name was borne by a 9th-century Welsh king.
RICHARD m English, French, German, Czech, Slovak, Dutch, Ancient Germanic
Means "brave ruler"
, derived from the Germanic elements ric
"ruler, mighty" and hard
"brave, hardy". The Normans introduced this name to Britain, and it has been very common there since that time. It was borne by three kings of England including Richard I the Lionheart, one of the leaders of the Third Crusade in the 12th century.... [more]
ROBERT m English, French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Finnish, Estonian, Czech, Polish, Russian, Slovene, Croatian, Romanian, Catalan, Ancient Germanic
From the Germanic name Hrodebert
meaning "bright fame"
, derived from the Germanic elements hrod
"fame" and beraht
"bright". The Normans introduced this name to Britain, where it replaced the Old English cognate Hreodbeorht
. It has been consistently among the most common English names from the 13th to 20th century. In the United States it was the most popular name for boys between 1924 and 1939 (and again in 1953).... [more]
RODERICK m English, Scottish, Welsh
Means "famous ruler"
from the Germanic elements hrod
"fame" and ric
"ruler, mighty". This name was in use among the Visigoths; it was borne by their last king (also known as Rodrigo), who died fighting the Muslim invaders of Spain in the 8th century. It also had cognates in Old Norse and West Germanic, and Scandinavian settlers and Normans introduced it to England, though it died out after the Middle Ages. It was revived in the English-speaking world by Sir Walter Scott's 1811 poem The Vision of Don Roderick
ROGER m English, French, Catalan, Swedish, Norwegian, German, Dutch
Means "famous spear"
from the Germanic elements hrod
"fame" and ger
"spear". The Normans brought this name to England, where it replaced the Old English cognate Hroðgar
(the name of the Danish king in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf
). It was a common name in England during the Middle Ages. By the 18th century it was rare, but it was revived in following years. The name was borne by the Norman lords Roger I, who conquered Sicily in the 11th century, and his son Roger II, who ruled Sicily as a king.
ROY m Scottish, English, Dutch
Anglicized form of RUADH
. A notable bearer was the Scottish outlaw and folk hero Rob Roy (1671-1734). It is often associated with French roi
RUAIDHRÍ m Irish
Means "red king"
from Irish ruadh
"red" combined with rí
"king". This was the name of the last high king of Ireland, reigning in the 12th century.
RUDOLF m German, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Dutch, Russian, Armenian
From the Germanic name Hrodulf
, which was derived from the elements hrod
"fame" and wulf
"wolf". It was borne by three kings of Burgundy, as well as several Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria. Anthony Hope used this name for the hero in his popular novel The Prisoner of Zenda
RUPERT m German, Dutch, English
German variant form of ROBERT
. The military commander Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a nephew of Charles I, introduced this name to England in the 17th century.
RYAN m Irish, English
From an Irish surname that was derived from Ó Riain
meaning "descendant of Rían"
. The given name Rían
probably means "little king"
(from Irish rí
"king" combined with a diminutive suffix).
SAMO m Slovene, Medieval Slavic
Meaning uncertain. This was the name of a 7th-century ruler of the Slavs, who established a kingdom including parts of modern Slovenia, Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. He was possibly of Frankish origin.
SANCHO m Spanish, Portuguese
Possibly a Spanish and Portuguese form of the Late Latin name Sanctius
, which was derived from the word sanctus
meaning "saintly, holy"
. Alternatively, Sancho
may be derived from an older Iberian name. This was the name of a 9th-century saint who was martyred by the Moors at Cordoba. It was also borne by several Spanish and Portuguese kings. Miguel de Cervantes used it in his novel Don Quixote
(1605), where it belongs to the squire of Don Quixote.
SARGON m Akkadian (Anglicized), Biblical, Biblical Hebrew
From the Hebrew form סַרְגּוֹן (Sargon)
of the Akkadian name Sharru-ukin
, from šarru
meaning "king" and kīnu
meaning "legitimate, true". This was the name of the first king of the Akkadian Empire, beginning in the 24th century BC. It was also borne by the 8th-century BC Assyrian king Sargon II, who appears briefly in the Old Testament. The usual English spelling of the name is based on this biblical mention, applied retroactively to the earlier king.
SAUL m Biblical, Jewish, Biblical Latin
From the Hebrew name שָׁאוּל (Sha'ul)
meaning "asked for, prayed for"
. This was the name of the first king of Israel, as told in the Old Testament. Before the end of his reign he lost favour with God, and after a defeat by the Philistines he was succeeded by David
as king. In the New Testament, Saul was the original Hebrew name of the apostle Paul
SEBASTIAN m German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Finnish, Romanian, Czech
From the Latin name Sebastianus
, which meant "from Sebaste"
. Sebaste was the name a town in Asia Minor, its name deriving from Greek σεβαστός (sebastos)
meaning "venerable" (a translation of Latin Augustus
, the title of the Roman emperors). According to Christian tradition, Saint Sebastian was a 3rd-century Roman soldier martyred during the persecutions of the emperor Diocletian. After he was discovered to be a Christian, he was tied to a stake and shot with arrows. This however did not kill him. Saint Irene of Rome healed him and he returned to personally admonish Diocletian, whereupon the emperor had him beaten to death.... [more]
SHAKA m History
From Zulu uShaka
, apparently from ishaka
, a stomach cramp caused by an intestinal parasite. This was the name of a Zulu warrior king (1787-1828), supposedly given because his unmarried mother Nandi and/or his father Senzangakhona blamed her pregnancy symptoms on the parasite.
SIGURD m Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Norse Mythology
From the Old Norse name Sigurðr
, which was derived from the elements sigr
"victory" and varðr
"guardian". Sigurd was the hero of the Norse legend the Volsungasaga
, which tells how his foster-father Regin sent him to recover a hoard of gold guarded by the dragon Fafnir. After slaying the dragon Sigurd tasted some of its blood, enabling him to understand the language of birds, who told him that Regin was planning to betray him. In a later adventure, Sigurd disguised himself as Gunnar
(his wife Gudrun
's brother) and rescued the maiden Brynhildr
from a ring of fire, with the result that Gunnar and Brynhildr were married. When the truth eventually came out, Brynhildr took revenge upon Sigurd. The stories of the German hero Siegfried
were in part based on him.
SOLOMON m Biblical, English, Jewish, Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
From the Hebrew name שְׁלֹמֹה (Shelomoh)
, which was derived from Hebrew שָׁלוֹם (shalom)
meaning "peace". As told in the Old Testament, Solomon was a king of Israel, the son of David
. He was renowned for his wisdom and wealth. Towards the end of his reign he angered God by turning to idolatry. Supposedly, he was the author of the Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon.... [more]
STEPHEN m English, Biblical
From the Greek name Στέφανος (Stephanos)
meaning "crown, wreath"
, more precisely "that which surrounds"
. Saint Stephen was a deacon who was stoned to death, as told in Acts in the New Testament. He is regarded as the first Christian martyr. Due to him, the name became common in the Christian world. It was popularized in England by the Normans.... [more]
STUART m English, Scottish
From an occupational surname originally belonging to a person who was a steward. It is ultimately derived from Old English stig
"house" and weard
"guard". As a given name, it arose in 19th-century Scotland in honour of the Stuart royal family, which produced several kings and queens of Scotland and Britain between the 14th and 18th centuries.
TARQUIN m History
, a Roman name of unknown meaning, possibly Etruscan in origin. This was the name of two early kings of Rome.
TATIUS m Roman Mythology, Ancient Roman
Roman family name of unknown meaning, possibly of Sabine origin. According to Roman legend, Titus Tatius was an 8th-century BC king of the Sabines who came to jointly rule over the Romans and Sabines with the Roman king Romulus.
THEODORIC m History
From a Germanic name meaning "ruler of the people"
, derived from the elements theud
"people" and ric
"ruler". It was notably borne by Theodoric the Great, a 6th-century king of the Ostrogoths who eventually became the ruler of Italy. By Theodoric's time the Ostrogoths were partially Romanized and his name was regularly recorded as Theodoricus
. The Gothic original may have been Þiudreiks
THESEUS m Greek Mythology
Possibly derived from Greek τίθημι (tithemi)
meaning "to set, to place"
. Theseus was a heroic king of Athens in Greek mythology. He was the son of Aethra, either by Aegeus or by the god Poseidon
. According to legend, every seven years the Cretan king Minos
demanded that Athens supply Crete with seven boys and seven girls to be devoured by the Minotaur, a half-bull creature that was the son of Minos's wife Pasiphaë. Theseus volunteered to go in place of one of these youths in order to slay the Minotaur in the Labyrinth where it lived. He succeeded with the help of Minos's daughter Ariadne
, who provided him with a sword and a roll of string so he could find his way out of the maze.
TIGHEARNÁN m Irish
Means "little lord"
from Old Irish tigerna
"lord" combined with a diminutive suffix. This was the name of a 12th-century king of Breifne in Ireland.
TITUS m Ancient Roman, English, Biblical, Biblical Latin
Roman praenomen, or given name, which is of unknown meaning, possibly related to Latin titulus "title of honour"
. It is more likely of Oscan origin, since it was borne by the legendary Sabine king Titus Tatius.... [more]
TUDOR (1) m Welsh
From the older Welsh name Tudur
, possibly from the hypothetical Celtic name Toutorix
meaning "ruler of the people" (cognate with THEODORIC
). As a surname it was borne by five monarchs of England beginning with Henry VII in the 15th century.
UTHER m Welsh Mythology, Arthurian Romance
From the Welsh name Uthyr
, derived from Welsh uthr
. In Arthurian legend Uther was the father of King Arthur
. He appears in some early Welsh texts, but is chiefly known from the 12th-century chronicles of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
UZZIAH m Biblical
Means "my power is YAHWEH"
in Hebrew, from the roots עֹז ('oz)
meaning "strength, power" and יָה (yah)
referring to the Hebrew God. This is the name of several Old Testament characters including a king of Judah.
VÁCLAV m Czech, Slovak
Contracted form of the older name Veceslav
, from the Slavic elements veche
"more" and slava
"glory". Saint Václav (known as Wenceslas in English) was a 10th-century duke of Bohemia murdered by his brother. He is the patron saint of the Czech Republic. This was also the name of several Bohemian kings.
VEREMUND m Ancient Germanic (Latinized)
Latinized form of a Germanic name, probably Waramunt
, derived from war
"vigilant, cautious" and mund
"protection". This was the name of a 5th-century king of Galicia (from the Germanic tribe of the Suebi). It was later the name of kings of Asturias and León, though their names are usually spelled in the Spanish form Bermudo
WALDEMAR m German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Germanic derivative of the Slavic name VLADIMIR
(or perhaps a cognate composed of the Germanic elements wald
"rule" and mari
"famous"). It was introduced into Scandinavia by the 12th-century Danish king Waldemar (or Valdemar) who was named after a royal ancestor of his Ukrainian mother.
WILLIAM m English
From the Germanic name Willahelm
meaning "will helmet"
, composed of the elements wil
"will, desire" and helm
"helmet, protection". Saint William of Gellone was an 8th-century cousin of Charlemagne
who became a monk. The name was common among the Normans, and it became extremely popular in England after William the Conqueror was recognized as the first Norman king of England in the 11th century. From then until the modern era it has been among the most common of English names (with John
XERXES m History
Greek form of the Persian name Khshayarsha
, which meant "ruler over heroes"
. This was a 5th-century BC king of Persia, the son of Darius the Great. He attempted an invasion of Greece, which ended unsuccessfully at the battle of Salamis.
YIJUN m & f Chinese
From Chinese 怡 (yí)
meaning "joy, harmony" combined with 君 (jūn)
meaning "king, ruler". This name can also be formed from other character combinations.
ZACHARIAH m English, Biblical
Variant of ZECHARIAH
. This spelling is used in the King James Version of the Old Testament to refer to one of the kings of Israel (called Zechariah in other versions).